2LED Poultry Lighting: Energy and Production Efficiency Michael J. Ostaffe EVP, Once Innovations Inc.
3Copyright NoticeThis presentation is sole property of Once Innovations, Inc. Data in this presentation is subject to copyright. No portion of this presentation may be reproduced in any manner, or published in whole or in part without the prior written consent of Once Innovations™, Inc.Once Innovations makes no representations as to the accuracy, completeness, or fairness of this presentation. So far as is permitted by law, no responsibility or liability whatsoever is accepted by Once Innovations for the accuracy or sufficiency thereof, or for any errors, omissions, or misstatements relating thereto.
4Introduction Once Innovations Mike Ostaffe, EVP Plymouth, MN company focused on designing LED Technology and Lighting Solutions, and manufacturing LED-based lighting products for Agricultural marketsMike Ostaffe, EVPEE, MBA, product leadership experience with GE, Philips, and Honeywell
5What is Light?Light is electromagnetic radiation, particularly radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (about 400–700 nm)
6What creates light? Incandescent bulb Fluorescent bulb Heating of a filament by the current flowing through it creates light through incandescenceFluorescent bulbAn electrical arc passing through a mercury vapor creates UV rays which strike phosphors coating the inside of the glass tube. These phosphors emit photons (fluoresce) in very narrow wavelengthsLight Emitting Diode (LED) bulbA solid state device (P-N Junction semiconductor) that converts electrical energy directly into light through a process called electroluminescence
7LED Basics P-Type matrix with electron hole N-Type matrix with free electronFree electrons cross the junction to fill the holes. Energy released during this transition is in the form of light (heat in regular diodes)
8So what is so special about LED-based lighting? An LED is a solid state device with no filament or high voltage arcsIn basic form, LEDs are a highly efficient monochromatic light sourceMonochromatic LEDs are by far more efficient than any other available light source (10 to 50 times)White LEDs are manufactured by combination of blue or near UV LEDs with RGB phosphorsWhite LEDs are one of the most efficient light sources (800% greater than incandescent, 30 to 50% greater than CFL)Very long life- in excess of 50,000 hours
9AC LED Technology has many benefits No need for a switch-mode power supply driverLess complicated designFewer partsLower chance of failureImproved circuit efficiency and lamp efficacyGreatly improve power qualityPower Factor >.97THD < 20%Operates at 120Hz, above the range of human/poultry frequency response (approx Hz)
10State of the MarketLEDs continue to gain investment, press, and market shareLargest Market OpportunitiesStreet/Area LightingOffice LightingHome and RetailPAR30A19 – W lamps
11LED Developments 75-100W Announcements at Lightfair $45-50 for home LED in 4QImprovements in die-level efficacy
12Commercial Lamp Comparison 100W Incandescent23W CFL17W LED (Lightfair Announcement)75W Incandescent18W CFL13-15W LED60W Incandescent9-13W CFL10W LED
13Additional LED Reading has many LED/SSL groups that are very active
14Types of Light Sensitivity \ Photoreception: How do we “See” Humans and PoultryRetinal Reception – Photon absorption by photo-pigments rhodopsin (rods), iodopsin (cones) and recently discovered (1998) melanopsinPoultryPineal Reception - Photon absorption by functional photoreceptors located in pineal gland on the top of the brainHypothalamic Reception - Photon absorption by deep encephalic photoreceptors
15Retinal Photoreception - Domestic Fowl retina rod violet blue green red doubleQuadchromaticSource: “Avian Cone Photoreceptors Tile the Retina as Five Independent, Self-Organizing Mosaics” Yoseph A. Kram, Stephanie Mantey, Joseph C. Corbo, 2010
16Transmission of light via avian scull and brain tissue Avian scull, skin and brain tissue create natural light filter. Due to the presence of blood in the tissue, red light penetrates scull with highest transmission efficiencies.Source: “Spectral characteristics of visible radiation penetrating into the brain and stimulating extraretinal photo-receptors.” Hartwig, H.G. & van Veen, T
18Retinal Photoreception - Domestic Fowl Photopic Spectral Sensitivity (Typical)Data source: “Spectral sensitivity of the domestic fowl (Gallus g. domesticus)” N. B. PRESCOTT AND C. M. (1999)
19Dimming, On/Off, and painted bulbs The effects of artificial light on the performance of chickenThere are three main aspects of the artificial light important to poultry producersLight intensity or the total amount of luminous power produced in the visual (for poultry) part of the light spectrumThe photoperiod or number of hours of light and dark in a 24-hour periodThe spectral composition of the artificial lightDimming, On/Off, and painted bulbs
20Red Color and Hue does matter… Increases the growth rate of chickens and turkeys at the beginning of the rearing periodIncreases locomotion that helps minimize leg disorders in the late rearing periodStimulates and promotes sexual activityReduces actual feed consumption per egg laid (up to 20%) with no differences in egg size, shell weight, shell thickness, or yolk and albumen weightsProliferate cannibalism in broilers
21Green and Blue Color and Hue does matter… Green light significantly enhances growth rate at an early age by enhancing proliferation of skeletal muscle satellite cellsBlue light enhances growth at a later age by elevation in plasma androgensGreen and Blue light promote myofiber growth due to more effective stimulation of testosterone secretionNarrow band blue light reduces locomotionNarrow band blue light reduce cannibalism rate at late age (broilers)
22Why is the spectral composition of artificial lighting important in agricultural applications?
