Presentation on theme: "DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY. Digital Fluoroscopy Input phosphor output phosphor electronic signal beam splitter video signal TV monitor Video signal is a voltage."— Presentation transcript:
Digital Fluoroscopy Input phosphor output phosphor electronic signal beam splitter video signal TV monitor Video signal is a voltage signal which varies continuously ADC (Analog Digital Converter) converts analog to digital
What are some negatives of conventional (film) radiography ? Difficult to image both soft tissue and bony structures in same image Difficult to differentiate between the subtle differences of soft tissues (shades of gray---long contrast, low contrast) Unable to gather quantitative info about attenuation characteristics of anatomy Image is processed permanent as is Amount of time needed to process Archiving/storage/ acquisition issues
Similarities between CR and film radiography Same x-ray tube and generator Still select optimum kVp and mAs Accurate positioning Use cassette or image receptor There is still a latent image which can be processed into a manifest image
DIFFERENCES Imaging plate rather than intensifying screen/film Photostimulable phosphor-europium activated barium fluorohalide phosphor 200 screen speed equivalent Phosphors absorb photons Capable of wider latitudes = better visualization of soft tissues and bone
DIFFERENCES CONT. Film made of minute strands of black metallic silver Digital image = rows and columns called a matrix
MATRIX, PIXEL AND VOXEL Matrix made up of pixels ( picture element) Pixels = x-ray intensity at that location and given a numeric value for the shade of gray Voxel represent the volume of tissue of the patient Matrix preferred size – 2048 x2048 or 4, 194,304 pixels Larger matrix = more pixels and pixels are smaller
IMAGE ACQUISITION Exit(remnant radiation) IP photons absorbed photoelectrically by phosphor LATENT IMAGE Exposed IP reader unit (digitizer) scanned to release energy as light photomultiplier tube (PMT) collects, amplifies and converts light to electronic signal to ADC manifest image
Manifest image is a matrix composed of pixels with assigned brightness levels IP scanned again with intense light to erase plate 10,000 readings
Histograms/window or index levels/algorithms Histogram-graphic display of digital data –Used to evaluate adequacy of IP to x-rays –PMT needs to be adjusted to compensate for errors Window/index levels – Algorithms – math formulas needed to formulate image construction based on anatomy imaged –Radiographer must indicate correct procedure so the correct algorithms are used.
IP or IR
IR/IP List some characteristics of an IP What speed film screen system is associated with a typical IP? How does this affect technique?
DR DIRECT READOUT DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY FLAT PANEL DIRECT CAPTURE DETECTOR CHARACTERISTICS? COMPARE INDIRECT CONVERSION TO DIRECT
Post processing Subtraction Contrast enhancement Edge enhancement Black and white reversal Compensate for errors