3Leadership is…The process of influencing the activities of individuals or organized groups so they follow and willingly do what the leader wants them to do. It involves:Dealing with people and developing rapportApplying appropriate persuasionInspiring peopleInfluencing people to cooperate in pursuing your goals and visionWe’re going to go back to Warner’s theory and see how it fits with leadership.
4Leadership If you want to build a ship, Don’t [just] drum up people to collect wood and don’t [just] assign them tasks and work, but ratherTEACH THEM TO LONG FOR THE SEA.”--Antoine de Saint ExpuryWhat is you sea?
5INFLUENCE Objects People Resistant Responsive Can I practice my skills on someone and not care about them? Will they be able to tell?If they can tell that I don’t really care about them, will it affect how they will respond to me?BEHAVIORSWAY OF BEINGSource of InfluencePeopleResponsiveObjectsResistantI am better or worse than others: they are less real, less important, less valuable; or more important, more talented, etc.I am no better or worse than others. I regard others as equally legitimateThis is a question that I can ask to see if others get this section: If we’ve been working together for a long time and I’ve been through all kinds of training and I am a jerk what will people respond mostly to? My jerkiness.Whenever there is conflict they have reached the limit of their language. Their language is no longer helpful to them. Arbinger is taking an old way and thinking about it in a new way.They can talk about problems and about how those problems apply to othersAsk yourself: What are the participant’s seeing? Throughout your seminarThe horizontal lines indicate what’s above the line and below the line. The two lines down to responsive and resistant indicates TWO key pieces: I can do either behavior in either of two ways.At the skills level it’s easy to believe I’m succeeding and if something goes wrong and I’m doing everything right, who do I think has the problem?But look, I can do communication really good, even as an expert, but I may be sending another message.What’s the most obvious thing about this oval? It’s that I am seeing a person—living, breathing, and real. The question is, “am I always seeing people as people?” And quite frankly, if I’m not seeing someone as a person I am deceived about something that’s obvious (that he’s a person).Read the second column. “The other way is to see people as objects. Seeing them as objects, I am resistant to their reality. If I see others at all, they are less than I am—less relevant, less important, less real. Seeing people as less than they are, I am deceived about their reality. Seeing others falsely, I am false.”There is something deeper than behaviors that others can sense—something that, when wrong, undercuts the effectiveness of even the most outwardly “correct” behavior.
6Can we sometimes treat people like obstacles…vehicles…irrelevancies? The “BOX”ObstaclesVehiclesWhen Others areOBJECTSIrrelevanciesPeople come to mean no more to me than a chair.What if I need to change a light bulb? I stand on the chair. Do we ever stand on people? How will they notice that I’m standing on them?They are just something for my need. If I need to sit, I use the chair for my convenience. If the chair is not comfortable I just get another one and throw it away.This just gives us a little more flavor about what the dynamics of the box it or if I see someone as an object.Each of these have an accusation within it. I accuse you.If they are irrelevant they just don’t matter—inconsequential. They just don’t matter to me or anything I think, say, or do.If I see you as an obstacle, then I accuse you in this way, “You’re the kind of person who just makes my life harder.” I have to rise above you, battle you out. You can’t command any goodness in me or anyone.Vehicles we might say, “You’re the sort of person who has been put here for my use. You’re here for me.”How do you think people feel when I blame them like that? Defensive. How many people wake up in the morning and say, “hey, I just need you to criticize me today.”Can we sometimes treat people like obstacles…vehicles…irrelevancies?
7Leadership Theories Great Man Theory Trait Theory of Leadership Zeitgeist Theory of History (leadership according to the spirit of the time)Great Man Theory (Born that way)Charismatic (leadership according to personality, charm, eloquence)Machiavellianism (self-serving, and thus those in power could only maintain their position through exploitative and deceitful actions)Behavioral (What you do rather than how you were born or what you say or how you say it)Style Theory of LeadershipAutocraticDemocraticLaissez-faire StyleWhInfluence Theory of Leadership-leadership is influencing other group membersLeaders- a group member who exerts more influence on other members than they exert on him/her, implies reciprocal relationshipLeader influences; followers are influencedArt of ensuring members work together – w/least friction, most cooperationLeader persuades and inspires members to follow their views of what needs to be done to achieve group goalsNo coercion or force or dominationAuthority-Position Theory of Leadership-leader – person who holds a position of authorityAuthority – legitimate power vested in a positionHierarchy – subordinates
9The Authoritarian (Autocratic) Leader “When even one [person] - who has done nothing wrong - is forced by fear to shut his mind and close his mouth - then all [people] are in peril.”
