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Fitness Through Aerobic Exercise Dr. Linda J. Muysson 972-881-5777

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1 Fitness Through Aerobic Exercise Dr. Linda J. Muysson

2 Aerobic Wellness zHealthy lifestyle-lowers risk of disease and premature death. zWhat is wellness? Optimum health and vitality. zSix Dimensions of Wellness. ySpiritual-beliefs, principles or values. yPhysical-exercising, eating well. yEmotional-optimism, trust, self-esteem.

3 Dimensions of Wellness yIntellectual- openness to new ideas. ySocial- satisfying relationships. yEnvironmental- health of planet. zExercise and Wellness yBenefits yEach system is affected by exercise (cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular, skeletal, and nervous)

4 Metabolic Systems zAerobic and Anaerobic yHomeostasis-state of balance at rest yAdenosine Triphosphate (ATP) xFood broken down to a high energy molecule (ATP) xreleases energy which body uses xmuscle cells use ATP to fuel contractions and movement

5 Anaerobic zWithout oxygen yshort bursts of activity xAnaerobic systems-rapid sources of ATP for short periods of time Phosphagen System –get going at beginning of exercise –leap out of seat –muscles can store only enough high energy phosphagens to produce ATP for 1-60 sec. of activity –wt. lifting and sprinting

6 Lactic acid system zProduces ATP by breaking down carbs (glucose) without 02. zEnergy, lactic acid, and heat are produced. zLactic acid builds up and makes the muscle feel heavy and burn. Build up of lactic acid is associated with muscle exhaustion. zExercises-short, intense, and powerful. yMuscular strength, endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness.

7 Aerobic Metabolism zWith oxygen ybreaks down carbs and fat to produce ATP(energy), CO2, H2O, and heat. xCO2 transported by the body to lungs where it is exhaled, heat and water released through sweat. xPrimary source of fuel for the aerobic system- carbs. xBody conserves carbs and uses fat-richer source of energy(fatty acid oxidation). xNeed to exercise at least 20 min. xexercise moderately for a longer period of time. xAerobic exercises -continuous, rhythmic activity- large muscle groups.

8 Cardiovascular system zHeart, blood vessels, and blood. z70-80 beats per minute. zStroke volume- blood ejected with one beat. zCardiac output- amt. of blood pumped out in one min. zBlood pressure- pressure exerted by blood against walls of arteries.

9 Cardiovascular System zDiastolic -heart is filling and pressure is fairly low. zSystolic -heart contracts forcing blood into arteries increasing pressure against the walls of arteries. z140/90 is borderline hypertension. 115/75 is normal for young adults. zExercise increases blood pressure.

10 Diseases zArteriosclerosis-hardening of arteries. zAtherosclerosis-plaque build up in arteries. yBoth cause blood pressure to rise. yCapillaries-delivers 02 blood to cells. yCoronary arteries- nourish heart with 02 blood during diastole. yExercising Cardiovascular System xMinimize risk of heart attack, improves chance of survival, reduce stress, increase sense of well- being.

11 Respiratory System zDelivers 02 to cells ytrachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli. ystrengthens the respiratory muscles and increases the amount of air you can breathe in and out of lungs ( respiratory ventilation). yMore surface of lungs also becomes available. ySKELETAL SYSTEM: x206 BONES-BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGH xOSTEOPOROSIS

12 Muscular System z3 kinds-striated(skeletal), cardiac, smooth. zTendons- attach bone to muscle. zLigaments-attach bone to bone. zMuscles pull not push. yWork in pairs: pulling one is called Agonist. yAntagonist is the one stretching. yWork muscle pairs equally. yHypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy.

13 Contractions zConcentric Contraction-muscle is shortening. zEccentric Contraction- muscle is lengthening. zStretch Reflex-muscle stretched suddenly- knee jerk reaction. x1. Ballistic-Bouncing. x2. Static-Stretch and hold. x3. Active-Shoulder rotations. x4. Passive-Against a resistance.

14 Clothing and equipment zShoes-put money where stress is. yToe box, support, arch. zSocks yWhite, combo: poly-cotton. zExercise pants or tights. zEquipment: zWeights, Steps, Slides, Slide socks, Body balls.

