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UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 1 FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT Fall 2008 Reading Assignment Chapter Nine Unit Ten

2 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 2 Individual Differences in Motivation

3 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 3 Definition Motivation = a force which impels one to put forth effort Managers must assure that the force directs subordinates efforts toward organizational purposes - Internally derived? - simply hire motivated people - Externally imposed? - becomes a process of one person influencing another Manipulation = external force which directs behavior toward managers goals against individuals will

4 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 4 The Nature of Motivation Motivation –The psychological forces that determine the direction of a persons behavior in an organization, a persons level of effort, and a persons level of persistence

5 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 5 The Nature of Motivation Directionpossible behaviors the individual could engage in Efforthow hard the individual will work Persistencewhether the individual will keep trying or give up

6 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 6 Motivation Effort Persistence Direction

7 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 7 Motivation Concerns What prompts people to initiate action What influences their choice of action Why they persist in doing it over time.

8 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 8 Basics of Motivation 1 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Motivating People Effort and Performance Need Satisfaction

9 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 9 Effort and Performance Performance Effort Initiation Direction Persistence

10 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 10 Effort and Performance Job performance –how well someone performs the job Motivation –effort put forth on the job Ability –capability to do the job Situational Constraints –external factors affecting performance Job Performance = Motivation X Ability X Situational Constraints

11 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 11 The Motivation Equation Figure 9.1

12 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 12 Contemporary Approaches Content theories stress the analysis of human needs Process theories concern the thought processes that influence behavior Reinforcement theories focus on employee learning desired work behaviors.

13 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 13 Content Theories Emphasize the needs that motivate people.

14 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 14 Need Theories Need –A requirement for survival and well- being. Need Theories –Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs. –Basic premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs.

15 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 15 Need Satisfaction Needs –physical or psychological requirements –must be met to ensure survival and well being Unmet needs motivate people Three approaches: –Maslows Hierarchy of Needs –McClellands Learned Needs Theory

16 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 16 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Table 9.1 Self- actualization Self- actualization Realize ones full potential Realize ones full potential Use abilities to the fullest Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition Promotions and recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Basic pay level to buy items NeedsDescriptio n Example s Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Highest- level needs Lowest- level needs

17 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 17 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Self-Actualization 1.2

18 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 18 McClellands Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Need for Achievement –A strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence Need for Affiliation –Extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him get along with each other Need for Power –Extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others McClellands Learned Needs Theory

19 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 19 McClellands Learned Needs Theory Achievement Affiliation Power 1.2

20 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 20 Needs Classification McClellands Learned Needs Maslows Hierarchy Higher -Order Needs Lower- Order Needs Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Power Achievement Affiliation

21 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 21 Adding Need Satisfaction to the Model Performance Effort Initiation Direction Persistence UnsatisfiedneedTension Energized to take action Satisfaction

22 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 22 Answer These Questions: Describe a time when you were extremely dissatisfied or turned off by your job Describe a time when you were extremely satisfied or turned on by your job.

23 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 23 The Nature of Motivation Extrinsically Motivated Behavior –Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. Intrinsically Motivated Behavior –Behavior that is performed for its own sake.

24 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 24 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Extrinsic Rewards are given by another person, often a manager. –tangible and visible to others –given contingent on performance Intrinsic Rewards are received as a direct consequence of a person's actions –natural rewards –associated with performing the task for its own sake

25 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 25 Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. –Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself and how challenging it is –Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed

26 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 26 Herzbergs Two Factors Hygiene Factors Company policy and administration Supervision Interpersonal relationships Working conditions Salary Job status and security. ØMotivating Factors ØAchievement ØRecognition ØWork itself ØResponsibility ØAdvancement ØGrowth.