10Authoritarian (Autocratic) cont… Provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done.Clear division between the leader and the followers.Make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group.When would authoritarian leadership be most appropriate?
11Democratic When would Democratic leadership style be most appropriate? Offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members.People can be are less productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality.Encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative.When would Democratic leadership style be most appropriate?
12Democratic Leadership Executive, individual has enough concentrated structural power to make the right decisionsLegislative: no individual leader, not even the nominal chief executive has enough structural power to make important decisions by himself or herself.Relies more upon persuasion, shared interest to create the conditions for the right decisions to happen. This is what makes this kind of leadership particularly important to society.
13Laissez-Faire When would authoritarian leadership be most appropriate? Lead yourselfOffers advice or information when asked.Little effort to increase productivity or nurture employees.Leave decision-making up to group members.Researchers founds that people under laissez-faire leadership were the least productive of all three groups. They make more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to work independently.While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation.When would authoritarian leadership be most appropriate?
14Harry S. TrumanIt is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit.“Leadership is the ability to get people to do what they might not otherwise do and to like it.”
15The Exercise of Leadership and the Exercise of Power Does a leader need power?Does power make a leader?“Leadership is the ability to get people to move in a consistent direction when you have no power over them.” Associates at Bill Gore have the power to fire their boss. If they don’t want to follow their boss and go along with his or her dictates, directions, or plans, they can get together and say we fire you as our boss and you don’t have the privilege to be a boss and be followed by us. There is a direct relationship between the exercise of power and the exercise of leadership. If one can lead they don’t necessarily need power. Those who look like leaders may be using power, but if you took away their power they would no longer be able to get others to do things (to follow them). And if you took their power away we would see that they are not leaders, but exercisers of power.In a world where people are increasingly changing jobs and don’t seem to be attached, or loyal to any particular organization you need to be a good leader rather than a good exerciser of power. If one can lead, one does not necessarily need power.Frances Hesselbein, National CEO of girl scouts has thousands of volunteers, people who she has no control over. She gets girls to dress in green and sell cookies and do service and many acts of service. She said, “It doesn’t take power to lead.–Jim Collins
16Egocentric Leader…or not Genuine HumilityBurning, active, passionate, obsessive ambition for the cause, the company, the work…not themselves.They have a will to make good on their ambitionThey did not assign blame when things go wrongThey looked at it like an autopsy. They look in the mirror and say I shoulder all responsibility and in the end I am the one who is to blame.
17Managerial Grid® Concern For People Concern for Production Country Club ManagementTeam ManagementOrganization Man ManagementImpoverished ManagementAuthority-Obedience(High)Focused on being supportiveAnd considerate. Efficiency is not primary concern.High Concern for employees, morale and task accomplishment. Building independence, trust, respect.Concern For PeopleShows concern for both employees and the task so that adequate performance is possible.Exerts minimum effort to accomplish the work.Concern for accomplishing tasks with little or no concern for people(LOW)(LOW)Concern for Production(High)
18High School Science Teacher Not the superintendentNot the principleNot a formal leaderBut….But he has a mini pocket where he is a leader. He has a sphere of influence, or span of responsibility. If you have influence over people who are around you at work you can practice the discipline of any style of leader. This teacher operated on principles of leadership with only one purpose in mind: To make his class the best science class in the world for high school kids in Colorado. Take responsibility to make great what you have power to make great.If the others, or even the school, doesn’t do it, you can’t change that, but you can take responsibility in your area.
