Presentation on theme: "RTU Conference 22nd November 2013"— Presentation transcript:
1 RTU Conference 22nd November 2013 ‘Optimising achievement through a whole school approach to Emotional Health and Wellbeing’SHAUNA CATHCART
2 An Introduction to the Framework Materials & RTU/PHA Pilot An introduction to the framework materials: ‘Optimising learning through a whole-school approach to EHWB and SEL’Slide Time Duration 1 minuteFacilitator Notes:Refer participants to the agenda (Handout 1) and draw attention the fact that this section introduces the framework materials.
3 Emotional Health and Wellbeing MAKING THE LINKS!Student Achievement&Emotional Health and WellbeingStudent achievement is our core business in schools.Student achievement is a reflection of academic success and personal wellbeing.Pupil academic success and personal wellbeing are synergistic and integrated There is also a dynamic symbiosis between teacher and student wellbeing. Fostering wellbeing for teachers helps them to support students
4 What is it, why do we need it and how do we do it? Optimising Learning through whole-school Emotional Health and Wellbeing (EHWB):What is it, why do we need it and how do we do it?PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE GROUP TWO TRAINING AND SUPPORT STRATEGYThe principles informing the approach taken by RTU in developing the capacity building materials emanated directly from Group two’s recommendations:The need for a whole school approachThe need for ‘informed support’ and on-going involvement from senior management (in particular from the School Principal)The need for all staff to have a shared understanding of why the school is promoting Emotional Health and Wellbeing (EHWB), what it is, how it works and potential benefits.The need for EHWB to be an integral part of school improvement and development planning.The need for EHWB to be given strategic significance , preferably at Senior Management level within the organisation and to link coherently with other cognate areas of the curriculum, e.g. Pastoral care, Personal Development and Mutual Understanding PDMU in Primary schools and Learning for Life and Work(LLW) in Secondary schools.The Co-ordinator or EHWB team /steering committee to be given the time, and a budget for ensuring that resources/capacity building are available to all staff.The need for an on-going programme of whole staff skill development and professional development in this area, driven as much by the school or across clusters of schools where possible.The need for parents and families to be made aware of the whole school approach to EHWB and to have opportunities to become involved at different levels
5 ‘Being mentally and emotionally healthy means that we believe in ourselves and know our own worth. We set ourselves goals that we can achieve and can find support to do this. We are aware of our emotions and what we are feeling and can understand why. We can cope with our changing emotions and we can speak about and manage our feelings. We understand what others may be feeling and know how to deal with their feelings. We also understand when to let go and not overreact. We know how to make friendships and relationships and how to cope with changes in them. We understand that everyone can be anxious, worried or sad sometimes. We know how to cope with, and bounce back from, changes or problems and can talk about them to someone wetrust’DE PEHAW WORKING GROUP
6 Children with good EHWB stand out: ‘Their ability to empathise, persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, make thoughtful decisions, solve problems, and work with others earns them friends and success. They tend to lead happier lives, with more satisfying relationships. At work, they are more productive, and they spur productivity in others. At school, they do better on standardized tests and help create a safe, comfortable atmosphere that makes it easier to learn’(Edutopia Staff Acessed 5th September 2010)
7 What’s EHWB got to do with education? Session 2: Slides – 12.00Slide: 28 Time: Duration: 1 minuteFacilitator Notes:Refer participants to the agenda (Handout 1) and draw attention the fact that this represents the second of four sessions, following on from the introductory activities and session 1, so far undertaken.
8 Why do we need to teach these skills Why do we need to teach these skills? 3 driving forces that won’t go away…Employers are looking for more than just technical skills and knowledge of a degree discipline. They particularly value skills such as communication, team working and problem solving. Job applicants who can demonstrate that they have developed these skills will have a real advantage. Digby Jones, Director-General, Confederation of British IndustryEmployers’ needsLinks between learning, attainment and social and emotional skillsDemands on young people in a changing societySlide: 29 Time : – Duration: 3 minutesKey Message: There are three key elements to the rationale for developing children and young people’s social and emotional learning.Facilitator Notes:Explain that it is important that we have a clear rationale for developing SEL, as it involves time, effort and resources that could be used in different ways.Explain that you are going to look at these three reasons for developing SEL in turn.
9 2012 (in partnership with PEARSON) 1. Employers’ needsCBI LEARNING TO GROWEDUCATION AND SKILLS SURVEY2012 (in partnership with PEARSON)Slide: 30 Time: Duration: 3 minutesKey Message: Employers are asking for key SEL skills.Facilitator Notes:Read out the CBI skills and make links to social and emotional skills. This survey was conducted with 542 employers, collectively employing 1.6 million people. Respondents came from all sizes, sectors and regions of UKMake the links to the secondary PSE curriculum: LLW. If pupils begin learning these skills in nursery and continue throughout their education, their LLW skills will be vastly enhanced.References CBI Learning to grow Education and skills survey 2012 (survey sponsered by Pearson)
10 How do EHWB and SEL link to other Educational agendas? Slide: 31 Time: – 3.10 Duration: 7 minutesAssociated Handout - Handout 6: EHWB- Making links to other Educational AgendasKey Message: Becoming an EHWB/SEL school brings together much of what we are already doing. It is not ‘one more thing’ to be done. Rather it is the tray that carries everything else.Facilitator Notes:Refer participants to the associated handout linking EHWB to other Key policy drivers in NI context.Read quote from Every School A Good School document (also on handout 6b) which states:Evidence suggests that schools are performing well invariable have a strong ethos and a positive, caring culture,one that drives and motivates not just staff and pupils but also parents and the wider community served by the school.The importance of having a culture of high aspiration and achievement, where every young person is cared for,supported and encouraged to reach his or her full potential and where progress and achievement is acknowledged andcelebrated cannot be overstated (p.19)Refer also to Chief Inspector’s report53. Effectively-focused and well-taught personal development programmes make an important contribution to thepositive mental well-being of learners. Such practice is a central feature of those organisations which provide very goodor outstanding care, guidance and support……Research indicates that effective programmes can have a demonstrableimpact on improving pupils’ emotional health and well-being and can lead to notable increases in individualeducational achievement.Allow participants time to read and briefly reflect on handouts which shows how EHWB is a key theme in NI Educational Policy.Draw attention to how the promotion of EHWB/SEL fulfils many of the inspection framework requirements, and will support a positive self-evaluation and inspection outcome. It also supports the new statutory development guidelines(2012) which require a statement and evaluation of the school ethos.ReferencesDepartment of Education Every School a good school A policy for school improvement AprilThe Education and Training Inspectorate Chief Inspector’s ReportDepartment of education School Development PlanningWE CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE
11 Improves Academic Outcomes 23% increase in skills9% improvement in attitudes about self, others and school9% improvement in pro-social behaviour9% reduction in problem behaviours10% reduction in emotional distress11% increase in standardised achievement test scores (maths and reading)Source: Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Taylor, R.D. & Dy mnicki, A.B. (submitted for publication). The effects of school based social and emotional learning: A meta-analytic review.Slide: Duration 2 minutesKey Message: There is a robust body of compelling evidence demonstrating that teaching these skills impacts positively on learning and attainment.Process Aspect: Establishing scientific validity.Facilitator Notes:Explain that you are not going to spend a long time on the evidence, but that it is important to be aware of this, as it positions SEL firmly at the centre of teaching and learning, rather than as an ‘optional extra’.It may be important to have an awareness of the key studies when talking to governors and parents etc.ReferencesBanerjee, R (2010). Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning in schools: Contributions to improving attainment, behaviour and attendance. National Strategies Tracker School Project, University of SussexCASEL: Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Taylor, R.D. & Dy mnicki, A.B. (submitted for publication). The effects of school based social and emotional learning: A meta-analytic review.Zins, J.E., Weissberg, R.P., Wang, M.C. & Walberg, H.J. (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? New York: Teachers College Press.