27 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 27 Herzbergs Findings 010 20 30 40504050 Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Company Policy & Administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Salary

28 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 28 Adding Rewards to the Model Effort Initiation Direction Persistence UnsatisfiedneedTension Energized to take action Performance Satisfaction ExtrinsicRewards IntrinsicRewards

29 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 29 Motivating with the Basics Ask people what their needs are Satisfy lower-order needs first Expect peoples needs to change Satisfy higher order needs by looking for ways to allow employees to experience intrinsic rewards

30 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 30 Process Theories Explain the steps and procedures employees use to select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine if their choices were successful.

31 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 31 Equity Theory Components of Equity Theory Reaction to Perceived Inequity Motivating People Using Equity Theory

32 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 32 Equity Theory Focuses on peoples perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs.

33 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 33 Equity Theory Equity –Justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled Inequity –Lack of fairness

34 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 34 Equity Theory Inputs –employee contributions to the organization Outcomes –rewards employees receive from the organization Referents –comparison others Outcome/input (O/I) ratio Outcomes self Inputs self Outcomes other Inputs other =

35 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 35 Inequity When a persons O/I ratio differs from their referents O/I ratio Underreward –referents O/I ratio is greater than yours –experience anger or frustration Overreward –referents O/I ratio is less than yours –experience guilt

36 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 36 How People React to Perceived Inequity Reduce inputs Increase outcomes Rationalize inputs or outcomes Change the referent Leave

37 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 37 Adding Equity Theory to the Model Effort Initiation Direction Persistence UnsatisfiedneedTension Energized to take action Performance Satisfaction ExtrinsicRewards IntrinsicRewards Perceived Equity/Inequity Restoring Equity Decrease inputs Increase outcomes Rationalize inputs or outcomes Change the referent Leave

38 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 38 Motivating with Equity Theory Look for and correct major inequities Reduce employees inputs Make sure decision-making processes are fair –distributive justice –procedural justice

39 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 39 Expectancy Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Components of Expectancy Theory

40 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 40 Components of Expectancy Theory Valence Expectancy Instrumentality

41 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 41 Expectancy Theory Motivation depends on individuals expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.

42 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 42 Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence

43 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 43 Expectancy Theory

44 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 44 Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory èM = (E P) x (P O) x V

45 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 45 M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation (force to put forth effort) Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory

46 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 46 M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation (force to put forth effort) E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy) Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory

47 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 47 M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation (force to put forth effort) E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy) P O means performance leads to outcomes (Instrumentality) Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory

48 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 48 M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation (force to put forth effort) E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy) P O means performance leads to outcomes (Instrumentality) V = Valence - the value placed on the outcome. Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory

49 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 49 Adding Expectancy Theory to the Model Restoring Equity Decrease inputs Increase outcomes Rationalize inputs or outcomes Change the referent Leave Effort Initiation Direction Persistence Unsatisfied need Tension Energized to take action Performance Perceived Equity/Inequity Satisfaction Extrinsic Rewards Intrinsic Rewards Instrumentality Valence Expectancy

50 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 50 Expectancy Theory Motivation will be high when workers believe: –High levels of effort will lead to high performance. –High performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes.

51 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 51 Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs Clearly link rewards to individual performance Empower employees to make decisions which enhance expectancy perceptions Expectancy Theory

52 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 52 Goal Setting Theory Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects.

53 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 53 Goal-Setting Theory Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory Components of Goal-Setting Theory

54 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 54 Goal-Setting Theory Goal Specificity –the clarity of goals Goal Difficulty –how challenging goals are Goal Acceptance –how well goals are agreed to or understood Performance Feedback –information on goal progress

55 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 55 Adding GOAL Theory to the Model Restoring Equity Decrease inputs Increase outcomes Rationalize inputs or outcomes Change the referent Leave Effort Initiation Direction Persistence Unsatisfied need Tension Energized to take action Performance Perceived Equity/Inequity Satisfaction Extrinsic Rewards Intrinsic Rewards InstrumentalityValence Expectancy Goals

56 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 56 Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory Assign specific, challenging goals Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals Provide frequent, specific performance-related feedback

57 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 57 Learning Theory Operant Conditioning

58 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 58 Learning Theories Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals Based on Thorndikes Law of Effect Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated; Behavior that is ignored or punished tends not to be repeated

59 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 59 Learning Theories Learning –A relatively permanent change in persons knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience.