19People Problems When Teamwork doesn’t work What I do…ComplainPunishNot include himTalk behind his backWhat they seeWhinerControllingDemeaningA gossip?BLAMEMeJohnWhat I seeA slackerUnorganizedLazyNot a team playerWhat he does…Talks too loudAlways lateQuarrelsomeSTORY: I work from home and one evening we were going to pick up our children who spent the night with my parents who live about 40 miles away from out home. We were supposed to be there at 6:30 and I had lost track of time and at 6:00 Tracy asked me to hurry and finish my work so we could leave. It would have been past dinner time before we arrived so Tracy just told my mom that we would eat before we left. I stopped working and left some things undone thinking I’d finish them later. I pictured her waiting with her coat on and keys in hand ready to leave. I left my office and went into the kitchen to find that she hadn’t even began fixing dinner. She wasn’t ready in the least bit. I glanced at the kitchen table to see a wonderful bowl of salad, enough for one person and I thought, “how sweet of her to fix that for me.” I went to eat it and she said, “That is mine.” So I asked, “Where’s mine?” She didn’t say anything. I said, “you didn’t even think to fix one for me?” She shot back, “I’ve been busting my butt to get this house cleaned up while the kids were gone and I did that for you and you haven’t even noticed what I had done.” She was just trying to justify no fixing dinner for me. I said, “I’ll just fix one for myself.” She huffed, “No! You can just eat mine.” I said, “I don’t want yours, I’ll fix my own.”Consider the insanity. I was actually provoking what I say hate.QUESTION: What do you think I would have said I wanted most in the world that night? To have a great evening, right.What would have been the outcome, if Tracy’s ready to go what do you think would happen? We’d have a great evening, right?What do you think Tracy would have said she would have wanted most in the world that night? To have a good evening.So, I would like her to have a good time so we can have a good evening, right. So which if these invite that? None of them. What do they invite. She wants a good evening at my parents and have a good time, but what am I inviting? Notice how distorted the box becomes. It limits your view and the possibilities of what you can be. I either cave in to her or I rebel. I either indulge her or give her what she deserves.Collusion is a word that means something different than what we are talking about. The word collusion is essentially a legal term that means we conspire to undermine something for a harmful purpose. But this collusion isn’t scripted out. This is a metaphor that looks as if we conspired to do this and continue to mistreat each other.Exercise: Pick someone you think you have been, or are now in collusion with.These boxes are now at war and I am interested in protecting myself or proving myself, and they appear to be doing the same.This teaches us something about our power of influence. Go ahead and draw it on a blank piece of paper. Write your name in one of the boxes and then write the name of someone you are in the box with in the other box. Now write just one thing they do that annoys you. Write what that looks like to you (what do you see). Now write what you do in response to what they do and what you see. This would include what you are doing to try to help them see their problem. Now write what you think they may see.In the “I see” is how I describe them. The in the “I do” section put what I do, maybe what I do to try to change them. Then I have to think about what they see. Given what they see, does that invite them to do more things that annoy or or less things that annoy me. If it’s more, then I know it’s collusion.What does my box provoke? Am I making matters worse or better? Just because I stop a behavior doesn’t mean I stop a collusion.What do you discover when you go through this exercise. Now what do they do? What did you think about that, did that change your opinion of them. Did you walk away more convinced there is a problem or less convinced.The problem is that I’m trying to help. I’m trying to make things go better. But I’m doing it in the box. So what are they going to experience from me? I’m going to blame, become demeaning, I won’t be considerate. I won’t see their humanity. I won’t see what you see about your father, brother, sister, spouse.Observations: What do you know about collusion? It’s frustrating. It’s hell.Now complete reading the words at the bottom of page 39. Is there any advantage to me when Tracy slows down or complains. What advantage does it give me when Tracy begins to argue with me? I now have my proof that she’s the one with the problem. It’s not my fault we are late, or that we are always late.Suppose I’m at work and Tracy always tells me to be home at six o’clock so we can sit down and have dinner together. Well, one day I had to cut some meetings short, drop an appointment of someone coming in for a sort of “desperate” meeting, but I cut it off and rushed home to be there at six and have dinner with my family. I get home and guess what. Dinner wasn’t ready. In fact, it hadn’t even been started yet.How do I see myself? Organized, responsible,So what do I say? What I might do?So what am I going to see?How is she going to see herself when I’m treating her this way? It’s not my fault. What emotions might she be experiencing at this time. Would she feel frustrated. Fearful? Angry? What would she do? Go silent (if she goes silent she’s accusing, “you’re such a pain that you’re not even worth talking to.”)What about this possibility, she slows down cooking, just takes her time.Now, do you ever have to tell anyone about the trouble you are in?Which one of us up here needs to change? Both. However, which one of us sees that we’re the one who needs to change? As an outside observer I would say that you both need to change, but who do I think needs to change? Her. So how long is this likely to go on? That doesn’t mean it has to because one of us can come out of the box. What if she is always making me late? If she is a person out of the box to me what would I say when I get home? “How can I help you?” How would she appear to me? If I think about all of the children and all she has to go through during the day and consider her needs how am I going to respond to her? I love her, I want to help. But what if I’m in the box, could I say, “how can I help?” Of course, but I will likely do it hoping someone will notice how tolerant I am and how I “cope” with her residual tardiness. I could help angrily—no matter I will be blaming and accusing her.(Next slide)Who Needs to change? Who thinks they need to change? Who is likely to change?It’s insanity… I provoke the things I say I don’t like in John.