12 Why does EHWB impact on attainment? A positive, safe environment with nurturing affirming relationships is proven to promotes student motivation, engagement with learning and achievementMore teaching and learning time is available as behaviours that interfere with learning are decreased. (e.g. less peer disagreements/ reduced incidences of poorly managed anger)SEL skills are ‘gateway’ skills for learning:Promotes deeper understanding of subject matter(e.g. perspective-taking & problem solving)Helps students learn well with othersPromotes Increased responsibilityDevelops improved persistence & resilienceHelps students effectively manage feelings associated with learningDecrease behaviours that interfere with learning.Pupils are better able to manage the social and emotional aspects of cognitive tasksSlide: 33 Time: Duration: 3 minutesKey Message: EHWB (including skills of SEL) impact on learning and attainment for four reasons given on the slide.Facilitator Notes - In discussion with teachers using SEAL, they gave these reasons for why SEAL impacts on attainment:Remind participants of the importance of the positive, safe environment that is needed to learn (you might mention Maslow’s hierarchy again).Bullet points two and three are self-explanatory.Explain that you are going to undertake a short activity to demonstrate what is meant by ‘the social and emotional aspects of cognitive tasks’. You might like to ask participants what social or emotional aspects there would be to doing a simple sum or a spelling and record what they say, to refer back to after the activity.Reference:The discussions were held with teachers as part of the Masters Module in SEAL ( ) accredited by Northampton University and led by the SEAL Consultancy (12
14 Society has changed… Issues facing our young people : Drug culture Body image (media ‘role-models’)Choices around sexual behaviourObesity issuesSocial media and other technologiesOther?Slide: 39 Time: Duration: 3 minutesKey Message: There are many modern day issues that face our young people in our changing society.Facilitator Notes:Encourage participants to list all the pressures and issues facing young people, in addition to those listed.ReferencesYou might like to point participants in the direction of the publication, ‘Toxic Childhood: How The Modern World Is Damaging Our Children And What We Can Do About It’, by Sue Palmer, 2006.
15 What do we need to do to become a school that actively promotes EHWB? What works? Evidence based success factors:Support from PrincipalCritical mass of staff understanding/supporting rationale for undertaking the workClear, negotiated vision for what trying to achieveCareful strategic planning to build on what is already going on in the school and ’make it your own’Whole school approachStaff development and EHWBSlide: 44 Time: 1.54 – 1.58 Duration: 2 minutesKey Message: There are certain key factors that determine a school’s success in becoming an EHWB/SELFacilitator Notes:Explain that the framework is based on a robust body of evidence that identifies key success factors for initiatives/programmes aimed at promoting EHWB and SEL (see references below).Allow time for participants to read the success factors on the slide, and explain that the framework materials provide the information and tools to enable schools to adhere to these success factors.
16 The iceberg model ETHOS Explicit Programme for pupil skills and curriculum reinforcementTeacher skills (and ability to act as role models)ETHOSSlide: 11 Time: Duration: 1 minuteKey Message: We often make changes at the top of the iceberg (at the level of explicit programmes and practices), but the impact of these depends on ensuring that the ethos of the school supports the messages, and that teachers have the necessary skills and ‘walk the talk’.Facilitator Notes:Make the key point outlined above.Explain that the four components of EHWB address all these levels: the explicit teaching of social and emotional skills (Box 3: Green) and the reinforcement of these skills across the curriculum (Box 4:Orange) are at the top of the iceberg, while a positive ethos (Box 1: Red) underpins its success. Note also the importance of staff skills in developing pupil skills and their modelling of the skills, attributes and dispositions (Box 2: Purple).
