2 About this slide show: This slide show deals with: Zainul AbideenAbout this slide show:This slide show deals with:A general view of HadithCategories of HadithHistory of Hadith fabrications and forgeriesI’lm Al-RijaalCollection of Hadith during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd centuryChain of NarrationCollectors of Hadith and their books
3 Zainul AbideenWhat is Hadith?Hadith is a specific statement of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)Traditions are deeds or conduct of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)The Hadith and Sunnah are second in importance to the QuranThe Holy Quran is God's Words and come first in significance and importance
5 The Sunnah The Sunnah consists of: Zainul AbideenThe SunnahThe Sunnah consists of:The statements of Muhammad (pbuh) andHis Tradition (conduct)The Sayings are bindingThe Sunnah can be interpreted in several ways
6 The Shari'ah The Shari'ah (Islamic Way) consists of: The Quranic Divine Guidance, andThe Sunnah of Muhammad (pbuh)Shari'ah is the Constitution of IslamShari'ah needs to be interpretedThe interpreter of Shari'ah is called Faqeeh
7 The interpreter of Shari'ah is called Faqeeh Constitution of IslamShari’ahQuranSunnahThe interpreter of Shari'ah is called Faqeeh
8 Zainul AbideenFiqh (Islamic Law)Fiqh is interpretation of Shari'ah by a scholar erudite in Islamic knowledgeHead of Islamic Schools of Thought is Faqeeh of the highest caliberFiqh is the Law in Islamic CirclesFiqh is the spiritual law of unique importance to Muslims
9 The language of the Hadith Zainul AbideenThe language of the HadithThe literary style of Hadith is very high, yet it is far different from the QuranOften the Hadith consists of a few words yet has deep meaning of immeasurable valueHadith may look like maxims and/or proverbsHadith often touches on certain aspects of life
10 Subjects of Hadith Hadiths deal with elements of Faith and Belief Zainul AbideenSubjects of HadithHadiths deal with elements of Faith and BeliefHadiths deal with RitualsHadiths deal with Human CharacterHadiths deal with Ah’kaam and dealing with othersHadiths deal with the Afterlife
11 Categories of HadithThe scholars of the Hadith literature divided the Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) into categories according to the degree of authenticity and reliability, each category had to meet certain criteria.The categories are as follows:Sahih: صحـيـح The genuine Traditions, the authentic ones.Moothaq: موثـقAlmost like the Sahih but the chain of narrators is not as strong as those of the Sahih.Hasan: حـسـن The fair Traditions although inferior in matter of authenticity.Dha'eef: ضـعيـف The weak Traditions which are not so reliable.
13 Classes of Deeds and Actions In the Shari'ah (Islamic Constitution) deeds and actions are divided into five classes:Fardh or Wajib: فرض او واجـب An obligatory duty the omission of which is Islamicly punishable.Mus'tahab: مسـتـحب An action which is rewarded, but whose omission is not punishable.Mu'baah: مـباحAn action which is permitted but legally is indifferent.Mak'rooh: مكـروه An action which is disapproved by the Shari'ah but is not under any penalty.Haram: حرام An action which is forbidden, and Islamicly punishable.
14 Narrators of Renown Abu Hurairah: Ibn Abbas: Ibn Omar A poor man, of the Saffah, in company of the Prophet for a short time (only months)Though an illiterate, he became governor over Bahrain, then over Medina (after Omar had died)Ibn Abbas:Was 13 years old when the Prophet diedWas student of Imam AliIbn OmarWas 20 years old when the Prophet diedNumerous other Sahaaba , not as prolific as the above 3
15 Abu Hurairah He was appointed as Governor over Medina by Mu’awiya He became pro Benu UmayyaHe quoted 5378 Hadiths, (being in company of the Prophet for only 17 months)Imam Ali quoted 580 Hadiths (Being in company of the Prophet for all his life)With Prophet for 17 months, quotes 5347, yet Ali is with Prophet for 30 years and quotes 580 Hadith no more. Combined Hadiths reported by Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman, and Ali were almost 2000,Of the 2210 Hadiths claimed to have been narrated by Abu Hurairah quoting A'isha, Bukhari and Muslim accepted only 174 Hadiths as worthy and valid. Therefore, the remaining 2,036 Hadiths produced forth by Abu Hurairah were flatly rejected by them simply as unacceptable. (See Mish'kaat Al-Masabeeh, Translation by Fazlul Karim, Vol. 1, Page 63.)
