Animating your students – Promoting active learning through animations Donald P. French, Ph. D. Department of Zoology Oklahoma State University firstname.lastname@example.org zoology.okstate.edu/zoo_lrc/biol1114
Overview Why use animations? How to involve students using animations Where to get suitable animations
Why use animations? Dual-coding Theory Presented together, visual and auditory materials allow the brain to use either for retrieving information (Paivio, 1986; Sanger & Greenowe 2000) Animations may promote formation of dynamic mental models resulting in deeper encoding and more expert- like models (Abraham and Williamson (1995).
…and Guided explorations using visualizations helped college students engage in active learning and construct knowledge (Khoo and Koh 1998).
However…. Animations without narration are ineffective if students cannot determine to what the elements and actions within the animation refer (Mayer & Anderson 1991). More effective if words and animations presented contiguously (Mayer & Anderson 1991). Live narration appears to work better than recorded (Burke et al. 1998)
Narration still teacher-centered! Constructivist teaching is not about what the teacher tells the students… …It is about what the teacher has the students do. Let the students do the talking and explaining Let the instructor do the guiding
How People Learn People are not blank slates or empty vessels to be filled
They dont retain isolated information They must organized it But how does this organization arise?
Theory of Constructivism People come with prior knowledge People must find a connection between new and old knowledge to be able to incorporate the new Some prior knowledge may be misconceptions that must be (self)identified and changed
Students must be actively engaged Thomas Lord (2002) provided examples of how properly designed challenge questions can be used to provide students opportunity to uncover concepts. Scott Cooper – Formative Assessment in Large Biology Lecture (MIC-2003) – PBL / Student Interactions Darrel Pearson – Assessing Learning Outcomes (MIC-2003) – Performance Assessment / Providing Context /Active Learning
Animations can provide tool to allow students to gather information they need Jose Flores – Animated Multivariable Calculus (MIC 2003) – Student Interactions Animations can provide students with non-verbal guide to the information Students translate visual information to words with instructors guidance
How to use animations….. Present a visualization of a concept Allow students time to observe Provide students basic printed image Have students record/describe their observations Flow lines, arrows, labels Have students work in collaborative setting.
Don - Stop talking and let them see what you are talking about !
Sample image v. animation (Contact McGraw-Hill for Lewis Life 4e animations)Lewis Life or view this alternative from OSUalternativeOSU
How to use…. (continued) Keep class open to questions and requests Fill in information as needed/requested Guide students by helping them recall related phenomena & interpret Have student propose explanations of phenomenon (or hypotheses for) Write out complete explanation Steps Function Variables that affect
Sample Image v. Animation 2 (Contact McGraw-Hill for Lewis Life 4e animations)Lewis Life
…and This sets up the opportunity for dialogue where the instructor can assess students understanding guide students to correction of misconceptions and students can work together to construct concepts This is NOT a replacement for actual experiments or other active-learning techniques – it is another tool.
Style issues Level of complexity Realism Sound effects Add realism – heart sounds Add humor/entertainment – pinball Confuse students – vacuum cleaner Text explanations Another mode of information transfer Tempt students to copy and ignore discussion Discourages students from developing explanations in their own words
Sources of Animations Make your own GIF animator GIF animator ($45) – animated.gif Fireworks Fireworks ($99) – animated.gif Flash Flash ($99) – flash.swf Some interactivity, Very web friendly, timeline, frame-by-frame, tweening, path Director Director ($500) – shockwave,.exe As above + tremendous control, 3D, interactivity, complexity; very steep learning curve Authorware Authorware ($500) – WWW,.exe path animation, tremendous control, interactivity, Computer based instruction, less difficult to program, integrates with above
Sources of Animations Get from textbook Publisher (Contact McGraw-Hill for Lewis Life 4e animations)Lewis Life