17 Successful CHANGE: The four ingredients Vision+SkillsIncentivesResources=ChangeConfusionincentivesAnxietyResistanceFrustrationSlide: Duration: 5 minutesFacilitator Notes:To make change successful we need to have a shared vision, ensure that staff have the skills to implement it, that staff are aware of the benefits for staff, for students, for the school, and finally the resources they need to make it happen. If any of these are missing, staff responses are likely to be as indicated in the chart.The framework materials are based on this understanding and provide each ‘ingredient’ as follows:Vision (Part 2: Formulating a vision for EHWB/SEL).Skills (Part 3: Staff development and EHWB)Incentives (Part 2: Delivering staff awareness training provides the ‘rationale’ and key outcomes for teachers, pupils and schools).Resources (The framework provides a structure and helpful resources for the process)ReferencesThe chart is adapted by Richard Vila, Bayridge Consortium Inc. from for Knoster, T. (1991)Adapted by Richard Vila, Bayridge Consortium Inc. from for Knoster, T. (1991)
18 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Slide: Duration: 2 minutesAssociated Handouts/resources: Handout 3 : Fostering EHWB within the school setting*Key Message: When thinking about the school environment schools need to consider the range of needs that contribute to an overall sense of pupil wellbeing and how these can be provided for..hildren can only engage sucessfully in learning when their important needs are met.Facilitator Notes:Talk about the importance of the school environment in meeting children’s needs.Make reference to Maslow’s hierarchy above to reinforce the importance of the environment meeting our basic needs to be safe, warm, fed, hydrated etc. Only when the lower needs are satisfied is it possible for someone to operate at the higher level of self-actualisation.. In a school environment his means that a child is unlikely to be able to learn effectively if the basic needs for safety, belonging and self-esteem are not met.Summarise above - to support the EHWB of the school community the environment should promote:Our sense of belonging (welcoming posters, explicit team building games etc., buddies)Our sense of being valued and cared for (displays, personal knowledge about us by teacher, celebration of birthday etc.)Our sense of emotional safety (that people won’t laugh at us if we get things wrong etc.)Refer to handout 3 to show how schools might meet range of needs (Explain thatthis very important area will be developed further in Staff awareness session)References* Extract from Key Stage 3 National Strategy Developing emotional health and wellbeing: a whole-school approach to behaviour and attendance-Behaviour and attendance training materials –Guidance for senior teachers to support the use and implementation of the training materials Core day 4. Department for education and skills.
19 The Change Curve Emotional Response T i m e Resistance Adjustment DiscoveryLoss of ControlShockEmotional ResponseExplorationSlide: Duration:Facilitator Notes:Explain to participants that perpetual change is the norm.Most people are experiencing multiple change cycles, personally and professionally and just as they start to adjust to one change another often occurs so the “goalposts” are constantly shifting.The change curve on the slide explains the emotional side of change and the stages individuals may go through as they negotiate a change (this is likened to the stages one goes through as they adjust to the grieving process)A school’s success in any change process depends on their ability to manage and support staff through the change process. The emotional side or human side of change is often overlooked.Interestingly on first half of curve people look back and on the second half of curve people look forward.Entering change people need information; on downslope they need support; on upslope they need encouragement as they adjust they need reward & recognition.Managers and their staff may be at different points on the curve for the same change.WorriedLow MoraleT i m ebased on work by Kubler-Ross33
20 An Introduction to the Framework Materials An introduction to the framework materials: ‘Optimising learning through a whole-school approach to EHWB and SEL’Slide Time Duration 1 minuteFacilitator Notes:Refer participants to the agenda (Handout 1) and draw attention the fact that this section introduces the framework materials.
21 What promotes EHWB in schools? A four-part model for promoting EHWB in schoolsA whole-school approach to helping children achieve EHWB, including the ability to develop the social, emotional and behavioural skills that underpineffective learningpositive behaviourgood relationshipsemployabilitysuccess in its broadest sense.A Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentStaff EHWB and Role-modellingA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Reinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumSlide: Duration: 3 minutesKey Message: EHWB has to be a whole school effort – it is not a ‘bolt-on extra’ but fundamental to learning and achievement.Facilitator Notes:Point out that EHWB has a number of components, which will be flagged up and briefly illustrated one by one. Each element will be explored in more detail through further training.Explain that the four components of EHWB are: a positive ethos (Box 1: Red); staff EHWB and role modelling of the skills (Box 2: Purple); the explicit teaching of social and emotional skills (Box 3: Green); the reinforcement of these skills across the curriculum (Box 4: Orange). Stress that if we are expecting staff to model the skills and behaviours that they would like pupils to develop, we need to ensure that an appropriate staff professional development in this area is in place, as well as attending to staff’s own EHWB.Emphasise that each of these elements is necessary to achieve a whole school approach to EHWB.A key point is that EHWB and social and emotional skills are CENTRAL to the teaching and learning agenda – they underpin effective learning and achievement. Explain that this will be demonstrated later in the course.
22 Element 1: A positive ethos Key characteristics of a Positive EthosRelationshipsLanguageEnvironmentPhysicalSocialEmotionalStaff EHWB and Role-modellingA Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Reinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumSlide: Time Duration:1 minuteKey Message: A positive Ethos is a key component of a school that promotes EHWBFacilitator Notes:1.Refer participants to the four-part model and explain that you will be looking at each one individually.2. Beginning with component one-’A positive Ethos’ we can see that this is made up of three keyareas-Relationships, Language and environment.These will be looked at individually and elaborated on in Building whole school and classroom ethos module.
23 Element 2: Staff modelling ‘Staff EHWB and Role-modellingA Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentThe way (children) are treated and the examples they are set by their peers and by adults (are) almost certainly the strongest influences on how they will treat others, their environment, and develop respect for themselves.Sir Jim Rose, CBEA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Reinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumSlide: 18 Duration: 2 minutesKey Messages: The adults that children come across in school are the most important part of the environment (and so get their own section!). Staff need to model the skills and behaviours that they want children and young people to develop. We need to ‘walk the talk’.Facilitator Notes:Explain that for some pupils, school staff will provide the only models of emotionally literate behaviour that children and young people will come across.Staff are the most important resource in the school and the most impotant ‘environmental’ influence in the school.‘Modelling’ doesn’t mean always behaving in a perfect way – it might mean apologising when we have lost our temper, acknowledging our own strengths and areas for development, or explaining that we can feel ourselves becoming angry and voicing our strategies for dealing with that.ReferencesThe quotation on the slide comes from the final report by Sir Jim Rose CBE, 2009, The Review of the National Curriculum
24 Staff cannot be role models unless their own EHWB is attended to and their own social and emotional skills developedSlide: 21 Duration: 7 minutesKey Message: Staff need to model the skills and behaviours that they want children and young people to develop, but if their own EHWB at work is neglected, or if they have no training, they are unlikely to be able to do this successfully.Facilitator Notes:Ask participants how well developed they regard their own and other staff’s social and emotional skills to be?Point out that very few practitioners in education had the benefit of learning these skills at school – we have tended to ‘osmose’ them, and staff in schools will have different levels of skill in this area.It is crucially important that staff are offered opportunities to develop their own skills in this area.Explain that our ability to use our skills of SEL (and teach them to students) will also be affected by our own levels of EHWB.Tell participants that further materials are provided in the framework documment to enable schools to develop staff skills and EHWB.