16 The Fabricated Hadiths: الاحاديت المختلقه History of Fabrication:During Benu Umayya's Rule: Bringing forth a Counterfeit Hadith was widespread throughout this period.During Benu Abbas' Rule, producing and circulating counterfeit Hadiths was widespread too, in particular with the advent of the schools of thought in Islam.By the year 200 H.: Total of 600,000 Hadiths were in existence, out of which 408,324 Hadith were fabricated (counterfeit) Hadiths by 620 forgers, whose names and identity are known.Most Notorious Forgers: Ibn Jundub, Abu Bukhtari, Ibn Basheer, Abdullah Al-Ansaari, Al-Sindi. One of them, Ibn Au'jaa, professed before he was hanged (for his heresy) that he alone had forged 4,000 Hadiths.
17 Reasons for Fabricating Hadiths Reasons to Fabricate (To do Hadith forgery): Financial incentive by the Khalifas, starting with Mu'awiya. Mu’awiya as an example awarded Ibn Jundub and others large sums of money for coming forth with Hadiths in his favor.As a means of self-promotion in the government.In a drive to enhance a particular school of thought.Fanaticism for a school of thought at the expense of others.Al-Qassassoon (The story-tellers): القصــاصــون Their operation and major role in the public.
18 Size of Authentic versus Fabricated Hadith Less than 3,000 Authentic HadithOver 600,000 Fabricated Hadiths as of 200H
19 During the 1st Century H.The early Khalifas discouraged putting the Hadith in writing,They encouraged committing the Hadith to memory. Ali differed from them and wrote 580 Hadiths.It was soon discovered that the quotes of the Hadith were inaccurateFor one thing many of the Sahaaba had died, and for another,that committing Hadiths to memory was not that reliableAl-Zuhri, Al-Hazm were both commissioned by Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz to collect the Hadith but the work was probably not done, due to early death of the Khalifa in 101 H. No record of their work exists.
20 During the 2nd Century H. Collection of Hadith was mainly by: Ibn Jarih,Al-Thawri,Ibn Basheer, andMalik Ibn Anas in his Mu'watta.The necessity of I'lm Al-Rijaal, علم الرجال (Science of men of Hadith Transmitters) became necessary because of the numerous counterfeit Hadiths circulated at the time.Compiling books about forged (counterfeit) Hadiths: This was necessary to warn the Scholars and the public about the multitude of the forged Hadiths at that time.
21 During the 3rd Century H.Hadith was collected and categorized in the third century of Hijrah resulting in six canonical collections called (Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah):Al-Bukhari, d.256 A.H: صـحيـح بخارى Selected 7275 (2712 Non-duplicated) out of 600,000 available Hadiths he was aware of.Muslim, d.261 A.H: صـحيـح مسـلم Selected 9200 (3,033 Non-duplicated) out of 300,000 available Hadiths he was aware of.Abu Dawood, d.276 A.H. سنن ابو داود Selected 4,800 of 500,000 available Hadiths he was aware of..Ibn Maajeh: d.273 A.H. ســــنن ابن ماجه Selected HadithsTirmidhi, d.279 A.H. جـــامع الترمذى He was blind.al-Nisaa'i, d.303 A.H. سـنن النسـائي It is worthy of note that the number of the Shi'a transmitters of Hadith whose quotes appear in the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah is over 300.