60 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 60 Operant Conditioning Theory Operant Conditioning –People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences.

61 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 61 LEARNING Theory Components of Learning Theory Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Motivating with Learning Theory

62 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 62 S - R - O Relationship lS = Stimulus lR = Response lO = Outcome S O R Learned Future Behavior

63 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 63 Reinforcement l Relationship between behavior and its consequences l Reinforcement = anything that increases the relationship between a given stimulus and a particular response l Leads to the modification of employees' on-the-job behaviors through the appropriate use of immediate rewards and punishments.

64 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 64 Reinforcement Tools l Behavior modification = reinforcement techniques to modify behavior l Positive reinforcement = pleasant consequence following a desired behavior l Negative reinforcement = withholding unpleasant consequence strengthens behavior l Avoidance learning = removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior (also called a negative reward). l Punishment = unpleasant outcomes l Extinction = withdrawal of positive reward.

65 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 65 Schedules of Reinforcement l Continuous Reinforcement - Schedule reinforces every occurrence of the desired behavior. l Fixed-Interval Schedule - Rewards employees at specified time intervals. (regular paycheck). l Fixed-Ratio Schedule - Reinforcement occurs after a specified number of desired responses, such as after every fifth event. (piece-rate pay systems) l Variable-Interval Schedule - Reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. (Random inspection followed by praise) l Variable-Ratio Schedule - Random number of desired behaviors rather than on variable time periods. (Slot machine)

66 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 66 Adding Reinforcement Theory to the Model Restoring Equity Decrease inputs Increase outcomes Rationalize inputs or outcomes Change the referent Leave Effort Initiation Direction Persistence Unsatisfied need Tension Energized to take action Performance Perceived Equity/Inequity Satisfaction Extrinsic Rewards Intrinsic Rewards InstrumentalityValence Expectancy Reinforcement Contingencies Schedules of Reinforcement Goals

67 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 67 Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate Dont reinforce the wrong behavior Correctly administer punishment at the appropriate time Choose the simplest and most effective schedule of reinforcement

68 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 68 Pay and Motivation Pay as a Motivator –Expectancy: Instrumentality, the association between performance and outcomes, must be high for motivation to be high. –Need Theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs. –Equity Theory: pay is given in relation to inputs. –Goal Setting Theory: pay is linked to attainment of goals. –Learning Theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviors.

69 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 69 Social Learning Theory A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by peoples thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other peoples behavior.

70 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 70 Social Learning Theory Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning) –Learning that occurs when a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be reinforced for doing so

71 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 71 Motivating with the Integrated Model Motivating with the Basics Motivating with the Basics Motivating with Equity Theory Motivating with Equity Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Motivating with Expectancy Theory Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Motivating with Reinforcement Theory Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory

72 UNIT I – Introduction to Management UNIT 2 – International Management and Diversity UNIT 3 – Managerial Ethics and Social Responsibility UNIT 4 – Planning as a Decision-Making Activity UNIT 5 – Domestic and International Issues in Planning UNIT 6 – Organization – Design and Culture UNIT 7 – Staffing UNIT 8 – Communication UNIT 9 – Direction - Teams and Group Processes UNIT 10 – Motivation Definitions Content Theories Maslows Hierarchy Arndorfers Needs Theory McClellands Need Theory Hertzbergs two-factor Theory Process Theories Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Learning Theories UNIT 11 – Leadership UNIT 12 – Control UNIT 13 - POM/MIS/DSS FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT UNIT 10 - Motivation Copyright © 2008 by Dr. Eliot S. Elfner, St. Norbert College 72 FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT Fall 2008 - The End Dr. Eliot S. Elfner Professor of Business Administration St. Norbert College


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