25 ELEMENT 3: An explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL) The evidence demonstrates that the skills of SEL will not be simply ‘caught’. They need to be explicitly taught through a structured and progressive curriculumWhat are the key areas of social and emotional learning? One model:Self awareness and self-valuingManaging our feelingsMotivationEmpathySocial skills(within each area , there are a number of sub-skills)A Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentStaff EHWB and Role-modellingReinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Slide: Duration: 4 minutesAssociated Handouts/resources:Handout 4A : Primary Learning Outcomes from the SEAL ProgrammeHandout 4B :Secondary Learning otcomes from the SEAL ProgrammeKey Message: SEL needs to be explicitly taught. It will not be ‘caught’ in the absence of explicit teaching.Facilitator Notes:There are many different frameworks for understanding the various domains of social and emotional learning. This one comes from Goleman (1996) who built on the work by Howard Gardner who established the theory of ‘Multiple Intelligences’. Two of Gardner’s categories were ‘interpersonal’ and ‘intrapersonal’ intelligence. Goleman took these two categories and expanded them into the list on the slide (with the first three domains representing ‘intrapersonal’ skills and the final two ‘interpersonal’ skills).Give out handouts 4A &/or 4B as appropriate : Primary /Secondary Learning Outomes for the SEAL Programme and allow participants glance through them.References: Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. New York:Bantam Books.
26 Element 4: Reinforcement Isn’t it enough to just teach the skills?If you are wearing a watch, take it off and place it on the other wrist…..A Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentStaff EHWB and Role-modellingA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Reinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumSlide: Duration: 5 minutesKey Message: Cognitively ‘knowing’ is not enough, we need to put the knowledge into practice for it to be useful. Many repetitions are needed of any behaviour before it becomes established as a ‘default’ position.Process Aspect: Interactive, experiential activityFacilitator Notes:Ask participants whether they believe that a one-off lesson on ‘healthy eating’ changes children’s (or adults’) eating patterns? Explain that while, following a lesson on healthy eating, someone might be able to tell you what they should eat, all the research suggests that this does not necessarily impact on behaviour. Cognitive ‘knowing’ is not enough.The aim of SEL is not that children and young people ‘know’ for example, that when angry, counting to 10 can calm you down, but that they actually DO IT in situations in which they are angry.For behaviour change to come about, there have to be four elements :KnowledgeSkillAttitude (and motivation)Practice (behaviour)You might compare this to learning to drive, to type, to playing an instrument etc.Explain that neuroscience has recently offered an insight into how we actually learn to behave differently. You are going to offer a ‘lay-person’s guide to the neuroscience of behaviour change’!Ask participants to take their watch off and place it on the other wrist. Explain that the reason will become clear.
27 The neuroscience of Behaviour change Slide: Duration: 10 minutesAssociated Handouts/resources: Handout 5: The neuroscience of learning new ways of behavingKey Message: Many repetitions are necessary to establish new ways of behavingProcess Aspect: Opportunity to link learning to their own experiencesPreparation needed: Familiarity with the content of Handout 5.Facilitator Notes:Give out Handout 5 and read through it with the group, explaining key points as necessary.Ask participants to share their own experiences (e.g. of the pupil who has a fantastic ‘anger management’ session and then goes out and gets into trouble immediately for losing his temper, or of saying to a pupil, ‘but we’d just TALKED about that’.
28 An Introduction to the Framework Materials An introduction to the framework materials: ‘Optimising learning through a whole-school approach to EHWB and SEL’Slide Time Duration 1 minuteFacilitator Notes:Refer participants to the agenda (Handout 1) and draw attention the fact that this section introduces the framework materials.
29 What will we be doing? An introduction to The Framework and materials It can be helpful to think of change as happening in phasesPre-commitment/ awareness (Phase 1)Innovation (Phase 2)Implementation (Phase 3)Institutionalisation (Phase 4)Slide: 46 Time: 1.58 – 2.00 Duration: 2 minutesAssociated Handouts/resources: Hard copy of framework materials for each school.Preparation: Ensure that you are familiar with every aspect of the framework, in order to answer any questions that arise.Facilitator Notes:Explain that the materials are in 4 parts and that you will be going through each of them.Tell participants that the next few slides detail the suggested process for becoming an EHWB/SEL promoting school, and will outline the materials available to support schools at each step of the process.It might be useful to share with participants the fact that Michael Fullen (see references) suggests that it takes 3-5 years for a change to become ‘institutionalisedReferences:ReferencesFullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change 4th edition. New York: Teachers College Press.
31 The Framework: Phase 2 Slide: 48 Time: 2.05 – 2.10 Duration: 5 minutes Associated Handouts/resources: Hard copy of framework materials for each school.Facilitator Notes:Talk through the key steps at Phase 2 and list the materials available to support schools at this stage
32 The Framework: Phase 3 Slide: 49 Time: 2.10 – 2.15 Duration: 5 minutes Associated Handouts/resources: Hard copy of framework materials for each school.Facilitator Notes:Talk through the key steps at Phase 3 and list the materials available to support schools at this stage
33 The Framework: Phase 4 Slide: 50 Time: 2.15 – 2.20 Duration: 5 minutes Associated Handouts/resources: Hard copy of framework materials for each school.Facilitator Notes:Talk through the key steps at Phase $ and list the materials available to support schools at this stage
34 Developing a whole-school and classroom ETHOS To promote EHWB and SEL Introduction: Slides 1Resources: Flip chart and pensList of Handouts
35 What promotes EHWB in schools? A four-part model for promoting EHWB in schoolsA whole-school approach to helping children achieve EHWB and develop SEL includes four elements. The focus today is:A Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentStaff EHWB and Role-modellingA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Reinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumSlide: 3 Duration: 3 minutesKey Message:EHWB has to be a whole school effort – it is not a ‘bolt-on extra’ but fundamental to learning and achievement.Facilitator Notes:Point out that EHWB has a number of components, which will be flagged up and briefly illustrated one by one. Each element will be explored in more detail through further training.Explain that the four components of EHWB are: A positive ethos (Box 1: Red): Staff EHWB and Role-modelling (Box 2 : Purple): The explicit teaching of social and emotional skills (Box 3: Green) and the reinforcement of these skills across the curriculum (Box 4: Orange) Note that if we are expecting staff to model the skills and behaviours that they would like pupils to develop, we need to ensure that an appropriate staff professional development in this area is in place, as well as attending to staff’s own EHWB.Emphasise that each of these elements is necessary to achieve a whole school approach to EHWB.A key point is that EHWB and social and emotional skills are CENTRAL to the teaching and learning agenda – they underpin effective learning and achievement. Explain that this will be demonstrated later in the course.
