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Sensing Through the Continent: Towards Monitoring Migratory Birds Using Cellular Sensor Networks. By Kotagiri Rakheesh UIN: 00918462.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensing Through the Continent: Towards Monitoring Migratory Birds Using Cellular Sensor Networks. By Kotagiri Rakheesh UIN: 00918462."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensing Through the Continent: Towards Monitoring Migratory Birds Using Cellular Sensor Networks. By Kotagiri Rakheesh UIN: 00918462

2 Authors, Sponsors and Acknowledgment David Anthony, William P. Bennett, Jr., Mehmet C. Vuran, Matthew B. Dwyer. Sebastian Elbaum, Anne Lacy, Mike Engels, Walter Wehtje. Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Lincoln, {danthony,wbennett,mcvuran,dwyer,elbaum}, International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, anne, engels}, The Crane Trust, Wood River, NEengels} This work was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation under CAREER Award CNS-0953900 and Award CNS-0720654; and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant number NNX08AV20A.

3 Why This Paper In monitoring migratory birds. Learning the causes for mortality of birds. In return helps in aero ecological balance. In the technical field the growth of CSN. Cellular Sensor Networks. Research scope: 1) Scope to develop mobile sensing sensors. 2) Sensors platforms, Reliable Sensor Networks

4 Presentation Flow Introduction Related Work Back Ground Work Crane Tracker Evaluation and Discussion Conclusion

5 Introduction The Whooping Crane is one of the most endangered bird species native to North America. The study of its migration helps in conservation of the endangered birds. In this paper we see the design challenges, The sensors used shouldnt disturb the behavior of the bird. We come across WSN(wireless sensor networks) Period of study. Migration Study.

6 Related Work Since 1930 many efforts have been kept towards tracking migration of birds. But the gathered information was less for analyzing the migration of birds, And the process require intensive labor. 1) Whooping Crane Tracking: Prior methods in tracking involved people having visual contact with birds. They used to place colored bands to the birds to differentiate them from other birds. Ground based monitors(man) used to spot the birds migration areas and make record of these birds----This has limitation of migration area. Over a period of time, light weight leg bands were used. These bands are attached with VHF(very high frequency) transmitters. This helped to over come manual visualization but still----Has limitations of communication range and manual effort of following.

7 Cont.… Later in todays GPS receivers communicate with satellite links, this help to trace the migration path. But this approach too have limitations currently which we are facing. - The size of GPS antenna. - Cost purchasing and operating the device. - Devices limited energy. - With standing climatic conditions. 2) Wild life monitoring with WSN: This Wireless Sensor Networks can be classified in two kinds. - Infrastructure based LimitationsNot possible to place these nodes through out the birds habitat. Communication delay.

8 Cont.…. - Ad-hoc A wireless ad hoc network is a decentralized type of wireless network. The ad hoc network does not rely on a preexisting infrastructure, such as routers in wired networks or access points in managed (infrastructure) wireless networks. Instead, each node participates in routing by forwarding data for other nodes, and so the determination of which nodes forward data is made dynamically based on the network connectivity. In addition to the classic routing, ad hoc networks can use flooding for forwarding the data. Limitation--- Works only when birds are in close vicinity. 3) Reliability: We need a reliable OS, Which is very simple in use a only to handle this related data. So in this we adapt to Aspect-oriented programming techniques, With this we develop a TinyOS for runtime monitoring in simulations. To make this tracking of birds and monitoring them successful we need rely completely on a strategy, equipment, communication network. For this………

9 Cont.….. We adopt to Wireless Cellular Network. A cellular network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station. In a cellular network, each cell uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed bandwidth within each cell. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers to communicate with each other and even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission. Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions: increased capacity reduced power use larger coverage area reduced interference from other signals

10 BACKGROUND In this we are going to see the Requirements and challenges faced in monitoring cranes. 1) Requirements: The requirements of the tracker device. Weight : < 120 grams GPS: 2 samples per day Location Accuracy : < 10m desired, <25m acceptable Communication Latency: < 24 hrs Migration Tracking Reduced Latency Bird movement characterization Long-term operation Flexible operation Backpack Mounting

11 Cont….. Challenges: 1) Weight and Size Restrictions. 2) Mobility 3) Unattended Operation 4) Unknown Behaviors 5) Endangered Status

12 Crane Tracker In this part we going to see how the Requirements can be achieved and challenges can be addressed. The Crane Tracker, This system has mainly two components. - The Crane Tracker that is attached to the cranes and monitors their movement throughout the Continent. - Back-end components that are used to store, analyze, and visualize the collected data.

