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Enforcing Protective Orders Through Contempt Proceedings Alicia Aiken, LAF Neha Lall, Life Span.

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Presentation on theme: "Enforcing Protective Orders Through Contempt Proceedings Alicia Aiken, LAF Neha Lall, Life Span."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enforcing Protective Orders Through Contempt Proceedings Alicia Aiken, LAF Neha Lall, Life Span

2 OPs May be Enforced through Contempt Proceedings A violation of any valid Illinois order of protection, whether issued [in] a civil or criminal proceeding, may be enforced through civil or criminal contempt procedures, as appropriate, by any court with jurisdiction, regardless where the act or acts which violated the order of protection were committed. 750 ILCS 60/223(b)

3 Requirements for Enforcement Actual knowledge of the contents of the order. 750 ILCS 60/223(d) There need not be any physical manifestations of abuse on the person of the victim. 750 ILCS 60/223(f)

4 Direct v. Indirect Contempt Direct Contempt: violation occurs in the presence of the court Indirect Contempt: violation occurs outside of the presence of court

5 Civil v. Criminal Contempt Distinction lies in the purpose of Petition: Civil Contempt: to compel future compliance with a court order Criminal Contempt: to punish past violation of the order

6 Civil v. Criminal Contempt CIVILCRIMINAL Purpose:Compel CompliancePunish Noncompliance Legal Mechanism:Rule to Show CausePetition for Adjudication of Contempt Standard of Proof:Preponderance of Evidence Beyond a Reasonable Doubt Right to Counsel:NoYes

7 Civil v. Criminal Contempt CIVILCRIMINAL 5 th Amendment Right : NoYes Right to Purge Contempt: YesNo Sanctions:Imprisonment to compel compliance Fine Imprisonment

8 Indirect Criminal Contempt Proceedings

9 LSC-Recipients Can Bring Indirect Criminal Contempt Petitions Criminal Proceeding defined as an adversary process prosecuted by a public officer. If professional responsibility requires criminal representation arising out of prior or current rep. Prohibitions on assistance in criminal proceedings only apply to LSC funds. 45 C.F.R. Sec. 1613

10 Filing Requirements File Petition for Adjudication of Indirect Criminal Contempt Issue new Summons – Unclear if new summons is required – Better practice is to do so, since this is technically a separate cause Service of Petition

11 Body Attachments IDVA specifically allows for issuance of a body attachment in contempt proceedings if petition sets forth facts evidencing an immediate danger that the respondent will flee the jurisdiction, conceal a child, or inflict physical abuse on the petitioner or minor children. Bond shall be set unless specifically denied in writing. 750 ILCS 60/223(b)(1)-(2)

12 Procedural Requirements 5 th Amendment Rights Attach – Respondent need not file a Response – Burden may not be shifted to Respondent Rule to Show Cause NOT appropriate Appointment of Counsel – Court must appoint counsel for Respondent if not already represented

13 Minor v. Serious Criminal Contempt Minor Contempt: – No Right to Jury Trial – Sanctions must be $500 or less and/or incarceration of less than 6 months Serious Contempt: – Right to Jury Trial – Sanctions of more than $500 and/or incarceration of more than 6 months Cheff v. Schnackenberg, 384 U.S. 373 (1966).

14 Hearing Presumption of Innocence Privilege against self-incrimination Right to introduce evidence on own behalf Right to present witness Right to public trial Right to be present at trial Right to substitution of judge

15 Requirements of Contempt Judgment Order Must be written order signed by judge Must recite jurisdiction Must set forth facts on which the contempt is based Must contain a clear and unambiguous finding of contempt Must recite sanctions imposed Certified orders should be served on Respondent along with a copy given to the warden of the institution along with commitment order

16 Right to Appeal Respondent should be advised of right to appeal pursuant to Supreme Court Rule 605(a) May be appealed as any other criminal case if sanctions have been imposed

17 Imposition of Sanctions Contemnor must be given an opportunity to make a statement in allocution prior to sanctions being imposed. Taylor v. Hayes, 418 U.S. 488 (1974)

18 Penalties for Violation IDVA says the following sanctions are appropriate: – Incarceration – Payment of Restitution – Payment of Attorneys Fees and Costs – Community Service 750 ILCS 60/223(g)

19 Incarceration To the extent permitted by law, the court is encouraged to: (1) Increase penalties for subsequent violations (2) Impose a minimum penalty of 24 hours imprisonment for respondents first violation (3) Impose a minimum penalty of 48 hours imprisonment for respondents second or subsequent violation unless manifestly unjust 750 ILCS 60/223(g)(3)

20 When is a Contempt Petition a Good Idea? When the States Attorney will not prosecute a violation Contempt proceeding will not further endanger victim – Respondent will likely not be incarcerated during proceedings – Not for high lethality cases!

21 When is a Contempt Petition a Good Idea? Non-violent violations – Phone calls/text messages – Emails/internet communications – Third Party Contact Cases where Respondent will be deterred by a Contempt Finding

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