Leadership is… The process of influencing the activities of individuals or organized groups so they follow and willingly do what the leader wants them to do. It involves: Dealing with people and developing rapport Applying appropriate persuasion Inspiring people Influencing people to cooperate in pursuing your goals and vision
Leadership If you want to build a ship, Dont [just] drum up people to collect wood and dont [just] assign them tasks and work, but rather TEACH THEM TO LONG FOR THE SEA. --Antoine de Saint Expury What is you sea?
There is something deeper than behaviors that others can sensesomething that, when wrong, undercuts the effectiveness of even the most outwardly correct behavior. People Responsive People Responsive I am better or worse than others: they are less real, less important, less valuable; or more important, more talented, etc. Objects Resistant Objects Resistant Can I practice my skills on someone and not care about them? Will they be able to tell? If they can tell that I dont really care about them, will it affect how they will respond to me? I am no better or worse than others. I regard others as equally legitimate INFLUENCE BEHAVIORS
When Others areOBJECTS VehiclesObstacles Irrelevancies The BOX Can we sometimes treat people like obstacles…vehicles…irrelevancies?
Wh Great Man Theory Trait Theory of Leadership Zeitgeist Theory of History (leadership according to the spirit of the time) Great Man Theory (Born that way) Charismatic (leadership according to personality, charm, eloquence) Machiavellianism (self-serving, and thus those in power could only maintain their position through exploitative and deceitful actions) Behavioral (What you do rather than how you were born or what you say or how you say it) Style Theory of Leadership Autocratic Democratic Laissez-faire Style Leadership Theories
Wh Situational Theories of Leadership Distributed-Actions Theory Interaction-Process Analysis Task-Leadership Role Social-Emotional-Leadership Role Fiedlers Situational Theory Task Oriented Leader Maintenance Oriented Leader Hersey & Blanchards Theory Task Behavior Relational Behavior Leadership Theories
The Authoritarian (Autocratic) Leader When even one [person] - who has done nothing wrong - is forced by fear to shut his mind and close his mouth - then all [people] are in peril.
Authoritarian (Autocratic) cont… Provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. Clear division between the leader and the followers. Make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group. When would authoritarian leadership be most appropriate?
Democratic Offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members. People can be are less productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. When would Democratic leadership style be most appropriate?
Democratic Leadership Executive, individual has enough concentrated structural power to make the right decisions Legislative: no individual leader, not even the nominal chief executive has enough structural power to make important decisions by himself or herself. Relies more upon persuasion, shared interest to create the conditions for the right decisions to happen. This is what makes this kind of leadership particularly important to society.
Laissez-Faire Lead yourself Offers advice or information when asked. Little effort to increase productivity or nurture employees. Leave decision-making up to group members. Researchers founds that people under laissez-faire leadership were the least productive of all three groups. They make more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to work independently. While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation. When would authoritarian leadership be most appropriate?
Harry S. Truman It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit. Leadership is the ability to get people to do what they might not otherwise do and to like it.
The Exercise of Leadership and the Exercise of Power Does a leader need power? Does power make a leader? Leadership is the ability to get people to move in a consistent direction when you have no power over them. Associates at Bill Gore have the power to fire their boss. If they dont want to follow their boss and go along with his or her dictates, directions, or plans, they can get together and say we fire you as our boss and you dont have the privilege to be a boss and be followed by us. There is a direct relationship between the exercise of power and the exercise of leadership. If one can lead they dont necessarily need power. Those who look like leaders may be using power, but if you took away their power they would no longer be able to get others to do things (to follow them). And if you took their power away we would see that they are not leaders, but exercisers of power. In a world where people are increasingly changing jobs and dont seem to be attached, or loyal to any particular organization you need to be a good leader rather than a good exerciser of power. If one can lead, one does not necessarily need power. Frances Hesselbein, National CEO of girl scouts has thousands of volunteers, people who she has no control over. She gets girls to dress in green and sell cookies and do service and many acts of service. She said, It doesnt take power to lead. –Jim Collins
Egocentric Leader…or not Genuine Humility Burning, active, passionate, obsessive ambition for the cause, the company, the work…not themselves. They have a will to make good on their ambition They did not assign blame when things go wrong They looked at it like an autopsy. They look in the mirror and say I shoulder all responsibility and in the end I am the one who is to blame.
