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Principles and Practices of Nematode Control 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles and Practices of Nematode Control 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles and Practices of Nematode Control 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 1

2 Terminology Pi = Initial Nematode Population Pt = Threshold level (ETL, Damaging level, Pathogenic level) Pf = Final Nematode Population Nematode control required only if Pi > Pt Nematode Control - aims at eradication Nematode Management – aims at keeping the nematode population below Pt 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 2

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4 Methods of Nematode Management Cultural Physical Chemical Host resistance Regulatory Biological Integrated 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 4

5 Cultural Methods Crop rotation Growing a non-host crop in between two susceptible ones Non-host crop must be economically viable, locally acceptable and should not promote any new pest of disease problem Rotation of wheat with gram, mustard for the control of Heterodera avenae 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 5

6 Crop Rotation Wheat - WheatOats - Wheat Wheat - WheatFenugreek - Wheat 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 6

7 2.FALLOWING KEEPING THE FIELD BLANK Fallowing PPNs are obligate parasites, cannot survive without food Flooding PPNs are aerobic; they will die due to asphyxiation in flooded lands Cultural Methods 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 7

8 Cultural Methods Propagation through healthy planting material Many nematode diseases spread through infected planting material; burrowing nematode in banana suckers, citrus nematode in infected citrus saplings, earcockle disease of wheat with contaminated seed Removal or destruction of infected plants Removal and destruction of root stubbles soon after harvest Organic manuring/Amendments Decomposition products (fatty acids) are toxic to PPNs Increase in the population of micro-organisms, including nematode antagonists Improved plant growth leads to tolerance against nematode damage 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 8

9 Cultural Methods Trap crops Nematodes penetrate but fail to develop inside some crops like Crotalaria; can be used as green manure after a few days Antagonistic crops Root exudates of certain crops contain nematoxic compounds Onion Garlic Tagetes ( -terthienyl) Asparagus (asparagusic acid) Can be used as interculture 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 9

10 Cultural Methods Time of sowing Advancing crop sowing by 2-3 weeks to escape nematode infection; older crop suffer less damage even if infection occurs Soil solarization Deep summer ploughing Plastic mulching 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 10

11 Physical methods Most nematodes cannot tolerate temperature > C Hot water treatment of infected plant material (bulbs, corms, tubers, rhizomes runners, seeds etc. ) is highly successful Temperature-Time combinations are to be standardized for each crop/material Examples HWT of bulbs of ornamental crops against Stem & Bulb nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci White tip disease of rice against white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 11

12 Chemical control Involves use of Nematicides or Nematocides Pre-requisites When Pi is very high Crop is valuable Quick results are warranted Generally discouraged because of Residue problems in edible parts Environmental pollution Toxicity to non-target organisms Resurgence of pest problems Cost considerations 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 12

13 Classification of Nematicides Fumigants (Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) Non-Fumigants OrganocarbamatesOrganophosphates 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 13

14 Fumigants Highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons Upon application into soil, turn into gaseous phase and diffuse through soil pore spaces Kill nematodes due to blocking enzymes by substitution with halogen moieties Used extensively during s Examples DD – Dichloropropane and dichloropropene EDB – Ethylene dibromide MBr – Methyl bromide 1,3 D – 1,3 dichloropropene DBCP - Dibromochloropropene 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 14

15 Problems involved with Fumigants Require high doses which are phytotoxic, hence need pre- plant application Waiting period of 3-5 weeks Need special applicators Need soil surface sealing with covers Need special field preparations Efficacy dependant upon edaphic factors Some proved carcinogenic and leave residues in fruits 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 15

16 Non-fumigants Advantages Effective against insects also Effective at low dosages Easy to apply and handle Less phytotoxic an can be applied to standing crops Mostly systemic in nature Relatively non-volatile 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 16

17 Organophosphates Common nameTrade name Organophosphates EthopropMocap FensulfothionDasanit PhenamiphosNemacur PhorateThimet ThonazinNemaphos Organocarbamates AldicarbTemik CarbofuranFuradan Metham SodiumVapam oxamylVydate 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 17

18 Effect of Carbofuran against CCN in Wheat UntreatedCarbofuran 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 18

19 Economising Nematicidal Use Seedling bare root dip treatment Seed treatment Coating, Dipping Nursery bed treatment Row treatment in widely spaced crops Spot/basin area treatment in perennials 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 19

20 Host Resistance Effective, Economical and Environmentally safe Steps involved in breeding a disease resistant variety Devising techniques for assessment of resistance Screening of large germplasm, including wild species in some cases Study of inheritance of resistance Breeding resistant lines through cross/back cross, which have commercial traits Rigorous testing under field conditions 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 20

21 Nematode Resistant Crop Varieties CropResistant VarietyNematode BarleyC-164, Rajkiran, BH-75Heterodera avenae WheatRaj MR 1Heterodera avenae CitrusTrifoliate orangeTylenchulus semipenetrans CoffeeRobusta root-stockPratylenchus coffeae PotatoKufri SwarnaGlobodera rostochiensis G. pallida TomatoSL-120, PNR-7, Hisar Lalit, Karnataka Hybrid, Mangla Hybrid Meloidogyne spp. CowpeaGAU-1Meloidogyne spp. 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 21

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23 Regulatory Method - Quarantine Legal enforcement to prevent introduction or check further spread of pests/diseases Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage (Ministry of Agriculture, GOI), through DIP Act International Plant Protection Inspectors at all airports, seaports and landports for commercial material Research material inspected by NBPGR, NBAGR Domestic Golden Nematode of Potato included in DIP Act /30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 23

24 Biological Control Classical biological control: Action of predators, parasites and pathogens to control pests Ambit of biological control expanded now-a-days to include several other mechanisms, including antibiosis, host resistance etc. Natural bio-control : Antagonistic biotic interactions among co-habiting natural populations of organisms Introduced Biological Control Inoculative release Inundative release 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 24

25 Nematode Antagonists Predators Collemboles Tardigrades Enchytreids Protozoa Predatory mites Predacious nematodes Mononchus Seinura Predacious fungi 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 25

26 Predacious fungi Examples Sticky hyphae : Stylopage Sticky knobs: Arthrobotrys Non-constricting rings: Dactylella Constricting rings: Dactylaria 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 26

27 Parasites Fungi Egg parasites Paecilomyces lilacinus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Verticillium chlamydosprium) Female parasites Nematophthora gynophila Vermiform stages Catenaria 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 27

28 Parasites Bacteria Pasteuria penetrans 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 28

29 Other Antagonists Bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacillus subtilis Azotobacter chroococcum Glucoacetobacter diazotrophicus 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 29

30 Integrated Nematode Management INM seeks to stabilize pest nematode population below damaging levels (Pt) through integration of various unilateral and effective practices leading to a long-term package programme or schedule based on ecologically sound, economically viable and acceptable principles 5/30/2014 Walia CCSHAU 30

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