Presentation on theme: "Frameworks of Knowledge Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Frameworks of Knowledge Management Madz QuiamcoAIJC
2 Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What they Know Frameworks of KMHighest ranking authors in KM (Social Science Citation Index, 2008):Ikujiro NonakaThe Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovationby Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi (1995) NY: Oxford University PressThomas DavenportWorking Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What they Knowby Thomas Davenport and Lawrence Prusak (1998) Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press
3 Frameworks of KM Differing concepts of knowledge: Nonaka: Knowledge - a dynamic human process of justifying personal belief toward ‘truth’Western concept:emphasizes the absolute, static, and nonhuman nature of knowledge, e.g., in propositions and formal logic
4 The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation
5 The Knowledge-Creating Company Central idea: knowledge creation through knowledge conversion – from existing to newKnowledge=‘justified true belief’
6 The Knowledge-Creating Company Production/Creation of new knowledge through knowledge amplification1) FROM TACIT……TO EXPLICIT…to organization2) From individual…
7 4 modes of organizational knowledge creation: A. The SECI Model4 modes of organizational knowledge creation:InteractionConversion
8 The Knowledge-Creating Company Socialization –acquiring tacit knowledge by sharing experiencesApprentices learn from masters through- observation- imitation- practiceEmployees learn new skills through on-the-job training
9 The Knowledge-Creating Company Externalization –converting tacit knowledge into explicit concepts through- abstractions- metaphors- analogies- models;or triggered by- dialogue- collective reflection
10 The Knowledge-Creating Company Combination –creating explicit knowledge by bringing them together from different sourcesIndividuals exchange and combine explicit knowledge through- telephone conversations- meetings- memos, etc.Existing info may be categorized, collated, sorted to produce new explicit knowledge
11 The Knowledge-Creating Company Internalization –embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge, internalizing experiences into individuals’ tacit knowledge bases through shared- mental models, or- work practicesInternalization is facilitated by- documents- stories
12 Four categories of ‘ba’ B. The Concept of ‘Ba’Four categories of ‘ba’‘Ba’ –a shared context in which knowledge is shared, created, and utilized through interaction.
13 The Knowledge-Creating Company Using the 4 categories of ‘ba’ (Example: 711 Stores in JapanOriginating ‘ba’ – the shop floor; enables people to interact with each other and with customersDialoguing ‘ba’ – employees’ tacit knowledge created through dialogue is used to create sales forecastsSystemizing ‘ba’ – sales forecasts are tested vs. actual sales and are fed back to sales units, i.e., the storesExercising ‘ba’ – using this info and comparing it with reality, sales staff improve their sales forecasting skills and ability
14 C. Knowledge Assetscompany-specific resources indispensable for creating value;the inputs, outputs, and moderating factors of the knowledge creation process
16 How Organizations Manage Working Knowledge:How Organizations ManageWhat they Know
17 Working Knowledge Knowledge = a fluid mix of - framed experience - values- contextual info- expert insightthat provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and info
18 Working KnowledgeKnowledgeamong individuals, originates and is applied in the knowers’ mindin organizations, are embedded in- documents- repositories- organizational routines, processes, practices, norms
19 The Knowledge Market Organizations behave as knowledge markets, with buyers – people seeking knowledge to solve an issuesellers – people with internal reputation to have knowledge about a process or subjectbrokers – people who connect those who need and have the knowledge, i.e., gatekeepers, boundary spanners, corporate librarians
20 Knowledge markets require trust to function. Working KnowledgeKnowledge markets have pricing and payment mechanisms:reciprocityreputationaltruismREMEMBER:Knowledge markets require trust to function.
21 Working KnowledgeB. KM ProcessesKM processes required to excel:Knowledge generationKnowledge codificationKnowledge transfer
22 Working KnowledgeKnowledge generation- activities that increase the stock of organizational knowledge
23 Modes of knowledge generation: - Acquisition – by hiring, buying another organization, or renting/leasing external knowledge- Dedicating resources – setting up R&D units, corporate libraries developing and providing new knowledge- Fusion – bringing together individuals and groups with different specializations and perspectives to working on a problem or project- Adaptation – organization responding to new conditions in its external environment- Building knowledge networks – linking people who share common work interest, problems, or motivation to exchange knowledge
24 Working KnowledgeKnowledge codification- creating symbols to represent a certain knowledge and the particular process of knowing- codification of tacit knowledge – limited to locating the knowledge (person), pointing seeker to it, and encouraging them to interact
25 Task Involved Main Actor Principles of knowledge codification:Task InvolvedMain ActorDecide what business goals the codified knowledge will serve(managers)Identify knowledge existing in various forms appropriate to the goalEvaluate knowledge for usefulness and appropriateness for codification(knowledge managers)Identify an appropriate medium for codification and distribution of knowledge(codifiers)
26 Working Knowledge Knowledge transfer - market spaces and places where trading and sharing of knowledge can happen;- occurs through personal conversations.Encourage conversations through-- water coolers-- talk rooms-- knowledge fairs-- open forums-- etc.
27 Working Knowledge Barriers to knowledge sharing: - lack of trust - different cultures, vocabularies, frames of reference- lack of time and meeting places- status and rewards going to knowledge owners- lack of absorptive capacity in recipients- belief and knowledge a prerogative of particular groups- the ‘not-invented-here’ syndrome and intolerance for mistakes or need for help
28 C. Communities of Practice (CoP) Working KnowledgeC. Communities of Practice (CoP)Communities of practice –self-organizing teams that emerge around shared interests and work practices to exchange knowledgeWenger (1998): CoP – groups whose members- face common work tasks and interests- can see the benefits of sharing knowledge- share norms of trust and reciprocity.
29 SummaryNonaka and Takeuchi - the dynamics of knowledge creation, particularly the conversion of tacit into explicit knowledgeDavenport and Prusak – the design of organizational processes that enable knowledge generation, codification, and transferBoth models recognize that knowledge creation, sharing, and use are social activities embedded in a web of cultural norms and human relationships.Davenport and Prusak: ‘communities of practice’ Nonaka and Takeuchi: concept of ‘ba’ (shared contexts for knowledge creation and sharing).