13 Multi-Modal Communication After all the Sensor networks available, we finally adopted to Cellular Sensor Networks. GSM technology is used for this project because its widespread international adoption will enable future experiments in a wide variety of locations. The GSM module requires careful power supply design. While the rest of the platform components operate at 3.3V. Testing on the CraneTracker showed the module used an average of 64mA while sending a text message. However, in breeding and wintering locations, cranes generally use the same locations over several years. If cellular coverage is lacking at this particular location, long-term storage may not be su cient to. store all of the recorded information.

14 Multi-modal Sensing Sensing components were selected to provide information about the bird, the environment, and the system. The sensing requirements specify position information, movement information, ambient solar power, temperature, and battery voltage. The selection of this receiver is based on multiple factors including power consumption, chip weight, antenna weight, size, channels, sensitivity, position accuracy, durability and time-to-rst-x. To characterize the bird movements and behaviors an HMC6343 solid-state compass, which includes a three dimensional accelerometer and magnetometer, and temperature sensor in a single package is selected. Environmental data is collected through the temperature sensor in the compass and through the solar panel. To infer the intensity of ambient light through the solar panel, the voltage and current are recorded from the panel. In addition to bird-specic and environmental data, information about the system performance is also desired.

15 Energy Harvesting and Power Control To maximize the lifetime of the device, a exible solar panel from Power Film is used to recharge a lithium polymer battery. The solar panel specication states it is capable of providing 50mA at 4.8V. A lithium polymer battery is used because its high energy density minimizes the weight of the device, while allowing it to run for extended periods when solar energy is not available. The voltage and current supplied by the solar panel is monitored and logged by the mote as well. The output from the charge management circuit is used to charge the battery. The separation of software from system control enables the system to recover from unforeseen software errors.

16 Crane Tracker Hardware and Software

17 Data Management Data is organized into sensor records. The records stored in ash are divided into compass and GPS records that are prexed with a common header. The stored data is organized into a FIFO circular queue that can hold up to 16, 912 records. In the event that the queue lls without data being transmitted, the oldest data in the system is overwritten rst. Enclosure Design To fulll the durability and environmental protection requirements, several harness and enclosure designs were evaluated. Based on the feedback from ecologists, a backpack approach is used. In addition, a backpack design has potential benets to system design since exposure to the sun and movement monitoring accuracy increases when compared to a leg band.

18 Fault Detection and Tolerance To maximize the chance of a missions success, the system must be fault tolerant. Additionally, the system software should undergo thorough testing and verication. The rst area of fault tolerance is in the communication scheme. The combination of GSM and short-range radio enables the tracker to continuing operating when one method is damaged or unable to communicate. Second, the GPS and compass can redundantly sense some of the information about the cranes, such as whether they are alive or dead. Finally, the hardware provides fault tolerance for the software. In cases where a software fault leaves the system in a high energy consumption state, the hardware is capable of removing power and rebooting the system after too much energy has been consumed.

19 Wild Sand hill Crane Deployments Five cranes from three families have participated in the experiments. The cranes are designated JB-Male and JB-Female; SH-Female and SH-Chick; and BB-Female. The two letter prex identies the cranes family, and the su x is the cranes gender.

20 EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION First this crane tracker is used on turkey hen. Control: A stationary control mote is placed in the open within 1 km of the hens habitat. This mote consists of the same hardware and software as attached to the captured turkey.

21 Captive Siberian Crane Experiments To evaluate the performance on a real crane in a semi controlled environment, the CraneTracker was tested in July 2011 with three captive Siberian Cranes: A. Wright, Bazov, and Hagrid. Lessons Learned: During the experiments at the site,heading, pitch, and roll were inconsistent even though component tests were successful in other locations. This erroneous behavior was conrmed with all compass units available as well as an alternate inertial measurement unit and a smartphone.

22 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK Developing and evaluating a tracking platform for Whooping Cranes, which present unique challenges in their mobility and extremely low population size. The developed cellular sensor network platform seeks to provide more detailed data on these birds behavior. CraneTrackers design aims to provide multi-modal sensing and multi- modal communication capabilities that allow reliable and time-critical monitoring on a continental scale. In the near future, the platform will be deployed on extended missions with captive-reared Whooping Cranes. Given successful eld tests, the devices can then be deployed to the Whooping Crane population. The collected data from the Whooping Cranes will be used to identify and protect critical habitat areas for this iconic bird species.

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