Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Western European Music and Music Manuscripts"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Western European Music and Music Manuscripts A Presentation by K. Christian McGuire
2 Overview of Presentation General View of Music in Ancient Greek and Medieval ThoughtLiturgy: Divine Office and MassExamples: Liturgy, Theory, Miscellany
3 Common views on music Not academic – music for the sake of music. Frivolous – valued only as entertainment suitable for:Concert HallsPop concertsiPod salesMajor chords are “happy”; minor chords are “sad”These prejudices obscure our understanding of musicin ancient and medieval cultures
4 Getting Medieval on Music Clear your mind of everything you know and appreciate about music.Western Music since 1600 is structured around the polarity between 2 voices:Soprano (melody = i.e. the “tune”)Bass (harmonic foundation)Unique development in Western culture:some examples: Scarlatti, JS Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Faure, S. Joplin, R. Rodgers, Bill Monroe, Quincy Jones, Bob Dylan, Beatles, Queen, Prince, Iron Maiden, etc…
5 Aspects of Greek musical thought Pythagoreansquality of music judged by mathematical measure.Harmony of the Spheres – Pythagoras could hear the motion of the heavens.Pythagoras cured a frenzied boy by singing an appropriately soothing melody.Aristoxenus – quality of music judged by the ear.PlatoDoctrine of Ethos: Music affects characterBoys should be taught strong and simple music, not frivolous effeminate music.
6 Music as Liberal Art Trivium Quadrivium Grammar Logic Rhetoric Arithmetic – study of numberGeometry – study of number in spaceMusic (or Harmony) – study of number through timeAstronomy – study of number in time & space
7 Boethius (ca.480 – 526 CE)“…of the four mathematical disciplines, the others are concerned with the pursuit of truth, but music is related not only to speculation but to morality as well.”“The Pythagoreans used to free themselves from the cares of the day by certain melodies…knowing that the whole structure of soul and body is united by musical harmonyBook I De Institutione Musica. Trans. William Strunk, Jr. and Oliver Strunk.
8 Cassiodorus (490 – 583 CE)“Music is closely bound up with religion itself. Witness the decachord of the Ten Commandments (Ps. 32:2) the tinkling of cithara and tympanum, the melody of the organ, the sound of cymbals. The very Psalter is without doubt named after a musical instrument because the exceedingly sweet and pleasing melody of the celestial virtues is contained within it.”Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum.De Musica. Trans. William Strunk, Jr. and Oliver Strunk.Munchen St.B.Cod.lat. 2599, f. 106
9 Useful Terms in Describing Plainchant Monophonic – one melodic lineSyllabic (1 note per syllable of text)Melismatic (many notes per syllable)Neumatic (somewhere in between)Through Composed vs Strophic/FormalModal8 diatonic musical modesImportance of memory – Through Composed vs. Strophic – which is a better conduit for prayer?
10 Importance of Plainchant to History Development of Western musical notationCultural basis of shared musical knowledgeCatholic music and composers: Machaut, Mozart, BerliozBecomes foundation for first polyphonic musical genres (i.e. music is built around the voice (the Tenor) with “holds” the fragment of chant melody.
11 Early Liturgical Practice to 6th century PsalmodyHelena mother of Constantine encouraged worship in Jerusalem.Late 4th c. Egeria mentions the singing of antiphons, hymns and psalms during her pilgrimage to JerusalemNewly composed hymnsAmbrose of MilanFew fragments including Oxyrhynchus PapyrusChants and continued to develop orally throughout Christendomcommemorating regional Saints and liturgies
12 Early Developments in Chant by 900 CE Two main branches of ChantByzantine*WesternGallicanOld ItalianAmbrosian (Milanese)Old RomanBeneventanOld Spanish (Mozarabic)Chant Melodies still transmitted orally by memory
13 Gregorian Chant – Traditional History Named for Pope Gregory I ( ) who was inspired by the Holy Spirit (in the form of a dove) and dictated chant.Antiphonary of Hartker of Sankt-Gallen(Cod. Sang. 390, 13r, 10th century)
14 Gregorian Chant752 - Pepin the short begins policy of replacing Gallican Chant with Roman Chant after visit by Pope Stephen II.– Charlemagne continues this policy, instituting “Gregorian” chant throughout the empire.Melodic differences in the few extant sources ofOld Roman and Gregorian chant suggest that theFranks may have only borrowed the texts but retainedGallican melodies.
15 Rule of St. Benedict (535 CE) Divine OfficeMatinsLaudsLittle HoursPrimeTerceSextNonesVespersComplineMatins – most musically elaborateAll 150 Psalms chanted each week along with antiphons, responsories, hymns.Approximately one quarter of the day is spent chanting in prayer.All 150 Psalms were chanted throughout the week.
16 Liturgical Books Liturgical Calendar divided: Breviary Temporale Feasts determined by events in Christ’s life; ferias (ordinary days)Saints’ feasts between December 24 and January 13SanctoraleCelebration of Saints’ Feast Days between January 14-December 23BreviaryAntiphoner (Antiphons and Responsories)PsalterHymnalCollectar (office prayers)Homilary, lectionary, passionary (office lessons)MissalsGradual (chants of the mass)Sacramentary (prayers)Epistolary and evangeliary (lessons of the mass)
17 Common Types of Chant Divine Office Psalms Antiphons Responsories HymnsMass ChantsKyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus DeiGradualsAlleluiasSequencesSung after the Alleluia, all but 4 sequences were banned during the Council of Trent.
18 Notation - neumesRichard Rastall, The Notation of Western Music. St. Martin’s Press, 1982
19 Clare sanctorum senatus apostolorum London, British Library, Add , fol 16vHiley. Western Plainchant. OUP, 1995
21 Clare sanctorum senatus apostolorum (top) London, British Library, Add , fol 16v – mid 10th century, German neumes(bottom) London, British Library, printed book IB fos. 113v-114rHiley. Western Plainchant. OUP, 1995