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Survival through tradition and change Despite the best efforts of many Native Americans did not disappear Despite the best efforts of many Native Americans.

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Presentation on theme: "Survival through tradition and change Despite the best efforts of many Native Americans did not disappear Despite the best efforts of many Native Americans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Survival through tradition and change Despite the best efforts of many Native Americans did not disappear Despite the best efforts of many Native Americans did not disappear They worked hard to maintain their traditions They worked hard to maintain their traditions But were also open to change But were also open to change Native American lifestyles had never been static Native American lifestyles had never been static Lewis Henry Morgan and Salvage Archaeology in Playing Indian Lewis Henry Morgan and Salvage Archaeology in Playing Indian

2 Into the 20 th C native groups still utilized native plants as medicine Into the 20 th C native groups still utilized native plants as medicine Dorothy Joseph Dorothy Joseph Paiute-Shoshoni Paiute-Shoshoni Grew up chewing early shoots of poison oak to make her immune to it as adult Grew up chewing early shoots of poison oak to make her immune to it as adult Tohono Oodham gathered creosote plants Tohono Oodham gathered creosote plants Cahuilla gathered white sage Cahuilla gathered white sage Both to use as medicine Both to use as medicine Despite this use, knowledge of tradition was less well spread Despite this use, knowledge of tradition was less well spread

3 Katherine Saubal Katherine Saubal Cahuilla Born 1920 Born 1920 Los Coyotes reservation Southern California Los Coyotes reservation Southern California Talking of traditional medicine in 1997 Talking of traditional medicine in 1997 they didnt have textbooks on these things, they carried the knowledge in their head and used this knowledge to teach me about the plants they didnt have textbooks on these things, they carried the knowledge in their head and used this knowledge to teach me about the plants Inducted into National Womens Hall of Fame in 1993 Inducted into National Womens Hall of Fame in 1993

4 Wyandot elder Eleonore Sioui Wyandot elder Eleonore Sioui 1 st Canadian Indian to obtain doctorate in Amerindian Philosophy and spirituality 1 st Canadian Indian to obtain doctorate in Amerindian Philosophy and spirituality uses plant and animals of her local region to teach history, culture and religion uses plant and animals of her local region to teach history, culture and religion cultural preservation was a conscious survival tactic cultural preservation was a conscious survival tactic Yet as stated not trapped in a static past Yet as stated not trapped in a static past

5 Navajo women adopted Navajo women adopted rug designs from Persia rug designs from Persia Used wool from Germantown, Pennsylvania Used wool from Germantown, Pennsylvania Kiowa artists moved from hides to canvas Kiowa artists moved from hides to canvas The Kiowa Five The Kiowa Five

6 Oscar Brousse Jacobson a Swedish immigrant MA in fine arts Yale University Oscar Brousse Jacobson a Swedish immigrant MA in fine arts Yale University Hired by University of Oklahoma 1915 to head art department Hired by University of Oklahoma 1915 to head art department Fascinated by the drawings sent to him by Susie Peters Fascinated by the drawings sent to him by Susie Peters Indian Agent at Anadarko, Oklahoma Indian Agent at Anadarko, Oklahoma Issued invitation to the Kiowa students to come to become special students in the art department. Issued invitation to the Kiowa students to come to become special students in the art department.

7 Eagle Dance by Stephen Mopope Five Kiowa men from Anadarko, Oklahoma Five Kiowa men from Anadarko, Oklahoma James Auchiah (1906 – 1974) James Auchiah (1906 – 1974) Spencer Asah (1905 – 1954) Spencer Asah (1905 – 1954) Jack Hokeah (1902 – 1969) Jack Hokeah (1902 – 1969) Stephen Mopope (1898 – 1974) Stephen Mopope (1898 – 1974) Monroe Tsatoke (1904 – 1937). Monroe Tsatoke (1904 – 1937). Internationally known artists in the 1920s Internationally known artists in the 1920s referred to as the Kiowa Five. referred to as the Kiowa Five.

8 Lois Bougetah Smoky ( ): Original member of the Kiowa Five artists Lois Bougetah Smoky ( ): Original member of the Kiowa Five artists only female and the youngest member of the group. only female and the youngest member of the group. customary among the tribes of the Plains that women not draw or paint in a representational style customary among the tribes of the Plains that women not draw or paint in a representational style return to the reservation after only a few short years of painting, she did not pursue a career in the art world. return to the reservation after only a few short years of painting, she did not pursue a career in the art world. Lois Smoky's art, due to its rarity, is now the most sought after of all the Kiowa Five artists Lois Smoky's art, due to its rarity, is now the most sought after of all the Kiowa Five artists

9 United States Post Office and Kiowa Indian Agency

10 Jim Thorpe Best Athlete of 1 st half twentieth Century Jim Thorpe Best Athlete of 1 st half twentieth Century Jim Thorpe Best Athlete of 1 st half twentieth Century Jim Thorpe Best Athlete of 1 st half twentieth Century