36 The importance of ethos They will forget what you saidThey will forget what you didBut they will never forget the way that you made them feel(Maya Angelou)Slide: 6 Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Offer participants two minutes to reflect on this famous quotation. Ask them to think about how true it is for them.Ask participants to think of the best teacher they had at schoolWhat was it that made them so special?Were they special to others too?How did they make you feel.Did you work hard for them?
37 Ethos and learning If we are feeling Cross Frustrated Scared Anxious StressedEmbarrassedPre-occupiedor if we do not feel emotionally safe…it is difficult to:Pay careful attentionFocus and concentrateGenerate creative ideasWork well in a groupBe motivatedOvercome difficultiesTake a riskKeep going, despitefrustrationBounce back after asetbackRemember learningSlide: Duration: 3 minsFacilitator Notes:Give participants time to read through the slide, then point out that the list on the right-hand side represents what we have to do to be able to learn effectively.Ask participants to consider times when they have felt the feelings on the left hand side and consequently been unable to take in information or learn effectively. You might offer some examples – you arrive at a training day after a row with your partner or children; you have experienced ‘road-rage’ on the way to the course; you have are concerned that you might get a parking ticket while you are in the session.
38 Ideal states for learning… Working memory is disrupted by ‘neural static’. It has a finite capacity and if concerned with processing strong emotions, it cannot be freed up to deal with other cognitive information.Slide: Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Offer participants a moment or two to read the information on the slide.Explain that ‘neural static’ means the background processing that is going on, e.g. worrying about the parking ticket, or thinking revengeful thoughts about the person who cut you up on the road, or being anxious about what people will think of you. A good example is to ask participants if they have ever been introduced to a small group of people upon arriving at a party. How many names could they remember directly afterwards? This is an example of ‘neural static’ in action. Relate this to the ‘state’ that children might be in within the classroom, if they are worried about being bullied at playtime, or concerned about a parent at home, or feel frightened of the teacher…ReferencesDaniel Goleman (1996) Emotional Intelligence Bantham books, New YorkOf all the keys to effective learning that research throws up, it is the ‘state’ that we are in when we learn which comes through time and time again as the single most important factor in the learning process.
39 Ideal states for learning… Extreme stress inhibits learning as stress chemical paralyses areas of learning and cortical processing slows down.Mild to moderate amounts stimulate more brain activity and production of more connections in area of learning.Slide: 11 Duration: 3 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain the importance of ‘state’ in learning. It is influenced by stress as detailed on the slide. In learning, we are aiming for the optimum amount of stress.Talk through the diagram which shows that when firmly within our comfort zone (no or little stress) we do not perform at our best, and similarly, when we experience too much stress our performance deteriorates (remind participants of the ‘introduction at a party’ scenario). We are aiming for a comfortable level of challenge.Ask participants to consider the stress levels within their classrooms following this training session. What might be causing pupils stress? Do they need to return to their comfort zone on occasions?ReferencesThe Yerkes–Dodson law is the relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in The law dictates that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point. When levels of arousal become too high, performance decreases. The process is often illustrated graphically as a curvilinear, inverted U-shaped curve which increases and then decreases with higher levels of arousal.
40 DVD Teacher losing It Slide: 21 Duration: 15 minutes Associated Handouts/resources: Handout 6Facilitator Notes:Show the DVD clipGive out handout 6 –James-The Hidden story which outlines the background to James circumstances. Ask participants to read it and feedback their thoughts.(5 mins)Discuss how the teacher could have used the skills listed on the left to avoid the loss of control shown in the DVD clip(take general feedback from group) (3mins)
41 What do we see in a learning environment with a positive ethos? Students (or adults):Being willing to take a risk and showing that they are not fearful of getting things wrongTalking openly and honestlyNot being afraid to disagree with the prevailing consensusBeing able to ask for helpBeing able to share their own personal experiences, vulnerabilities and strengthsBeing able to compliment and support others within the classAsking their own questionsTaking responsibility (and credit) for their learningSlide: 12 Duration: 4 minsFacilitator Notes:Give participants time to consider this list of behaviours that we observe when there is a positive ethos in a learning situation.Ask participants to consider (or share briefly with a partner) a time when they have, or haven’t demonstrated these behaviours themselves within a learning environment.Suggest that participants observe the behaviours of students within their own, or colleagues’ classrooms. What does this tell them about the ethos?