20Did the Leader… Perform Have an Impact Influence others for good Manage through a crisisLeave a legacy?Did the company continue to be strong after they left.Preparing for crisis in the absence of crisisWhere they Humble: many CEOs that were ranked among the highest ranked companies in a study by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great, the great CEOs turned down the offer to become the CEO.
21Which style is Bill?Bill Allen, CEO of Boeing, who brought us into the jet ageSelf-effacingHe said, “Don’t be afraid to admit that you do not know”“Ask more questions that you give answers”“Recognize it is the people around you that will make the company great”
22Management and Leadership Compared Source: Kotter, J. P. (1990). A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York: Free Press; Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Table 1.1
23Charles Coffin, CEO of G.E. in 1982 Invented worlds first industrial research developmental laboratory.The ultimate clock builder rather than the ultimate time teller. Things that are built that are still ticking many years later.
24Great Leaders are… Always distrustful of their success When things are going well they worry because something might come up against them that they cannot possible predict.Those who become great are alwaysAfraid they may become a little slow around the edges.
25Types of Leaders that produce Great Organizations Levels of Leadership1. Individual, intellectual, creative capabilities2. Contributing team member3. Management capability4. Being an effective leader5. Did not have inspiring personalities, but inspired standards. George Canaan at Abbott Laboratories was an example of this. Canaan said to look at the results. It is results that they are looking at, not the peopleThe momentum of results inspires and motivates peopleSam Walton died and the culture continued. He got it started and has not been less motivated then when Sam Walton was running it
26Charisma AddictionHow many destructive things have happened with charismatic leadership.Worried about always being “right”
27(Inspired but Need practice.) (I know all I need to know.) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997)HIGHArousal/Awakening(Inspired but Need practice.)FLOWANXIETY(I’m focused, it’s tough, but fun. Time flies. You make a gift of the results. It helps others.)Challenge(Deadlines, the boss is watching, the clock is ticking. I’m freaking out!)WORRYCONTROL(Fear of failure..)(I know all I need to know.)APATHYRELAXATION(Not a challenge)(I can do this in my sleep. Nap time.)BOREDOM(Ho-hum)LOWSkillHIGH
28Leadership Categories Transactional leadershipEncompasses leadership theoriesLeaders determine what followers need to achieve goals, classify needs, and help followers gain confidenceTransformational leadershipMotivates followers to do more by raising the perceived value of the taskTranscends self-interest for the sake of the group goalRaises followers’ need level to self-actualizationHUMAN RELATIONS by Dalton, Hoyle & Watts
29Dispositional Theories “Great Man theory”great leaders are great peoplepersonal attributes are all that is importantleadership is a scarce resourcedoes not specify what characteristics are“Trait Theories”what are the characteristics that make someone greatdemographic (height)ability (IQ; verbal skills)personality (energy, ambition)
34We Have Done it Ourselves Of the best rulers, The people only know that they exist; the next best they love and praise the next they fear; and the next they revile. When they do not command the people's faith, some will lose faith in them, and then they resort to oaths! But of the best when their task is accomplished, their work done, the people all remark, We have done it ourselves (Lao-Tzu).