11 Resistance through Religion Common folk never handled feathers they were to powerful Common folk never handled feathers they were to powerful Katherine Saubel Katherine Saubel Feathers carry prayers skyward Feathers carry prayers skyward Feathers can be seen in homes, trees near homes or on pipes, dolls, and baskets Feathers can be seen in homes, trees near homes or on pipes, dolls, and baskets Agents and Missionaries on Reservations tried to ban their use but they remained and remain important items Agents and Missionaries on Reservations tried to ban their use but they remained and remain important items Title 50 Part 22 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Title 50 Part 22 of the United States Code of Federal RegulationsCode of Federal RegulationsCode of Federal Regulations

12 Tobacco another important item Tobacco another important item Tobacco has been used for many generations as offerings to the spirits for: Tobacco has been used for many generations as offerings to the spirits for: Planting Planting Gathering food Gathering food Healing Healing Ceremonies Ceremonies Tobacco is medicine Tobacco is medicine Used for prayer, protection, and respect. Used for prayer, protection, and respect.

13 Religious revivals 1850s 1850s On Lalac Mountain on Columbia River On Lalac Mountain on Columbia River An Indian died and travelled to the Sky Above An Indian died and travelled to the Sky Above Met Nami Piap Met Nami Piap (elder brother) (elder brother) Told to return and tell the people to return to traditional way Told to return and tell the people to return to traditional way Smohalla Smohalla Hunchback, short legs and large head Hunchback, short legs and large head

14 Gathered followers at Priest River Idaho Gathered followers at Priest River Idaho Worshipped each Sunday and held traditional food feasts Worshipped each Sunday and held traditional food feasts Commemorated link between Commemorated link between Nami Piap Nami Piap Indian Indian Sacred foods Sacred foods Following his daughters death Smohalla learned more songs and procedures from Nami Piap Following his daughters death Smohalla learned more songs and procedures from Nami Piap

15 His word spread, shared his teachings with many Plateau people His word spread, shared his teachings with many Plateau people Impacted people on reservations Impacted people on reservations Umatilla, Nez Perce, Colville Yakama, and others Umatilla, Nez Perce, Colville Yakama, and others Teachings of passive resistance Teachings of passive resistance Urged people to remain off reservations Urged people to remain off reservations No one had the right to mark the earth or force others onto designated land No one had the right to mark the earth or force others onto designated land Urged Indians to return to traditional ways of hunting, fishing, and gathering Urged Indians to return to traditional ways of hunting, fishing, and gathering

16 People should reject white attitudes People should reject white attitudes You ask me to plough the ground! Shall I take a knife and tear her bosom? Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest You ask me to plough the ground! Shall I take a knife and tear her bosom? Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig under her skin for her bones? Then when I die I cannot enter her body to be born again You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig under her skin for her bones? Then when I die I cannot enter her body to be born again You ask me to cut grass and make hay and sell it, and be rich like white men, but how dare I cut of my mothers hair? You ask me to cut grass and make hay and sell it, and be rich like white men, but how dare I cut of my mothers hair?

17 men who work cannot dream and wisdom comes to us in dreams men who work cannot dream and wisdom comes to us in dreams Passive resistance to the forces of modernization and cultural disintegration Passive resistance to the forces of modernization and cultural disintegration After a while when God is ready, he will drive away all the people except those who have obeyed the laws After a while when God is ready, he will drive away all the people except those who have obeyed the laws Those who obeyed the Washani Creed would experience new life Those who obeyed the Washani Creed would experience new life

18 November 1882, Skookum Bay, Puget Sound November 1882, Skookum Bay, Puget Sound Squasachtun – John Slocam near death Squasachtun – John Slocam near death Died spoke to angels who took him to both heaven and hell Died spoke to angels who took him to both heaven and hell Given chance to return, end his drinking and preach a native form of Christianity Given chance to return, end his drinking and preach a native form of Christianity His wife Whe Bulehtash – Mary Slocam His wife Whe Bulehtash – Mary Slocam Witnessed these events Witnessed these events

19 Together they created the Indian Shaker Church

20 Based on native beliefs, but acknowledged divinity of Christ Based on native beliefs, but acknowledged divinity of Christ Church spread from northern California to Canada Church spread from northern California to Canada Well known for healing the sick, exorcising demons, and empowering Native Americans to stop drinking Well known for healing the sick, exorcising demons, and empowering Native Americans to stop drinking Healers travelled throughout the west Healers travelled throughout the west

21 Indian Agents tried to eradicate Indian Shaker Church from reservations Indian Agents tried to eradicate Indian Shaker Church from reservations Claimed Shakers howled like animals and knew nothing of prayers or Christ Claimed Shakers howled like animals and knew nothing of prayers or Christ Spread disease Spread disease Parishioners kicked up dust during ceremonies Parishioners kicked up dust during ceremonies Early 20 th C view changed as Agents recognized the Churchs role in ending alcoholism and creating model citizens Early 20 th C view changed as Agents recognized the Churchs role in ending alcoholism and creating model citizens


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