Presentation on theme: "One Size Doesn't Fit All: Developing a Model for Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in eThekwini District, KwaZulu-Natal, South."— Presentation transcript:
One Size Doesn't Fit All: Developing a Model for Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in eThekwini District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Jenni Smit RHRU, University of the Witwatersrand Columbia U New York Feb 25, 2010
2 Background The importance of integrating sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV services is widely acknowledged Growing recognition of the importance of contraception for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts In particular, repeated calls to strengthen the link between FP and PMTCT Integration of SRH and HIV services is especially relevant in South Africa: –the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (5.2mil) –high contraceptive prevalence, but high unplanned pregnancies and teenage pregnancies
4 HIV Prevalence HSRC community-based survey 2008 Overall prevalence (2+ years): 10.9% (5.2 million) Females years: 21.1% (males 5.1%) Females years: 32.7% (males 15.7%) Prevalence peaks in males in year range: 25.8% (females 29.1%) KZN Province highest rates: 15.8% Condom use at last sex: 64.8% (67.4% among males; 62.5% among females; among youth years: 87.4% males, 73.1% females)
5 Contraception and Pregnancy OC%IC%IUD%Condom% TL % Any Method % South Africa (2003 SADHS) Net-En (9 ) DMPA (20 ) South Africa (15-24yrs) (2003 SADHS) NET-EN (29) DMPA (13) - 27% of women pregnant by the age of 19 years (SADHS 2003) - 61% of last pregnancies were unintended (Morroni et al, 2006)
6 Background, contd The primary health care approach (PHC) to service delivery was adopted in South Africa in 1994 A district health system was put in place with primary care clinics and referral systems to secondary and tertiary care where appropriate At PHC level, SRH services should be comprehensive, but in reality are limited Recently, decentralized care has begun for referral of stabilized HIV-infected (on ART), from hospitals to PHC sites
7 Background, contd Health services in South Africa have recently demonstrated: –HIV positive women wish to have babies and need to be supported in this –A number of HIV positive women are entering PMTCT for the 2 nd /greater time, and reporting unplanned pregnancies –Policy makers, managers and providers are requesting training on contraception and HIV and the interaction of the two –The rapidly growing, strongly vertical ARV programme has led to a narrow focus on HIV treatment, creating a strain on other client demands/needs There is a call to develop and implement policies and programmes to address broad SRH needs of clients.
8 President Zumas Declaration To be implemented in KZN on 1 April 2010 All HIV + children < 1 yr to commence on HAART All HIV + pregnant woman with CD4 350 to commence HAART All HIV + pregnant woman with CD4 > 350 to commence Dual (AZT) therapy from 14 weeks gestation, HIV exposed babies will be given NVP for up to 12 months if the mum got dual therapy All TB/HIV co-infected pts with CD4 350 to commence HAART All facilities to have TB/HIV services under one roof (TB at HIV and HIV at TB) Male Medical Circumcision services to be commenced All above services to be available at or through all facilities Infant & Young Child feeding: the plan (but not yet policy) is to stop formula feeding i. e. no more formula [KZN Dept of Health to host a SRH Dialogue with a focus on FP in March, to develop strategies to address low FP uptake in KZN]
9 Study Aims and Objectives To Develop and evaluate a district based model for integrating SRH and HIV services in SA 1. Conduct formative research: KI interviews; baseline assessment at clinic level 2. Develop, implement and evaluate a model of integrated RH services at all levels of health care delivery 3. Develop community advisory structures to support implementation and sustainability of the RH integration model 4. Develop guidelines, tools and methods for an integrated RH service delivery model 5. Formulate policy at district, provincial and national levels based on lessons learned from the project.
