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Light Waves What we call light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum What we call light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Presentation on theme: "Light Waves What we call light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum What we call light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Light Waves What we call light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum What we call light is a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum All the different colors are electromagnetic waves with different wave lengths All the different colors are electromagnetic waves with different wave lengths Wave speed = frequency x wavelength Wave speed = frequency x wavelength EM radiation is alternating electric and magnetic fields EM radiation is alternating electric and magnetic fields

2 EM Spectrum long low f low energ y short high f high energ y

3 Electromagnetic Waves Changing magnetic/electric field induces electric/magnetic field Changing magnetic/electric field induces electric/magnetic field

4 Electromagnetic Spectrum Remember, the lower the frequency the longer the wavelength and vice versa Remember, the lower the frequency the longer the wavelength and vice versa Wave speed of light is 300,000,000 m/s Wave speed of light is 300,000,000 m/s

5 Visible Light Visible Light Visible Light small part of the spectrum we can see small part of the spectrum we can see ROY G. BIV - colors in order of increasing energy ROY G. BIV - colors in order of increasing energy ROYG.BIV redorangeyellowgreenblueindigoviolet

6 Colors Lowest frequencies of visible light are red Lowest frequencies of visible light are red Highest frequencies are violet Highest frequencies are violet The order is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet The order is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

7 Colors Colored objects are a result of selective reflection and absorption of light Colored objects are a result of selective reflection and absorption of light Sunlight is a mixture of colors Sunlight is a mixture of colors We call this mixture white light We call this mixture white light When white light strikes a red object, the red frequencies are reflected and the other frequencies are absorbed When white light strikes a red object, the red frequencies are reflected and the other frequencies are absorbed

8 Sunlight

9 Colors White objects reflect all frequencies White objects reflect all frequencies Black objects absorb all frequencies Black objects absorb all frequencies Objects can only reflect the colors of light that shine on them Objects can only reflect the colors of light that shine on them If you shine blue light on a red object it will look black If you shine blue light on a red object it will look black

10 Colors We can also consider shining light through semi- transparent objects We can also consider shining light through semi- transparent objects Filters used on the lights in a theater are materials that absorb some frequencies and let other frequencies pass through Filters used on the lights in a theater are materials that absorb some frequencies and let other frequencies pass through Red filters transmit red light through the material while other frequencies are absorbed Red filters transmit red light through the material while other frequencies are absorbed

11 Mixing Colors Our eyes and brains are very complicated color processing sensors and computers Our eyes and brains are very complicated color processing sensors and computers Artists have learned how to mix colors to make pleasing combinations and to create a huge array of different colors Artists have learned how to mix colors to make pleasing combinations and to create a huge array of different colors All based on what the sensors in our eyes respond to All based on what the sensors in our eyes respond to

12 Visual Response

13 Mixing Colors Primary light colors Primary light colors red, green, blue red, green, blue additive colors additive colors combine to form white light combine to form white light EX: computer RGBs EX: computer RGBs

14 Mixing Colors Filter Filter transparent material that absorbs all light colors except the filter color transparent material that absorbs all light colors except the filter color

15 Mixing Colors Pigment Pigment colored material that absorbs and reflects different colors colored material that absorbs and reflects different colors Primary pigment colors Primary pigment colors cyan, magenta, yellow cyan, magenta, yellow subtractive colors subtractive colors combine to form black combine to form black EX: color ink cartridges EX: color ink cartridges

16 Mixing Colors LightPigment When mixing pigments, the color of the mixture is the color of light that both pigments reflect.

17 Light and Matter Opaque Opaque absorbs or reflects all light absorbs or reflects all light Transparent Transparent allows light to pass through completely allows light to pass through completely Translucent Translucent allows some light to pass through allows some light to pass through

18 Selective Scattering This is why the sky is blue! This is why the sky is blue! The higher frequencies are scattered more by the molecules in the atmosphere The higher frequencies are scattered more by the molecules in the atmosphere Reds and oranges just pass through, so the sky appears blue Reds and oranges just pass through, so the sky appears blue

19 Blue Sky & Red Sunsets Blue Sky & Red Sunsets NOON less atmosphere less scattering blue sky, yellow sun SUNSET more atmosphere more scattering orange-red sky & sun Molecules in atmosphere scatter light rays. Shorter wavelengths (blue, violet) are scattered more easily.

20 Diffraction Waves bend when they encounter an object Waves bend when they encounter an object Stand in the water and watch the wake from a boat hit you Stand in the water and watch the wake from a boat hit you Look behind you and you will see that after a short distance, the wake continues on Look behind you and you will see that after a short distance, the wake continues on It filled in the hole by bending around you It filled in the hole by bending around you This bending is called diffraction This bending is called diffraction

21 Diffraction Diffraction Diffraction bending of waves around a barrier bending of waves around a barrier longer wavelengths (red) bend more - opposite of refraction longer wavelengths (red) bend more - opposite of refraction

22 Diffraction Diffraction is the third way to bend light Diffraction is the third way to bend light The other two are reflection and refraction The other two are reflection and refraction The amount of bending that occurs depends on the relative sizes of the object and the wavelength of the wave The amount of bending that occurs depends on the relative sizes of the object and the wavelength of the wave Longer wavelengths bend easier than short ones Longer wavelengths bend easier than short ones