23Almost all electrical lighting was created for human environments. Because artificial light is quite different compared to natural daylight.PlusAlmost all electrical lighting was created for human environments.
24Relative Luminous Power - Natural Daylight at noon (D65)
35Energy Savings Example 56 lamp house75W Incandescent Brood and Grow-out52 day bird, typical lighting programReplace with AgriShift 12W PL lamp1:1 screw-in replacementSave $1284 per year at $0.10/kWhr rate
36Where do I place these?Indoors in hot, humid, dusty, damp, ammonia environmentsThese lamps were designed for poultry, and built for the barn, not your kitchen. Kitchen lamps were not built for the barnIn existing sockets in existing layouts that have up to 100W incandescent and/or 26W CFL lampsIn the same layout you would use in new constructionDim-to-Blue lamps for Broilers, HogsDim-to-Red lamps for Breeder/Layers
37AgriShift® EL Total power: 3W Equivalence: 20W incandescent Luminous flux: Typ. 190 Lm (Human photopic)Harmonic Distortion: < 20%Power Factor: > 0.97Dimming: to 1%, smooth transitionSemi linear behaviorColor Temperature: Approx. 4100K with Hue Shift Control
38EL Body Style Options Designed to be placed in/on cage systems Inside or across aislesReplace rope lighting, 20W Incandescent, 9-13W CFL
39Decision Time for Poultry Farmers Federal Law increases efficacy standards for incandescent lamps by 30%, effectively bans them100W – January 1, 201275W – January 1, 201360W, 40W – January 1, 2014They will have to make a choice – LED or CFLCFL lower cost, but underwhelming performanceMercury in CFLs can create food safety concernsSubstantial increase in mercury waste
40Incandescent Lamps Benefits Drawbacks Lowest Initial Price Dimmable Understood by allNo mercury in productMercury released through coal-based generationLeast EfficientHigh Energy UsageHighest Total CostShort LifespanSusceptible to vibrationsA ban on standard 100, 75, 60, and 40W lamps begins phase-in Jan 1, 2012
41Compact Fluorescent Lamps BenefitsDrawbacksCompared to incandescentLonger LifeMore efficientLess Energy usageUses same socketCompared to LEDLower initial cost10X-20X Price of incandescentContains mercuryColor RenderingColor TemperatureDimmabilityFragileSusceptible to heat and vibrationCold Cathode similar issues
42LEDs Benefits Drawbacks “New” Technology Highest initial cost No MercuryLowest Total CostLow Energy Usage, High EfficacySmooth dimming to 1%Longest life expectancySturdy, no filamentsInstant on, no funny colors during warm-upOn/Off Cycling and Dimming do not affect life“New” TechnologyHighest initial costMany want to “wait and see”Many low-end, low-quality products
43Efficacy vs. Efficiency Efficacy – Lumens/WattEfficiency - %TemperaturePhosphorsLight SourceBallast LossesDriver LossesControl LossesWiring Losses“Benchtop” or die-level data does not tell the entire story