22 The necessity for I'lm Al-Rijaal, علم الرجال The necessity of I'lm Al-Rijaal, علم الرجال (Science of men of Hadith Transmitters): Considered before reliability of the narrator could be established, were:The Background,Intelligence,Authenticity,Reliability,Capacity to Memorize,Manner of living,Reputation, andCriticism,
23 By the year 200 H. Total of 600,000 Hadiths were in existence, The fabricated Hadiths numbered 408,324The fabricated Hadiths were traced to 620 forgers,The names of the forgers and their identity were registered.Ibn Abi Awjaa as an example, claimed before his execution he forged 4,000 Hadiths by himself.Alphabetized names of fabricators, their background and references, are available in Book of Al-Ghadeer, Vol.5 Page 208
24 Notorious Forgers Ibn Jundub, ابن جندب Abu Bukhtari, البختري Ibn Basheer, ابن بشيرAbdullah Al-Ansaari, عبد الله الأنصاريAl-Sindi. السنديIbn Au'jaa, ابن ابي العوجاء who professed before he was hanged (for his heresy) that he alone had forged 4,000 Hadiths.
25 Hadith Books There are 6 Canonical Treatises (Sunni) Zainul AbideenHadith BooksThere are 6 Canonical Treatises (Sunni)There are 4 Canonical Treatises (Shi'a)Each treatise consists of 6-12 volumesThere are about 2,000-3,000 authentic Hadiths, and many more that are reliable (less than authentic).
26 To Follow the Shari'ahTo be a person of piety (Taq'wa) a Muslim strives to:Follow the QuranApply the Hadith's instructionsEmulate the conduct of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)By so doing he/she will have achieved the perfection of character and gained Heaven
27 Sunni Hadith Collection Zainul AbideenSunni Hadith CollectionEarly in Islam, many people claimed to have committed the Hadith to memory, generation after another, but Hadith was not registeredCollection and registering of Hadith in distinctive book format began 200 to 300 years after Muhammad (pbuh) had passed awayChain of Hadith Narration was recorded for authenticity's sakeSuch an endeavor took a life time of hard work on the part of the Hadith collector
28 Sunni Hadith Collection Zainul AbideenSunni Hadith CollectionBooks of Hadith by the Sunni were written years after HijrahSix canonical books were the resultThey are called the 6 authentic books (Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah)Some of these books are more prized than others (such as Bukhari and Muslim)
29 Sunni Canonical Collections Zainul AbideenSunni Canonical CollectionsSahih of Al-Bukhari, d.256 A.H: صـحيـح بخارىSahih of Muslim, d.261 A.H: صـحيـح مسـلم Sunan Ibn Maajeh: d.273 A.H. ســنن ابن ماجه Sunan of Abu Dawood, d.276 A.H. سنن ابو داود Jami' of Tirmidhi, d.279 A.H. جـــامع التــــرمـذى Sunan of al-Nisaa'i, d.303 A.H. النسائي ســنن
30 Sunni Hadith Collection: 3rd Century Zainul AbideenSunni Hadith Collection: 3rd CenturyCollected byBookAgeBukhariSahih BukhariHMuslimSahih MuslimHIbn MaajehSunan Ibn MaajehHAbu DawoodSunan Abu DawoodHTirmidhiJami' of TirmidhiHal-Nisaa'iSunan al-Nisaa'iH
31 Sunni Hadith Collection Zainul AbideenSunni Hadith CollectionHadiths quotes were taken from the SahaabaThe second generation took the Hadith from the Sahaaba, and were called Al-Tabi’eenCollectors of Hadith in the 3rd century had to go through a chain of narrators to reach the Sahaaba and/or Tabi’eenCollectors of Hadith put forth criteria as guidelines to accept or reject any specific HadithThe arduous job was to sift through 600,000 “Hadiths” available at the time to choose what is authenticIn contrast the Shi’a quoted the Imams who quoted their forefathers up to the Prophet. The process continued for 329 years
32 Collectors of Hadith, 3rd Century 1. Al-Bukhari2. Muslim6. Ibn Maajeh5. al-Nisaa'i3. Abu Dawood4. al-Tirmidhi
33 Al-Bukhari, 194-256H: البخاري Al-Bukhari's mother tongue was Persian for he was born in Bukhara. Part of Persia in those days. He collected the Hadith over a period of many years, having established certain strict criteria. Political times during Bukhari’s lifetime were very troublesome especially against Ahlul Bayt (led by Al‑Mutawak'kilالمتوكل ). As a consequence Bukhari was cautious and circumspect, having mentioned less about Ahlul Bayt's narrations than any of the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah.