PROJECT SITE eThekwini District, KwaZulu-NataleThekwini District, KwaZulu-Natal Wentworth Hospital and surrounding clinicsWentworth Hospital and surrounding clinics Wentworth Hospital Mereban k Austerville BluffLamontvill e Chestervill e Cato Manor
12 Formative Research: Methods In depth interviews with key informants (n=21) - SA Department of Health: national, provincial, district - NGOs - Academics: international & local Baseline assessment Facility inventory at each site Client interviews (n=269, across services) Provider interviews (n=46) FGDs (n=3) Study approval obtained from: University Ethics Committee, DoH (KZN, District, Province), Wentworth Hospital, eThekwini City Health Dept.
Results: Key Informant Interviews
14 Verticalised system of client management –Failure to recognise multiple health needs of clients if a woman, lets suppose where do they come from, say […] [an urban township], catches a bus, goes to […] [an urban tertiary hospital], goes to the HIV, gets treated for HIV, they think of TB, then they send for an X-ray to somebody else, somebody else does a Mantoux test, come back in 2 days to read that, go back home, come back for the TB treatment [……]. To me was a classic example of a disintegrated service, causing tremendous inconvenience and there must be some way of bringing them together. Both for the sake of the patients, and sake of efficiency. Referrals across and between facilities is problematic –Unfriendly system –Distance/cost of getting to referral site –Needless referral (to get rid of clients in busy clinic)
15 -family planning services are really struggling and they are not doing very well, and […] theres been such a push to sort of get these HIV and AIDS services up, and a lot of the dynamic people I know at district level have gone over into HIV services -The bottom line is that you dont have enough health workers. Then, if you want to add services and you want to integrate them and link them, you need more people […] I think thats the first order of business. -we are overloaded, we cant be asking people about […] contraception. -There is a failure of providers to look beyond the disease -if they are on ART they will be treated as [an] HIV positive person, they will not be treated as a woman.
16 Integrated MC service delivery Phased in approach Private sector involvement New health care approach Concerns about verticalism I think its something that we need to do it as part of the comprehensive prevention services that we are offering, I don t think it something that we can look at as a stand alone or as another vertical kind of system that we can embark on. … sort of have a step-wise approach to actually introducing these services. I think the private health sector s got a big role to play ….. you know do what they ve done so often in other countries vis a vis family planning thirty years ago … for every circumcision performed, private practitioner signs a little chitty, gets the patient to sign and gets R5 from the provincial health authority. I think we may have to train a new cadre [to work at grassroots levels] ….. We may, because it s a massive thing, a massive undertaking, in terms of numbers, and to do safety and follow- up and all of that. Another vertical program on the make really. uhmm Integration and Male Circumcision
17 Consensus: Integration implies different models depending on need and context Could be: One provider, internal or external referral there is no one size fits all the best way for one facility may not be the best way for another, depending on client load, and the availability of staff, and the availability of…you know, supplies and equipment. So, I dont think theres necessarily one best way However, need minimum std of care and principles for consistency Some services require specialisation (e.g. ToP & violence) Range in perceptions of complexity of integration: –From simple and self evident to the need for a paradigm shift in the organisation of care
Health Sector and Community Entry and Baseline Assessment
19 Site Selection Made with Provincial and District Managers Based on perceived need for improved service delivery quality &integration Resources Feasibility Willingness of district health sector
20 Facility Entry Formal permission at all levels of health sector Meetings and workshops with staff at each project facility Meetings with Community and setting up a Community Advisory Board (CAB) Setting up an Integration Forum Setting up a Scientific Advisory Board
Results & Feedback: Baseline Assessments
22 Feedback provided to each site on data collected from that particular site Following feedback, discussion and interpretation of findings What do the findings mean for integration at that site? What strategies could be employed to improve integration at your facility and more widely? Presentation on integration, its importance and some approaches Presentation of a scenario to stimulate discussion about integration models Similar exercise conducted for CAB
23 Scenario: FP clients referral to VCT/STI services HIV and STI prevalence are high and many women do not know they are infected. Women may have signs and symptoms of STIs but may not know they need treatment or may be too embarrassed to ask. In some work RHRU conducted at a Durban clinic in 2007 out of 70 family planning clients who came to the clinic, 20 had Chlamydia and 4 had gonorrhea, these women either did not know or were unsure they had an STI and had come to the clinic for FP and not to seek treatment. HIV prevalence is 38.7% in ANC clients in KwaZulu-Natal (DoH, 2009) and many women found positive in ANC may not have known their status. Most of your clinic attendees have been tested in the past. Family planning attendees are an important group to target for testing/re-testing as they come to the clinic regularly and may not know their current HIV status. How can C& be routinely provided in family planning services?