42 Building a Positive Ethos How invitational is your school?– The LadderLevels of FunctioningFrom least to most desirable, the levels of functioning are:Level One: Intentionally DisinvitingLevel Two: Unintentionally DisinvitingLevel Three: Unintentionally InvitingLevel Four: Intentionally InvitingIt is the typical level of functioning that indicates the person’s and organization’s atmosphere(Fundamentals of Invitational Education Purkey & Novak 2008)Slide: 13 Duration: 3 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that Purkey & Novak (in their work on Invitational Education) have proposed a model to categorize the signal systems found in ever school to build or destroy school ethos. The signals given out by schools can be positive or negative, intentional or unintentional. Every person and every school occasionally sends messages in each of the four levels. Described as ‘The Ladder’ this model serves as a reminder of the need for ethos to be deliberately and explicitly worked on rather than left to chance.References: Purkey & Novak ((2008) Fundamentals of Invitational Education The International Alliance for Invitational Education, Kennesaw
43 Four Types of Inviting Stances Intentionally DisinvitingA negative and toxic attitude designed to demean, defeat, disheartenIntentionally InvitingSeeking consistently to enact the principles of Invitational Education(helping with care and respect)Unintentionally DisinvitingAccidental discouragement and undermining of othersUnintentionally InvitingAccidental encouragement and supportSlide 14: Duration: 5minsFacilitator Notes:Explain four types of inviting stances asking participants for concrete examples of each.Remind participants of the activity they did in relation to their own school’s ethos. Which category do participants consider their own school to fall into.Reinforce the importance of ethos being deliberate and explicit – if it depends on the ‘whim’ of a key player within the school, this could change easily. It needs to be embedded in the school mission statement/vision, policies and practices.References: Purkey & Novak ((2008) Fundamentals of Invitational Education The International Alliance for Invitational Education, Kennesaw
44 A Positive Ethos The Key Elements of building a positive school ethos RelationshipsLanguageEnvironmentSlide: 15 Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Refer participants to the objectives outlined and draw attention the fact that this represents the second of the two main sessions which looks a little closer at the school ethos and the important key elements - Relationships, Language and Environment.Having established that a positive ethos optimizes learning, this section focuses on what we do already to promote a positive ethos (looking at the three key elements in turn) and what we can do to make it better – ensuring that the school is ‘intentionally inviting’.
45 (Cornelius-White(2007;Hatie 2009;Rowe 2001) The importance of relationships (feelings of belonging, connection and being valued)The quality of teacher-student relationship has been shown to be one of the most significant factors influencing student-learning outcomes(Cornelius-White(2007;Hatie 2009;Rowe 2001)Slide: 16 Time: Duration: 5 minsFacilitator Notes:Ask Participants to consider the quote on the slide. What are their initial thoughts?References:Sue Roffey (Ed)(2013) Positive Rlationships Springer, New York
47 Slide: 18 Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Refer to a quote by Sir John Jones ‘The Magic Weaving Business’ which states ‘The good news is the teacher makes the difference but the bad news is the teacher makes a difference’ (p96)Ask Participants to read the slide in light of this quote. Invite any participant feedbackAsk participants to think about how they would like to be remembered by their students in 30 years when the content of lessons are long leftbehind?References:Sir John Jones(2009) The Magic Weaving Business Leannta Publishing, LondonHaim G. Ginott, Alice Ginott and H. Wallace Goddard (30 Jan 2004) Between parent and child , Three Rivers Press, New York
48 ’Positive Relationships’ The importance of relationshipsHigh-quality relationships are characterised by:INVOLVEMENTEMOTIONAL SAFETYWARMTHCLOSENESSTRUSTRESPECTCARESUPPORTSue Roffey (2013)’Positive Relationships’Slide: 19 Duration: 20 minsProcess Aspect: Engaging heart as well as head – making the idea of good relationships concrete.Associated Handouts: Handout 2 - Sir John Jones Case-Study - Extract from ‘The Magic Weaving Business’Facilitator Notes:Refer to slide and list the characteristics of High-Quality RelationshipsExplain to participants that they are going to look at a Case-study that explores the quality of teacher-student relationships.Ask participants to work in two’s and discuss their initial responses to the case study. Were the characteristics delineated on the slide absent or present ?References:Sue Roffey(Ed)(2013) Positive Relationships Springer, New YorkSir John Jones(2009) The Magic Weaving Business Leannta Publishing, London
50 A key feature of Ethos: The language we use John Smyth you are just so unbelievably rude. Don’t you dare do that again in my classWhat is wrong with the language the teacher is using?What might the impact of the teacher’s words be on the pupil?Slide: 21 Time: Duration: 10 minsAssociated Handouts: Handout 3: Neural changes in the brain from angry, fearful or negative wordsFacilitator Notes:Ask participants to consider the two questions on the slide. You might like to ask them to imagine how they would feel and act if they were being spoken to in this way in front of colleagues. Take some feedback.Give out the Handout 3: Neural changes in the brain from angry, fearful or negative words. Explain that there had been significant research done in recent decades on the brain and how it works. Ask participants to read the contents and feedback to the group. Can they remember a time when an angry or hurtful word had a negative impact on them.References:Newberg & Waldman (2012)Words can change your brain , Hudson Street Press
51 THREE things we can do differently John Smyth you are just so unbelievably rude. Don’t you dare do that again in my classRelate correction or criticism to the behaviour, not the personUse I-messages (‘magic messages’)Use positive phrasing instead of negativeSlide: 22 Time: Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Compare the teacher’s response to the three suggestions on the slide.Explain each point, ensuring that participants understand them, e.g.‘That wasn’t a clever thing to do John ’ is less personally threatening than an attack on the person, ‘John Smyth You are just so unbelievably rude’. When faced with an attack on ourselves, we tend to become very defensive/aggressive.Instead of ‘You are just so unbelievably rude ’, the teacher could have used an ‘I-message’ (the next slide explains these). Again, sentences that begin with ‘You…’ and a criticism are likely to result in a defensive/aggressive response.The third bullet point makes the point that a negative message doesn’t give the listener any idea about what they should be doing! It is therefore unhelpful as well as provocative. Explain that this will be further explored in the subsequent slides.References:
52 I-messages You are always late – it is so annoying It’s a waste of time coming if you never do your homeworkYou are deliberately making it impossible for me to teachWhy can’t you ever remember your kit?Don’t accuse! Use magic messagesSlide: 23 Time: Duration: 5 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that ‘I-messages’ are a common strategy in conflict resolution and assertiveness (children are taught to use them in many SEL programmes). The aim is to include the feelings that you have when somebody does something that is not helpful, rather than just state what they have done wrong. By starting with the word ‘I’, the defensiveness/aggressiveness that ‘you’ messages can provoke is avoided.Go through the three steps on the slide. Sometimes a fourth step is added, ‘what I would like is….’, which gives the other person an idea of what they should be doing.Explain that it takes time to master the ‘I-message’ but that it does pay off. It is not only helpful with pupils, but also with partners, friends etc. They are also almost impossible to shout as you need to think through what you are going to say!You might like to practice a couple of ‘I-messages’ using the negative statements on the right-hand side of the slide. For example, for the first one, the ‘I-message’ might be: ‘I feel annoyed when you come late to the lesson, because it interrupts everybody’s learning’.References:Thomas Gordon coined the term "I message" in the 1960s while doing play therapy with children. He added the concept to his book for parents, P.E.T.: Parent Effectiveness Training (1970).