34 Al-Bukhari Bukhari was born to a slave family of Bukhara in 194H. His father died while Bukhari was a child, leaving him a considerable fortune. Bukhari was of weak physique, but with strong intellect, sharp retentive memory, great capacity for hard work, he was methodical.He began to study Hadith at the early age of eleven.Then he went to Mecca for pilgrimage from where he took a journey for the collection of Hadith. He traveled nearly forty years in quest of knowledge throughout the Muslim world. He then returned to Nishapoor in Iran but he had to leave as he could not yield to the wishes of the Governor. Bukhari settled afterwards in a village at Samarkand where he died at the age of 62 years in 256H. It has been said by some that he died in Baghdad.ـ
35 Al-BukhariThroughout his life Bukhari was pious, and the Prophet's Tradition was his hobby while archery was his pastime. He selected 2712 non-duplicated Hadiths which became 7,275 when duplicated by many narrators. The fact is that if one Hadith was narrated by six narrators, then this Hadith was reported as 6 Hadiths though with minor variation in expression of the Hadith in question. Thus the number of Hadiths would increase depending on how many narrators report it.These Hadiths were selected out of 600,000 Traditions available to him at the time.It can be said that Bukhari found the remaining 592,725 Hadiths of unworthy basis and were to be ignored.Bukhari therefore chose only one Hadith out of every 200 ones, meaning 0.5%, the rest were deemed forged (fabricated).
36 Muslim, H: مسلم It is said Muslim was a student of Al-Bukhari and 8 years younger. He differed from Bukhari in his methodology and criteria. He collected the Hadith over a number of years, having established his own criteria. Political times then were less troublesome against Ahlul Bayt, (since Al-Mutawak'kil was killed by his own son), therefore Muslim narrated a large number of Hadiths about Ahlul Bayt.Muslim al-Nishapoori was born in a distinguished family of Arab Muslims in Khurasan, Iran in 204H, and his mother tongue was Persian for he was born in Nishapoor of Persia.His forefathers occupied prominent positions during the time of four Khalifas; and Muslim himself inherited a large fortune from his father who was also a Traditionist of some repute.Muslim died in the year 261H.
37 MuslimSahih of Muslim is considered as next to Bukhari in authenticity. It is somewhat superior to Bukhari's work in the details of arrangement of Traditions.The commentary of this book can be found in Ibn Khalikan's work Vol. II, Page 91, and in Fehrist (page 231).Sahih Muslim contains 3,033 non-duplicated Hadiths, becoming 9,200 when duplicates are registered. These Hadiths were selected out of 300,000 circulating Hadiths he was aware of.
38 Abu Dawood H ابو داود Abu Dawood received his education in Tradition at Khurasan, in Iran.He was so respected by the people that after the city was devastated by Zinjies (the Blacks), he was requested by the Khalifa al‑Mu'tadhid to settle there so as to attract people and students due to his presence. He agreed, but refused to be the teacher to the Commander's son. He adamantly refused the son of the Abbasi General (the founder of the Suffari dynasty) but rather be available to other students.Abu Dawood wrote many books on Tradition and Islamic laws of which his “Sunan” is the most important. The Sunan contains 4,800 Traditions which were sifted from 500,000 Hadiths he was aware of. This work took him nearly 20 years.