23 Diffraction

24 Interference Interference Interference constructive brighter light constructive brighter light destructive dimmer light destructive dimmer light

25 Interference When the waves are hitting the edges of something, the new bending waves tend to interfere with each other and we get some new patterns When the waves are hitting the edges of something, the new bending waves tend to interfere with each other and we get some new patterns Recall the principle of superposition Recall the principle of superposition We simply add the amplitudes We simply add the amplitudes

26 Interference

27 Interference Wave nature of light was demonstrated by Young Wave nature of light was demonstrated by Young

28 Interference The bright and dark areas result from differences in path lengths from the slits to the screen The bright and dark areas result from differences in path lengths from the slits to the screen This changes the where the peaks and troughs appear This changes the where the peaks and troughs appear Remember the principle of superposition Remember the principle of superposition

29 Interference

30 Interference

31 Interference Can get interference from a single slit Can get interference from a single slit Waves coming through one side of the slit interfere with waves coming through the other side Waves coming through one side of the slit interfere with waves coming through the other side Extend the idea to three, four… slits Extend the idea to three, four… slits Make something with hundreds of slits Make something with hundreds of slits Called a diffraction grating Called a diffraction grating

32 Diffraction Gratings Used in spectrometers (devices to separate light into colors Used in spectrometers (devices to separate light into colors It spreads the spectrum It spreads the spectrum Since different colors have different wavelengths, the constructive interference occurs at different locations Since different colors have different wavelengths, the constructive interference occurs at different locations

33 Diffraction Gratings

34 Diffraction Gratings Diffraction Gratings glass or plastic made up of many tiny parallel slits glass or plastic made up of many tiny parallel slits may also be reflective may also be reflective spectroscopes, reflective rainbow stickers, CD surfaces spectroscopes, reflective rainbow stickers, CD surfaces

35 Thin Films Look at an oil slick floating on the surface of a pond Look at an oil slick floating on the surface of a pond The slick has a rainbow of colors depending on the angle of viewing The slick has a rainbow of colors depending on the angle of viewing This results from interference in the very thin film of oil This results from interference in the very thin film of oil Called iridescence Called iridescence

36 Thin Films

37 Thin Films - Bubbles & Oil Slicks Thin Films - Bubbles & Oil Slicks interference results from double reflection interference results from double reflection

38 Polarization A phenomenon that occurs in transverse waves only A phenomenon that occurs in transverse waves only

39 Polarization These waves are plane-polarized These waves are plane-polarized All the motion is confined to a plane All the motion is confined to a plane

40 Polarization Shake an electron up and down and you create an electromagnetic wave that is plane-polarized in the vertical direction Shake an electron up and down and you create an electromagnetic wave that is plane-polarized in the vertical direction Shake an electron side-to-side and you create an EM wave that is plane-polarized in the horizontal direction Shake an electron side-to-side and you create an EM wave that is plane-polarized in the horizontal direction

41 Polarization A standard incandescent bulb emits light that is unpolarized A standard incandescent bulb emits light that is unpolarized The electrons are shaking in random directions The electrons are shaking in random directions So, the light has its electric field shaking in different directions for different waves So, the light has its electric field shaking in different directions for different waves

42 Polarization

43 Polarization Some transparent crystalline materials have a remarkable property Some transparent crystalline materials have a remarkable property These materials have their atoms arranged in non-cubic structures These materials have their atoms arranged in non-cubic structures These crystals effectively divide the light into two beams that are plane-polarized at right angles to each other These crystals effectively divide the light into two beams that are plane-polarized at right angles to each other

44 Polarization Any polarization direction can be split into a horizontal and vertical component. Like adding two separate beams together.

45 Polarization Some crystals strongly absorb one of these beams while letting the other beam pass right through Some crystals strongly absorb one of these beams while letting the other beam pass right through These materials are called polarizers These materials are called polarizers Take a thin sheet of such a material and imbed it between two sheets of glass or cellulose, and you have a Polaroid filter Take a thin sheet of such a material and imbed it between two sheets of glass or cellulose, and you have a Polaroid filter

46 Polarization

47 Polarization What happens if we work with two polarizers? What happens if we work with two polarizers? If we place them so they are aligned, then the light passing through the first polarizer, will also pass through the second one If we place them so they are aligned, then the light passing through the first polarizer, will also pass through the second one But if the polarizers are at right angles, the second one will absorb all the light But if the polarizers are at right angles, the second one will absorb all the light

48 Polarization

49 Polarization Most of the light reflected from non-metallic surfaces becomes polarized Most of the light reflected from non-metallic surfaces becomes polarized Consider the glare from glass or water Consider the glare from glass or water Reflected wave has more vibrations parallel to the surface Reflected wave has more vibrations parallel to the surface Analogous to skipping a rock across a pond Analogous to skipping a rock across a pond

50 Polarization Sunglasses are polarized to block rays reflecting from horizontal surfaces light the road or a lake Sunglasses are polarized to block rays reflecting from horizontal surfaces light the road or a lake This means the direction of polarization of the sunglasses is vertical so it blocks horizontally polarized rays This means the direction of polarization of the sunglasses is vertical so it blocks horizontally polarized rays

51 Polarization


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