53 Positive phrasingDon’t speak to me like that!Why are you dropping litter?You’ve left your equipment out again!How dare you argue with me!Stop pushing into the queueYou shouldn’t be in hereYou are really annoying me by interruptingWhat do you think you’re doing?Please put that away and get started on the activity, thank-you.Wait your turn in the queue, thanksSam, litter in the bin, thanksPlease speak to me politely, as I do to you, thank youPut your equipment away, thank youWhere should you be right now?I understand you’re upset, but I need you to listen to me, thanksPlease wait your turn to speakSlide: 24 Time: Duration: 4 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that it is often natural to phrase an instruction or a reprimand negatively (like the examples on the left). However, this has been compared to a game of hide and seek, where the person doing the ‘seeking’ (for the ‘right’ behaviour), has to find out the correct way by trial and error (warmer, colder etc.). By phrasing instructions or reprimands positively, we are more likely to get the response that we are after.Ask participants to match up the positive and negative statements on each side of the slide.Following this session, participants might like to monitor their own or a colleague’s language for positive/negative statements, and make changes accordingly. School signs and rules could also be subjected to this analysis (‘Walk on the right’ rather than ‘Don’t run in the corridor’).
55 Physical Emotional Social Environment Element 3: Environment There is no such thing as a neutral‘Everybody and everything around the school adds or subtracts from, the process of being a beneficial presence in the lives of human beings, personally and professionally’(Fundamentals of Invitational Education Purkey & Novak 2008)Slide: 27 Time: Duration: 1 minKey Message: The physical, emotional and social environment can promote or inhibit EHWB.Facilitator Notes:Ask participants to reflect on the slide. Do they agree?Tell participants that in the next slides they are going to examine some ways to deliberately and purposefully create an environment that adds rather than subtracts from EHWB.References: Purkey & Novak ((2008) Fundamentals of Invitational Education The International Alliance for Invitational Education, Kennesaw
56 The Physical Environment SocialEmotionalWelcoming noticesDisplays celebrating individuals, encouraging a sense of belongingSafe places in playgroundBuddy stopsMaking-up cornersPlayground games and equipmentSlide: 28 Time: Duration: 3 minsFacilitator Notes:Ask participants to consider the physical environment of their own school, and to compare what they do with the list of ideas on the slide.Ask participants to add any ideas that they have for their own school and note these down to give to the EHWB /SEL group for consideration if appropriate after the session.Nb. ‘Making-up’ corners are spaces where children can go to sort out arguments (when they are calm). In the U.K SEAL materials, children are taught a process for making up and a poster is displayed in the classroom (see next slide).
57 The Social Environment PhysicalSocialEmotionalQuality of relationshipsExplicit activities to help pupils to get to know and trust each other (E.g. clubs, SEL activities)Celebration of pro-social behaviours and attitudesWhole-school events (assemblies) and fostering of school as a communitySlide: 30 Duration: 5 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that the social environment includes the relationships between adults and students, students and students and adults and adults, but is more than this.The social environment will be explicitly fostered in schools with a positive ethos. This might be through games and activities that help children to get to know each other. Many SEL programmes provide resources to aid this process. Schools will also celebrate pro-social behaviours and attitudes (e.g. giving certificates for helping others, or making people feel welcome in ‘reward’ assemblies) as well as celebrating academic achievement and effort.A key aspect of the social environment is the extent to which each student (and adult) feels that they belong (that they are connected) to the school community.If there is time, you could ask participants what they do, or could do in their own school to foster the social environment. These ideas could be recorded and passed on to the EHWB/SEL group for follow-up if appropriate.
58 The Emotional Environment PhysicalSocialEmotionalThe three key areas:Need to be safeNeed to belongSlide: 31 Duration: 1 minKey Message: The physical, emotional and social environment can promote or inhibit EHWB.Facilitator Notes:Remind participants that you have already looked at two aspects of the environment i.e. the physical and the social environment.Explain that you are going to reflect on the importance of the emotional environment in establishing a positive ethos.Explain that there are three key criteria for a positive emotional environment. We need to feel safe, to feel that we belong and to feel that we are valued. Tell participants that the next few slides explore some ways to meet these criteria.Need to feel valued
59 The Emotional Environment Slide: 33 Duration: 1 minFacilitator Notes:Explain that while we are very skilled generally in schools now in ensuring students’ physical safety, emotional safety is less well entrenched2. Explain that it is vitally important to a pupil’s emotional development and growing self-esteem and confidence that they have securerelationships with peers and adults in a positively affirming environment. They need to be able to feel relaxed and free from anxiety if they areto learn and take risks.
60 When our emotional involvement is low our rational perspective is high When our emotional involvement is low our rational perspective is high. Conversely, when the emotional involvement is high our rational perspective is lowPaul Mc Gee (2011)HighSlide: 33 Duration: 3 minsAssociated Handouts/Resource Sheet Handout 5 : Positive and Negative emotions in the classroom.Facilitator Notes:Explain that recent advance in neuroscience (Goleman) have shown that distress kills learning. When children do not have strategies for decreasing high anxiety or the classroom environment creates anxiety, less attention is available to them to learn, solve problems, and grasp new ideas. A relaxed and positive state triggers neurochemical chemical changes conducive to learning.(Geake 2006;Geake & Cooper 2003 in Cefai & Cooper (2009:17) Freeing a child’s mind from distress puts him/her in the best zone for learning. Give out a copy of Handout 4 that gives information on the effects of positive and negative emotions on learning and wellbeing.References:Mc Gee, Paul(2011) S.U.M.O. (shut up, move on) ,Capstone, West Sussex, UKCefai & Cooper (2009) Promoting Emotional Education, Jessica Kingsley PublishersGoleman (2006) Emotional Intelligence, Bantham Publishing.LowHigh
61 The Emotional Environment : The need to feel safe A positively affirming classroom environmentA class charter with agreed rules based on an understanding of rights and responsibilities.Consistent use and reinforcement of rulesUnderstanding of sanctions and rewards and behaviours that earn themEffective anti-bullying measuresClear routines and rituals!Slide: 34 Time: Duration: 3 minsFacilitator Notes:Go through the list on the right hand side of the slide, describing some of the things we can do to help students to feel emotionally safe in school.Ask participants for other measures that might be adopted to ensure pupils feel emotionally safe. Participants will get a chance to record these later for SEL/EHWB team.