15 Five Fitness Components z1. Cardiovascular endurance yability to perform large muscle movements over extended period of time. y12 min. run/walk. z2. Body composition y% lean tissue to fat- Lange Skinfold Calipers. z3. Flexibility ymovement of a joint through a full range of motion. ySit and Reach.

16 Fitness Components z4. Muscular endurance yto sustain a muscular contraction for a period of time. yisotonic or dynamic- illicit movement. yisometric-muscle fibers contract but dont shorten. yPerforming a high number of repetitions. ySit-ups, push-ups.

17 Fitness components z5. Muscular strength yability of muscle to exert a force against a resistance. y1 RM-one repetition maximum. yBench press yLeg press

18 Principles of Exercise zOverload yhuman body stressed slightly more than accustomed. zThreshold of Training yminimum level of exercise. zAdaptation ybody adapts to exercise level. zPrinciple of Progression ygradually increase overload over a period of time.

19 Principles Continued zFIT yF=frequency yI=intensity yT=time zPrinciple of Individuality yno two people react the same way to exercise. zPrinciple of Specificity yexercise specific to task at hand.

20 Principles continued zPrinciple of Reversibility yuse/disuse-use it or lose it-2weeks zPrinciple of Overuse yoverdo causing chronic injuries or undue fatigue.

21 Target Heart Rate zKarvonen Method-5-10 min. into workout ycarotid artery, radial artery y10 second count yresting heart rate zRecovery heart rate-below 120 bpm zBorgs scale of Perceived Exertion y6=no exertion at all y20= maximal exertion zTalk Test

22 Goals zSpecific ynot lose wt., but lose 5 lbs. in next five weeks. zRealistic, safe, correct and attainable. zEstablish short and long term goals. yIntrinsic-Extrinsic. yMotivation, choose activity, measure progress, evaluate, and commitment.

23 Warm up/Cool down zWarm-up 5-10 min. yPrepare body for activity yraise core temp. 1-2 degrees yStretching zSee text for Flexibility Exercises. zCool-down yreduce bodies exertion level, improve flexibility, prevent muscle soreness.

24 Aerobic variations zNIA ynon-impact changes of feet on floor. zHIA ylarge muscle activities-JJ,Lifts,High kicks. zShinsplints, Tendinitis. yOveruse injuries. zLIA yone foot must touch floor at all times.

25 Aerobic Exercise zStep Aerobics yGin Miller-Reebok. yBench=4-12 (8). ypower movement. zAqua Aerobics yHR=10-15% lower than land. yOutdoor dehydration yH2O temp.=83-86d. yCooler for people with MS, warmer for arthritis, hot for stretching only.

26 Aerobics zCircuit training- yseries of stations. yDo not lower head below heart. zInterval training- yshort recovery breaks. zSlide Aerobics- ylow impact-lateral movement, speed skating, socks. zCross-training- ymore complete workout.

27 Body toning exercises zShape, firm, and strengthen. zDo not confuse body toning with spot reduction. zEmphasizes muscular endurance but may include gains in muscular strength. zEquipment could include: y bands, weights, water, resistance balls.

28 Contraindicated Exercises zAvoid: yhyperextension, unnecessary bouncing, kicking too high, knee pushed beyond instep, straight leg toe touches, deep knee bends, straight leg sit-ups, and poor alignment.

29 Nutrition and Weight Control zNutrients - Carbs, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Fiber. ysubstances other than drugs that cause chemical reactions to take place in the body. zCarbs, Proteins, Fats- yprovide energy when broken down. Energy is measured in kilocalories or calories. Fat= 9 calories per gram, Carbs and Proteins= 4 calories per gram cal.= 1lb. of fat.

30 Protein z10-35% of daily caloric intake. zBuilds and repairs tissues. zBroken down into amino acids. zAmericans consume too much protein. zExtra amino acids are converted and stored as fat.

31 Carbohydrates z45-65% daily caloric intake. zMain source of fuel for the body. zSugars and starches broken down to form glucose. zGlucose is absorbed into blood stream and zused by cells. zGlucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. Glycogen is the preferred fuel for aerobics.