Managerial Grid ® Country Club Management Team Management Organization Man Management Impoverished Management Authority- Obedience Concern For People Concern for Production (High) (LOW) Focused on being supportive And considerate. Efficiency is not primary concern. High Concern for employees, morale and task accomplishment. Building independence, trust, respect. Shows concern for both employees and the task so that adequate performance is possible. Exerts minimum effort to accomplish the work. Concern for accomplishing tasks with little or no concern for people
High School Science Teacher Not the superintendent Not the principle Not a formal leader But…. But he has a mini pocket where he is a leader. He has a sphere of influence, or span of responsibility. If you have influence over people who are around you at work you can practice the discipline of any style of leader. This teacher operated on principles of leadership with only one purpose in mind: To make his class the best science class in the world for high school kids in Colorado. Take responsibility to make great what you have power to make great. If the others, or even the school, doesnt do it, you cant change that, but you can take responsibility in your area.
People Problems When Teamwork doesnt work What he does… Talks too loud Always late Quarrelsome What I see A slacker Unorganized Lazy Not a team player What they see Whiner Controlling Demeaning A gossip MeJohn What I do… Complain Punish Not include him Talk behind his back ? Its insanity… I provoke the things I say I dont like in John. Who Needs to change? Who thinks they need to change? Who is likely to change?
Perform Have an Impact Influence others for good Manage through a crisis Leave a legacy? Did the company continue to be strong after they left. Preparing for crisis in the absence of crisis Where they Humble: many CEOs that were ranked among the highest ranked companies in a study by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great, the great CEOs turned down the offer to become the CEO.
Which style is Bill? Bill Allen, CEO of Boeing, who brought us into the jet age Self-effacing He said, Dont be afraid to admit that you do not know Ask more questions that you give answers Recognize it is the people around you that will make the company great
1–22 Management and Leadership Compared Table 1.1 Source: Kotter, J. P. (1990). A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York: Free Press; Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Charles Coffin, CEO of G.E. in 1982 Invented worlds first industrial research developmental laboratory. The ultimate clock builder rather than the ultimate time teller. Things that are built that are still ticking many years later.
Great Leaders are… Always distrustful of their success When things are going well they worry because something might come up against them that they cannot possible predict. Those who become great are always Afraid they may become a little slow around the edges.
Types of Leaders that produce Great Organizations Levels of Leadership 1. Individual, intellectual, creative capabilities 2. Contributing team member 3. Management capability 4. Being an effective leader 5. Did not have inspiring personalities, but inspired standards. George Canaan at Abbott Laboratories was an example of this. Canaan said to look at the results. It is results that they are looking at, not the people The momentum of results inspires and motivates people Sam Walton died and the culture continued. He got it started and has not been less motivated then when Sam Walton was running it
Charisma Addiction How many destructive things have happened with charismatic leadership. Worried about always being right
Arousal/Awakening WORRY APATHY CONTROL RELAXATION BOREDOM Challenge Skill (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997) (Not a challenge) (Ho-hum) (I can do this in my sleep. Nap time.) (Im focused, its tough, but fun. Time flies. You make a gift of the results. It helps others.) (Inspired but Need practice.) (Deadlines, the boss is watching, the clock is ticking. Im freaking out!) (Fear of failure..)(I know all I need to know.)
HUMAN RELATIONS by Dalton, Hoyle & Watts Chapter 11 Slide 28 Leadership Categories Transactional leadership Encompasses leadership theories Leaders determine what followers need to achieve goals, classify needs, and help followers gain confidence Transformational leadership Motivates followers to do more by raising the perceived value of the task Transcends self-interest for the sake of the group goal Raises followers need level to self- actualization
Dispositional Theories Great Man theory great leaders are great people personal attributes are all that is important leadership is a scarce resource does not specify what characteristics are Trait Theories what are the characteristics that make someone great demographic (height) ability (IQ; verbal skills) personality (energy, ambition)
We Have Done it Ourselves Of the best rulers, The people only know that they exist; the next best they love and praise the next they fear; and the next they revile. When they do not command the people's faith, some will lose faith in them, and then they resort to oaths! But of the best when their task is accomplished, their work done, the people all remark, We have done it ourselves (Lao-Tzu).