2 8.2 The conceptual theory of metaphor “…metaphorical meaning is not…a special kind of meaning: it is rather the case that metaphor is the result of a special process for arriving at, or construing, a meaning.”A metaphor is a mapping between conceptual domainsSource domain: “the domain supporting the literal meaning of the expression”Target domain: “the domain the sentence is actually about”
3 8.2 The conceptual theory of metaphor, cont’d. TARGET DOMAIN IS SOURCE DOMAIN – this is the basic formula for metaphorNot everything from the source domain is relevantSome truly opaque idiomatic expressions might not be interpreted in terms of mapping (fly off the handle)
4 8.2 The conceptual theory of metaphor, cont’d. Invariance Hypothesis: Metaphorical mappings preserve the cognitive topology (that is, image-schematic structure) of the source domain. (Lakoff 1990, in CogLx 1)[Logic of heated fluid carries over to target of anger]Target domain overrides: we are constrained not to violate the image-schematic structure possessed by the non-image components of the target (Turner 1990, in CogLx 1) [target domain can prevent some ideas from holding, so give a kick doesn’t mean that you get to keep the kick]
5 8.3 Novel MetaphorThe life history of a metaphor: Lakoff concentrates on conventionalized metaphors, but those have lost some of their interpretive properties – perhaps one should look at newly coined examples?How do we recognize metaphor – Lakoff insists that metaphor is so widespread and natural that it cannot be described as deviant. But Cruse points out that “it is not obvious how a metaphor can function if there is nothing perceptibly odd whatsoever about its literal construal”
6 8.3 Novel Metaphor, cont’d.Blending Theory and novel metaphors: Blending is when structures from two domains are combined to create new structure. Metaphor is actually a special type of blending. Notice that blending (& metaphor) create something new: This surgeon is a butcher implies incompetence, though that is not something inherited from either domain.
7 8.3 Novel Metaphor, cont’d.Context sensitivity: Novel metaphors involve domains that are construed in contextAsymmetry of vehicle (aka source) and target: this remains to be satisfactorily explained