24 The Case of X Clinic 30 clients interviewed from the following services: ANC PHC PNC VCT ARV/HIV wellness STI 4 Providers interviewed
25 30 Total 7 Same day/different consultation 23 Same day/consultation Frequency Prefer to have 2 services on same day in same consult Integration: The Clients Choice 30 Total 8 I dont mind who I see 22 Yes Frequency Would like to see the same HCP if given the choice
26 During today/previous FP visit the HCP: YesNoTotal offered VCT 156 offered pelvic/genital exam 156 offered pap smear 156 demonstrated how to use a male condom 156 talked about VCT 246 talked about male condoms 336 talked about female condoms 156 talked about dual method use 336 talked about TB 246 talked about cervical/breast cancer 246 talked about ToP 156 Family Planning Experiences & Counseling about Other Services CLINIC X
27 Prevention None of the 30 interviewed clients reported to have received condoms at their clinic visit Offered HIV test todayPHCFP ANC follow upVCT Immunization/ PNCTotal Yes No Total
28 X Clinic Statistics as recorded by DoH May to August 2009 FP dataMayJuneJulyAugust FP Acceptor 18 years and older 2844 FP Acceptor under 18 years 42 Female condoms distributed N/A Male condoms distributed IUCD inserted31000 Medroxyprogesterone injection Norethisterone enanthate injection Oral pill acceptor - all ages Oral pill cycle STI Data STI partner notification slip issued STI partner treated - new episode2411 STI treated - new episode
Some Overall Findings
30 Client and Provider Perceptions about Future Pregnancies for HIV Positive Women A third (34.6%) of 269 clients disclosed that they were HIV positive. Most (79%) HIV+ women did not want to have more/any children - 16 did want children in future - 2 said they did not know if they want children. Issues that affected fertility intentions: –concerns about their own health (n=25); –that their child may fall sick or die (n=29); –being told not to have more children (n=5); –already having children (n=8); –getting advice on the best time to fall pregnant and waiting for their viral load to decrease (n=6). Only 54% of providers thought that healthy HIV positive women should have children,
DEVELOPING THE MODEL What have we learnt? Context specific, flexible approach to achieving integration is favoured One size Doesnt fit all
32 Systems Referral systems v poor, frequent losses along the way -- look at health systems navigators Task- shifting; better use of highly trained staff Down referral of ARV services Patient flow Facility/space restructuring Data/logistics systems poor Integration policy lacking
33 Services Attitudes to integration generally very good Missed opportunities in FP, testing only discussed at first visit, not repeats Provider initiated FP in HIV services Request for access to female condoms Need for a male clinic Need for youth services Main focus on FP
34 Main Issues: Clients Clients dont have time to be counselled about everything – defeats the purpose of a fast-track queue Clients not always amenable to counselling (e.g. drunk clients) Stigma associated with testing, clients often opt to an NGO for C&T
35 Training/ Education Training requested on: Integration for providers Integration for community health workers FP for HIV service providers FP training for enrolled nurses and counsellors Need for health education in waiting rooms (reintroduce health educators) Need for more IEC materials
36 Next Steps Convene integration forum Agree on minimum standard model Agree on additional integration components at specific facilities Introduce HSNs Finalize costing measures Hold integration SOTA
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The William & Flora Hewlett Foundation; the KZN Provincial Department of Health; eThekwini District and City Health Departments of Health