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A summary of the brain activity Mostafa M. Dini July 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "A summary of the brain activity Mostafa M. Dini July 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 A summary of the brain activity Mostafa M. Dini July 2012

2 The summary 1) Self-protection and self-advancement 2) Needs, Circumstances and Brain activities 3) Chemical tracing in micro-scale to stress flow monitoring in layer-scale, to follow a brain activity

3 Basics of the brain activities Brain activities are to protect and advance the self (body and brain) by fulfilling the needs' satisfaction according to the circumstances, Physiological needs as inputs stimulate the brain through nerve system and chemical signals, The brain focuses on the circumstances for the need satisfaction, by recalling memories and concentrating specific sensory inputs, The brain integrates the past memories and sensory inputs to produce working memories (the plan memories for the future actions) to satisfy the need.

4 Needs Physiological needs are for the body preservation; when advanced needs (safety, social, self-esteem and self-advancement) are to preserve the brain higher functions effective. Basic needs will develop to advanced needs in parallel to the development in memory abstractions; so that the declarative memories develop to non-declarative and further to collective memories (emotion and logic).

5 The need signals Signals for basic needs are conveyed electrically through the body nerve system and chemically through the veins feeding different parts of the brain and hypothalamus specifically. the normal required range to preserve the life are known by the efficient functionality of the body parts. Any biological signal under or over will be treated as pain or pleasure. The stress and rewarding chemical concentration are related to the receiving of these signals.

6 The advance needs site locations The needs develop - from simple physiological needs to safety, social, self-esteem and self-advancement needs - in parallel to the action operator (like emotions and reasoning) development. The development is to secure and ensure the self-protection and self-advancement goals of the brain activities by more complicated action operators. Action operators up-to-date themselves by the feed back of the working memories to reprocess and update the perceptions; and approaching a higher satisfaction results. By the reassessment, the higher resolution neural networks (abstracted) configuration will be checked for the similarity in the configurations and hence develop the advance needs.

7 Need and circumstances interactions in physical routes Signals for basic needs are conveyed electrically through the body nerve system and chemically through the veins feeding different parts of the brain and hypothalamus specifically. the normal required range to preserve the life are known by the efficient functionality of the body parts. Any biological signal under or over will be treated as pain or pleasure. The stress and rewarding chemical concentration are related to the receiving of these signals.

8 Past circumstances A past memory is a story about a need satisfaction which had been practised, experienced, acknowledged, learned or promised.

9 How past circumstances are encoded? The results of numerous previous experiments implicate the amygdala in acquisition and retention of memory for emotionally charged events [reviewed in [10-12]]. Thus synaptic enhancements in the conditioned stimulus (CS) pathways to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala were shown to contribute in the acquisition of fear memory to the acoustic CS during auditory fear conditioning [13-17]. It has been demonstrated also that the basolateral amygdala can regulate consolidation of memories in other regions of the brain [6,18]. The contribution of the amygdala to modulating memory consolidation critically depends on activation of β-adrenoreceptors in the BLA [19-21]. According to the emotional tagging concept, activation of the amygdala during emotionally arousing events could mark the experience as important and aid in enhancing synaptic plasticity in other regions of the brain [22]. Consistent with this notion, it has been shown previously that the actions of NE in the BLA promote the induction of LTP [23] and the expression of Arc protein, implicated in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and memory formation, in the hippocampus [24]. On the other hand, plasticity in the auditory thalamus (specifically in the medial division of the medial geniculate nucleus and posterior intralaminar nucleus), prior to projections to the LA, plays an essential role in auditory fear conditioning [25,26]. This supports the notion that plasticity in multiple regions of the brain may contribute to the formation of fear memory [26].1012131761819212223242526

10 Memories interfaces and overlaps A memory of an event will be decomposed by interfaces with other memories when being saved by neural network configuration. The decomposition will be accelerated if it shows conformity with more similar memory elements. However, will be collected again by activation of the abstracted patterns (emotions or logics).

11 Surveying the circumstances A working memory is about planning a circumstance around a core-need expecting to satisfy the need, considering what has been percept or remembered from the past memories. It is the conclusion of a brain activity initiated by a kind of need, processed for the needs satisfaction with considering the past, present or possible future circumstances.

12 Source of stress The brain reviews the plans for the possible need satisfaction by recalling the past memories and the available data from sensory inputs. The plans could be felt as none, somewhat or fully need satisfactory, The brain differentiates the need satisfaction in the past, in the present and according to the working memory (plan) by the type and intensity of the involved emotion, knowledge and mood, Accordingly; the brain analysis of the sensory inputs, past memories and plans appears as emotions, moods, inspiring, and knowledge and becomes the sources of stress if less needs satisfaction would be expected. The brain chooses or decides for alternatives according to the needs satisfaction degree which the plan may provide,

13 A brain activity The resonation between perception areas, past memories sites, the working memory location; and relaying of the attraction structures brings up a collective synchronized patterns of the firings in the brain which is known as a brain activity. Resonation occurs if there would be a configuration similarity between related neural networks and activated firing fractals in different areas of the brain.