32 Carbohydrates continued zTwo types: zSimple and Complex. zSimple = sugars found in fruits and refined sugar. zComplex = contains vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

33 Fat zEssential part of every cell in your body. z% body fat yMinimum for men=3-6%. yMinimum for women=8-12%. yAvg.for men= 12-17%, yAvg. for women=22-25%. z20-35% of daily caloric intake. zSaturated fat-hardens at room temp. and comes from animal sources. yCan increase cholesterol.

34 Fat continued zCholesterol=a waxy substance that the body makes and is contained and consumed in foods eaten. zHDL=high density lipoproteins. yAerobic exercise raises the HDL. zLDL=low density lipoproteins. zDesirable level=cholesterol below 200 mg. zCoronary Heart Disease (CHD). yAtherosclerosis (plaque) Arteriosclerosis (hardening)

35 Fat continued zUnsaturated fat- yliquid at room temp. comes from vegetable sources. yCanola, Corn, Cottonseed, Safflower Oils. zPolyunsaturated zMonounsaturated zHydrogenated resemble saturated fats zTrans fatty acids have been transformed from liquid to solid.

36 Vitamins zGrowth, maintenance and repair of body ztissues. zWater soluble=B&C. zFat soluble=A,D,E,& K. yCan be toxic.

37 Minerals zOrganic compounds perform a variety of functions. zCalcium mg. daily yOsteoporosis zIron yAnemia zPotassium ycramps, heart

38 Minerals continued zSodium y1100mg.-3300mg. daily yAvg. American=6900mg. Daily y2000mg. sodium=1teaspoon salt. yDiet Soda. yBottled Water. yHigh blood pressure-Hypertension.

39 Water and Fiber zWater 70% of bodies wt.= water. yDigestion and waste removal. 6-8, 8oz. a day. zDehydration: Lack of fluid zHeat exhaustion-overheating of body yCold,clammy skin, chills, nausea, dizziness, faintness, profuse sweating. yDrink water-shade zHeat stroke-Dry, hot skin, pale or flushed. yBrain damage arrhythmia, death. Pour fluid over body, call 911.

40 Fiber zRoughage. zFood substances that cannot be fully digested. zMaintains regularity, reduces colon cancer risk, lowers blood cholesterol. zThe more the food is processed the less fiber it contains.

41 Food Guide Pyramid zAn outline of what to eat each day. z1. Fats, oils and sweets use sparingly. z2. Milk, yogurt, cheese=2-3 servings. z3. Meat poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts =2-3 servings. z4. Veggies=3-5 servings. z5. Fruit=2-4 servings. z6. Bread, cereal, rice, pasta=6-11 servings.

42 Weight control z% Body Fat ySkinfold-3 sites. yHydrostatic Weighing. yElectrical Impedance. zEating disorders: yAnorexia Nervosa. yObesity yBulimia. zDiet fads and gimmicks. yGrapefruit diet.

43 Care and Prevention of Injuries zBlisters-fluid below skin due to irritation. zBunion- Bump forms on side of big or little toe. zPlantar Fascitis-strain to the connective tissue that runs from the heel to the metatarsals-pain in front of heel (bruised). zMortons Neuroma-localized swelling of the sensory nerve that lies between metatarsals-pain between 3rd and 4th toes.

44 Injuries Continued zShin Splints-pain on front or side of lower leg-warm-up properly, strengthen muscles. zStress Fracture-hairline break in bone. zChondromalacia Patella-roughening or softening of the joint surface of the knee cap-knee pain. zMeniscal Injuries-strains or tears of cartilage that stablilizes knee joint,pain,popping swelling, knee gives out.

45 Injuries Continued zStrain-injury to a muscle or a tendon. y1st degree-local pain and tenderness. y2nd degree-pain with muscle movement. y3rd degree-severe pain,disability,complete tearing or rupture of tissue. zSprain-injury to a ligament. y1st,2nd,3rd degree.

46 Injuries continued zBursitis-inflammation of bursa. zMuscle Cramps- painful contraction that will not voluntary release. zR.I.C.E. yRest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.

47 Risk Factors of Heart Attack and Stroke zCannot be changed y1. heredity 9. Diabetes y2. age 10. Obesity y3. gender 11. Stress y4. race 12. Type A zCan be changed y5. Smoking y6. H.B.P. y7. H.B.Cholesterol y8. Inactivity

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