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Principles and Practices of Nematode Control

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1 Principles and Practices of Nematode Control
Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

2 Nematode control required only if Pi > Pt
Terminology Pi = Initial Nematode Population Pt = Threshold level (ETL, Damaging level, Pathogenic level) Pf = Final Nematode Population Nematode control required only if Pi > Pt Nematode Control - aims at eradication Nematode Management – aims at keeping the nematode population below Pt Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

3 Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

4 Methods of Nematode Management
Cultural Physical Chemical Host resistance Regulatory Biological Integrated Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

5 Cultural Methods Crop rotation
Growing a non-host crop in between two susceptible ones Non-host crop must be economically viable, locally acceptable and should not promote any new pest of disease problem Rotation of wheat with gram, mustard for the control of Heterodera avenae Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

6 Crop Rotation Wheat - Wheat Fenugreek - Wheat Wheat - Wheat
Oats - Wheat Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

2. FALLOWING Cultural Methods Fallowing PPNs are obligate parasites, cannot survive without food Flooding PPNs are aerobic; they will die due to asphyxiation in flooded lands KEEPING THE FIELD BLANK Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

8 Cultural Methods Propagation through healthy planting material
Many nematode diseases spread through infected planting material; burrowing nematode in banana suckers, citrus nematode in infected citrus saplings, earcockle disease of wheat with contaminated seed Removal or destruction of infected plants Removal and destruction of root stubbles soon after harvest Organic manuring/Amendments Decomposition products (fatty acids) are toxic to PPNs Increase in the population of micro-organisms, including nematode antagonists Improved plant growth leads to tolerance against nematode damage Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

9 Cultural Methods Trap crops Antagonistic crops
Nematodes penetrate but fail to develop inside some crops like Crotalaria; can be used as green manure after a few days Antagonistic crops Root exudates of certain crops contain nematoxic compounds Onion Garlic Tagetes (ᾳ-terthienyl) Asparagus (asparagusic acid) Can be used as interculture Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

10 Cultural Methods Time of sowing Soil solarization
Advancing crop sowing by 2-3 weeks to escape nematode infection; older crop suffer less damage even if infection occurs Soil solarization Deep summer ploughing Plastic mulching Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

11 Physical methods Most nematodes cannot tolerate temperature > C Hot water treatment of infected plant material (bulbs, corms, tubers, rhizomes runners, seeds etc. ) is highly successful Temperature-Time combinations are to be standardized for each crop/material Examples HWT of bulbs of ornamental crops against Stem & Bulb nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci White tip disease of rice against white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

12 Chemical control Involves use of Nematicides or Nematocides
Pre-requisites When Pi is very high Crop is valuable Quick results are warranted Generally discouraged because of Residue problems in edible parts Environmental pollution Toxicity to non-target organisms Resurgence of pest problems Cost considerations Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

13 Classification of Nematicides
Fumigants (Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) Non-Fumigants Organocarbamates Organophosphates Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

14 Fumigants Highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons
Upon application into soil, turn into gaseous phase and diffuse through soil pore spaces Kill nematodes due to blocking enzymes by substitution with halogen moieties Used extensively during s Examples DD – Dichloropropane and dichloropropene EDB – Ethylene dibromide MBr – Methyl bromide 1,3 D – 1,3 dichloropropene DBCP - Dibromochloropropene Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

15 Problems involved with Fumigants
Require high doses which are phytotoxic, hence need pre- plant application Waiting period of 3-5 weeks Need special applicators Need soil surface sealing with covers Need special field preparations Efficacy dependant upon edaphic factors Some proved carcinogenic and leave residues in fruits Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

16 Non-fumigants Advantages Effective against insects also
Effective at low dosages Easy to apply and handle Less phytotoxic an can be applied to standing crops Mostly systemic in nature Relatively non-volatile Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

17 Organophosphates Common name Trade name Organophosphates Ethoprop
Mocap Fensulfothion Dasanit Phenamiphos Nemacur Phorate Thimet Thonazin Nemaphos Organocarbamates Aldicarb Temik Carbofuran Furadan Metham Sodium Vapam oxamyl Vydate Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

18 Effect of Carbofuran against CCN in Wheat
Untreated Carbofuran Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

19 Economising Nematicidal Use
Seedling bare root dip treatment Seed treatment Coating, Dipping Nursery bed treatment Row treatment in widely spaced crops Spot/basin area treatment in perennials Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

20 Host Resistance Effective, Economical and Environmentally safe
Steps involved in breeding a disease resistant variety Devising techniques for assessment of resistance Screening of large germplasm, including wild species in some cases Study of inheritance of resistance Breeding resistant lines through cross/back cross, which have commercial traits Rigorous testing under field conditions Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

21 Nematode Resistant Crop Varieties
Resistant Variety Nematode Barley C-164, Rajkiran, BH-75 Heterodera avenae Wheat Raj MR 1 Citrus Trifoliate orange Tylenchulus semipenetrans Coffee Robusta root-stock Pratylenchus coffeae Potato Kufri Swarna Globodera rostochiensis G. pallida Tomato SL-120, PNR-7, Hisar Lalit, Karnataka Hybrid, Mangla Hybrid Meloidogyne spp. Cowpea GAU-1 Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

22 Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

23 Regulatory Method - Quarantine
Legal enforcement to prevent introduction or check further spread of pests/diseases Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage (Ministry of Agriculture, GOI), through DIP Act International Plant Protection Inspectors at all airports, seaports and landports for commercial material Research material inspected by NBPGR, NBAGR Domestic Golden Nematode of Potato included in DIP Act 1971 Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

24 Biological Control Classical biological control: Action of predators, parasites and pathogens to control pests Ambit of biological control expanded now-a-days to include several other mechanisms, including antibiosis, host resistance etc. Natural bio-control : Antagonistic biotic interactions among co-habiting natural populations of organisms Introduced Biological Control Inoculative release Inundative release Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

25 Nematode Antagonists Predators Collemboles Tardigrades Enchytreids
Protozoa Predatory mites Predacious nematodes Mononchus Seinura Predacious fungi Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

26 Predacious fungi Sticky hyphae : Stylopage Sticky knobs: Arthrobotrys
Examples Sticky hyphae : Stylopage Sticky knobs: Arthrobotrys Non-constricting rings: Dactylella Constricting rings: Dactylaria Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

27 Parasites Fungi Egg parasites Female parasites Vermiform stages
Paecilomyces lilacinus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Verticillium chlamydosprium) Female parasites Nematophthora gynophila Vermiform stages Catenaria Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

28 Parasites Bacteria Pasteuria penetrans Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

29 Other Antagonists Bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacillus subtilis
Azotobacter chroococcum Glucoacetobacter diazotrophicus Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

30 Integrated Nematode Management
INM seeks to stabilize pest nematode population below damaging levels (Pt) through integration of various unilateral and effective practices leading to a long-term package programme or schedule based on ecologically sound, economically viable and acceptable principles Walia CCSHAU 3/31/2017

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