14 Growing of the self-similar attractors Further to the perception areas, past and working memories, there are structures in amygdala and frontal lobe as well as in inner brain that are sensible to specific configurations of the straining neural network in different areas which form new self-similar patterns. The self-similar patterns are the more abstracted fractal configurations. In amygdala they preserve the emotions and in the frontal lobe they preserve the logics. The abstracted self-similar patterns relay self-similarity in configurations in different areas resulting to resonate together. Strains caused by emotions are not normalized, when strains caused by more advance action operators (like reasoning) are more normalized because of wider distribution of stress sources over different areas.

15 Source of stress and memory building during sleep Changes in synaptic strength are believed to underlie learning and memory. We explore the idea that norepinephrine is an essential modulator of memory through its ability to regulate synaptic mechanisms. Emotional arousal leads to activation of the locus coeruleus with the subsequent release of norepineprine in the brain, resulting in the enhancement of memory. Norepinephrine activates both pre- and post-synaptic adrenergic receptors at central synapses with different functional outcomes, depending on the expression pattern of these receptors in specific neural circuitries underlying distinct behavioral processes. We review the evidence for noradrenergic modulation of synaptic plasticity with consideration of how this may contribute to the mechanisms of learning and memory. Nearly four decades ago, Seymour Kety suggested that emotionally arousing experiences may be associated with activation of the locus coeruleus, sending adrenergic projections to different regions of the brain (such as hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum) [2].2

16 Source of stress and memory building during sleep, he proposed that activation of β- adrenoreceptors by released norepinephrine (NE) could result in facilitation of synaptic transmission through the mechanism involving increases in the intracellular cAMP concentration and new protein synthesis, thus contributing to the memory acquisition and maintenance. It is currently hypothesized that synaptic plasticity, specifically long-term potentiation (LTP), in the neural circuits of learned behaviors could provide a cellular substrate of memory storage [3].3 Consistent with Kety's proposal, it has been demonstrated recently that direct activation of the locus coeruleus initiated protein synthesis-dependent LTP at the perforant path input to the dentate gyrus in awake rats [4]. At the behavioral level, there is overwhelming evidence that emotionally- charged events often lead to the creation of vivid long-lasting memories [5,6], in part due to a surge of norepinephrine and subsequent stimulation of adrenergic receptors in the nervous system [7,8], and, as a result, improved memory consolidation [6]. Unexpectedly, recent studies of the human subjects indicate that although emotionally- charged events are remembered better than emotionally neutral experiences, emotion may enhance the subjective sense of recollection more than memory accuracy [9].4567869

17 Source of stress and memory building during sleep Conclusions: It is well established that emotional arousal modulates the formation of memory critical role for the release of norepinephrine in such modulation norepinephrine could modulate both synaptic transmission and plasticity in specific neural circuits. Storing memories in the brain likely requires changes in the number, structure, and function of synapses [3].3

18 From molecular strains to layer strains and vise versa If the frame of strain changes would be integrated to a higher level of substrate and then a layer, the chemical component of norepinephrine changes in concentration will be presented by the physical stress and strain changes in nano- and macro scales. Accordingly, the transfer phenomena of chemical components will convert to the configuration changes in substrates and then layers. The means of encoding for the transfers in different parts of the brain will be different: instinct encodings in inner brain; emotion encodings over the amygdala in the middle brain; and logic encodings over the pre-frontal area in frontal lobe.

19 Stabilization of the memories To normalize these chemical concentrations, the strain distribution over the route should be normalized; and the unbalanced strain distribution searching the normalization, will sent the resulting oscillating signal to satisfy the need. The oscillating signal remains as the working memory in a suitable neural network in the frontal lobe.

20 In short The media for a brain activity is the viscoelastic brain which respond to stresses by intermediate strains and the intermediate strains will terminate by dying out of the stress sources, Inputs to a brain activity are memories (consisting of past, working and future problem solving) and sensory inputs, The involved processes are differentiation and integration, The strained portion of the brain approach relaxation to equivaliz the energy over the pathwayss intermediately and the layers periodically: In waking A) continuous type of products including working memories of the intermediate straining in shape of a dynamic energy distribution plan, B) intermediate products of high energetic impulses to act or express, and In sleep: C) general relaxation of the elastic brain products of: C-1 memory building of: - the daily inputs - the daily processes, and - the daily products. C-2 Dreaming to smooth the energy distribution over the layers.

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