39 al-Tirmidhi: 209-279H الترمذى This is another standard work on Hadith and is considered by the Sunni Muslim jurists as one of the six authentic Traditions works. Tirmidhi was the first man to determine the identity ofthe names,surnames, andtitles of the narrators of Traditions.
40 al-Nisaa'i H: النسائي Al-Nisaa'i made a good Hadith collection, quite credible. He wrote Al-Khasa'is book, about the eminence of Imam Ali and Ahlul Bayt and the Hadiths on their behalf. Al-Nisaa'i was 88 years old when in Damascus he expressed his views about Mu'awiya by saying, “All I know is that the Prophet (pbuh) said, `May Allah make a glutton out of him.” Infuriated, Mu'awiya's sympathizers attacked al-Nisaa'i,trampled upon him,crushed his testicles, andafter that the infirm Nisaa'i was taken to Mecca where he died. He was buried between Safa and Marwa.
41 al-Nisaa'iSunan of al‑Nisaa'i work on Tradition has been recognized as the best Tradition work of his time,His smaller work is now considered as one of the Sihaah Sittah.He was the foremost Traditionist of his age and spared no pains in having Hadith recorded in his Sunan.He admitted that in his work there are many weak and doubtful Hadiths (Traditions).
42 Ibn Maajeh 209-295H: ابن ماجه Born in Qazween, Iran in 209H The Abbasid Empire was then at its peak of civilization and power, and Al-Ma'Moon was the influential Khalifa, who led the Caliphate toward progress and an Islamic-spirited renaissance.At the age of 22 Ibn Maajeh set out on his journey in 230H to learn Hadith from scholars. He traveled to Khurasan, Basra, Kufa, Baghdad, Damascus, Mecca, Medina, and Egypt.After an arduous 15 years, Ibn Maajeh turned back to Qazween, writing, classifying, and narrating Hadiths.His fame grew far and wide and seekers of knowledge came to him.The only surviving book written by Ibn Maajeh is Sunan. This book has achieved widespread fame and gave him renown and prestigious status among the scholars of Hadith
43 Imam Ahmad, 164-241H: اٍِمام احمد Imam Ahmad was born in Baghdad, and his was the most important and exhaustive of all Mus'nad works. His pious and selfless life created a halo of sanctity around his great collection of Traditions and in spite of its great bulk, it survived the vicissitude of time and revolution of empires. His Mus'nad contains 30,000 Traditions on various subjects, reported by as many as 700 companions of the Prophet.He died before he gave his works a final shape and his son Abdullah completed it in the course of 13 years. This book occupied a very important position in Hadith literature and served for a long time as the chief source of Hadith. It was read up to the 12th century. Afterwards it fell into relative disfavor owing to other better works.
44 Collection of al-Hadith Zainul AbideenCollection of al-HadithAl-Sihah Al-Sittah(Sunni)Registered by highlyQualified scholars in IslamNarration of Ahlul Bayt(Shi'a)Quoting various people whose narration went back to the Prophet’s companions and Tabi’een, then to Muhammad (pbuh) himself.Quoted from the 12 Imams (Ahlul Bayt). Narration was straight through to Muhammad (pbuh) by way of Ali’s registration of Hadiths.
45 Manner of Collection of al-Hadith Hadith CollectionAl-Sihaah Al-SittahQuoted from Two generations: Sahaaba and Tabi’eenNarration of Ahlul BaytQuoted from Twelve generations, the Imams, over a period of 329 years
46 In Conclusion General discussion of Hadith with the Sunni Zainul AbideenIn ConclusionGeneral discussion of Hadith with the SunniA general view of HadithCategories of HadithHadith fabrications and forgeriesI’lm Al-RijaalHadith during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, centuryCollectors of Hadith and their books
47 Zainul AbideenTHANK YOUBe in Allah’s CareDr. A.S. Hashim