62 The need to belong…Actively building in opportunities to get to know and work with everyone in the groupActively building trust and group cohesivenessSlide: 35 Time: Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that the need to belong, to be connected to other people, is a fundamental human need.Explain that feeling a sense of ‘belonging’ and ‘connectedness’ to school is critical to EHWB and often left to chance. There is strong research that backs this up:Feelings of ‘isolation, and being on the ‘outside’ is a significant factor that contributes to suicide in young males and femalesSchool connectedness was found to be the strongest protective factor for both boys and girls to decrease substance use, schoolAbsenteeism, early sexual initiation, violence, and risk of unintentional injury (e.g., drinking and driving, not wearing seat belts).School connectedness was second in importance, after family connectedness, as a protective factor against emotional distress, disordered eating, and suicidal ideation and attempts.Research has also demonstrated a strong relationship between school connectedness and educational outcomes, including school attendance; staying in school longer; and higher grades and classroom test scores. In turn, students who do well academically are less likely to engage in risky behaviors.References: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School Connectedness: Strategies for Increasing Protective Factors Among Youth. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2009.
63 Some ideas for activities to promote a sense of belonging Class charters Circle Games Paper-Chains with each person’s name on Birthday celebrations Welcome packs Secret friends Name Games Quizzes Group challenges Home group flags jigsaw pictures Calming down posters Welcome PPT Presentations Songs – ‘Consider Yourself’Slide: 36 Time: Duration: 3 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that the ideas for activities to promote a sense of belonging are taken from the ‘SEAL’ programme.Participants may like to consider in pairs what they do already in school or could do to help students (and staff) to feel that they belong. They will get a chance to record these for SEL/EHWB team later.Many SEL programmes include such activities.
64 The need to feel valued… Relationships - Finding out about students and celebrating their strengths and talentsPupil voice and input (I can make a difference)Establishing a ‘put-up’ not a ‘put-down’ ethos (praise!)Positive languageSlide: 38 Time: Duration: 2 minsFacilitator Notes:Explain that the third criteria for an emotionally healthy environment is ‘the need to feel valued’.Some ideas for ensuring that students feel valued are listed on the slide (including positive relationships and language which have been discussed previously).Ask participants to consider what they do/could do to ensure students feel valued .Explain that they will an opportunity to record these for the SEL/EHWB team later.
65 IN SUMMARY What promotes EHWB in schools? A four-part model for promoting EHWB in schoolsA whole-school approach to helping children achieve EHWB, underpinseffective learningpositive behaviourgood relationshipsemployabilitysuccess in its broadest sense.A Positive Ethos – Relationships, Language & EnvironmentStaff EHWB and Role-modellingA structured & progressive explicit curriculum to teach the skills of social and emotional learning (SEL)Reinforcing the SEL skills across the curriculumSlide: Duration: 3 minutesKey Message: EHWB has to be a whole school effort – it is not a ‘bolt-on extra’ but fundamental to learning and achievement.Facilitator Notes:Point out that EHWB has a number of components, which will be flagged up and briefly illustrated one by one. Each element will be explored in more detail through further training.Explain that the four components of EHWB are: a positive ethos (Box 1: Red); staff EHWB and role modelling of the skills (Box 2: Purple); the explicit teaching of social and emotional skills (Box 3: Green); the reinforcement of these skills across the curriculum (Box 4: Orange). Stress that if we are expecting staff to model the skills and behaviours that they would like pupils to develop, we need to ensure that an appropriate staff professional development in this area is in place, as well as attending to staff’s own EHWB.Emphasise that each of these elements is necessary to achieve a whole school approach to EHWB.A key point is that EHWB and social and emotional skills are CENTRAL to the teaching and learning agenda – they underpin effective learning and achievement. Explain that this will be demonstrated later in the course.
66 The iceberg model ETHOS Explicit Programme for pupil skills and curriculum reinforcementTeacher skills (and ability to act as role models)ETHOSSlide: 11 Time: Duration: 1 minuteKey Message: We often make changes at the top of the iceberg (at the level of explicit programmes and practices), but the impact of these depends on ensuring that the ethos of the school supports the messages, and that teachers have the necessary skills and ‘walk the talk’.Facilitator Notes:Make the key point outlined above.Explain that the four components of EHWB address all these levels: the explicit teaching of social and emotional skills (Box 3: Green) and the reinforcement of these skills across the curriculum (Box 4:Orange) are at the top of the iceberg, while a positive ethos (Box 1: Red) underpins its success. Note also the importance of staff skills in developing pupil skills and their modelling of the skills, attributes and dispositions (Box 2: Purple).
67 EHWB REALLY MATTERSOptimising Learning through a whole-school Emotional Health and Wellbeing (EHWB):Slide Duration 1 minuteIntroduction & WelcomeYou will need the following resourcesFlip chart and pensList of Associated handoutsHandouts
68 Thank-youThey will forget what you said They will forget what you did But they will never forget the way that you made them feelSlide: 43 Duration: 3 minsProcess Aspect: ClosureAssociated Handouts/Resource Sheet : EvaluationFacilitator Notes:Thank participants for attending the session.Ask them to complete the evaluation. Explain that as this is a session about the impact of various factors on ethos, they will be asked to comment on how well the ethos of the training session facilitated or hindered their learning (as well as on how well the objectives were achieved).If appropriate give completed hand-outs to the SEL group for further development.