Presentation on theme: "Arjan Vernhout Competence-based strategic management A competent organization has the ability to structurally and systematically coordinate and commit."— Presentation transcript:
Arjan Vernhout Competence-based strategic management A competent organization has the ability to structurally and systematically coordinate and commit sustainable resources for creating and distributing value to customers and stakeholders
Strategic management Strategic logic Systems thinking Hierarchy of assets Manager as a puzzler Organization as an open social system Competence modes Competence leveraging vs. developing Strategic working with competences Topics
Strategic management Art & science of structurally and systematically discovering strategic options and formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions… specifying the role and objectives developing policies and plans allocating resources to implement policies and plans… For creating and distributing value to customers and stakeholders STRATEGIC ANALYSIS STRATEGIC CHOICE STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION
Strategic management - Overview From: R. Sanchez, A. Heene (2004), The new strategic management: organization, competition and competence THEORY OF COMPETENCE-BASED STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT An integrative strategy theory that incorporates economic, organizational and behavioral concerns in a framework that is: DYNAMIC SYSTEMIC COGNITIVE HOLISTIC INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION ECONOMICS INDUSTRY STRUCTURES STRATEGIC GROUPS VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS RE-ENGINEERING RESOURCE-BASED VIEW CORE COMPETENCES EVOLUTIONARY THEORY DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES LEARNING ORGANIZATION THEORY OF THE GROWTH OF FIRMS GENERAL MANAGEMENT (HARVARD) BUSINESS POLICY LEADERSHIP STRATEGIC HRM 1990s1980s1970s1960s1940s-50s ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES BEHAVIORAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES
Strategic logic From: R. Sanchez, A. Heene (2004), The new strategic management: organization, competition and competence Recognize market opportunities Strategic logic for continuous value creation and distribution Attract, retain and improve the best available resources for creating and realizing product offers Define product offers that create value for customers with targeted preferences Distribute value created to providers of required resources Manage uncertainties in creating and realizing product offers
Strategic logic - Starbucks Coffee Around 15 new stores a week with the goal to open stores worldwide in the next 10 years Starbucks Hear Music Coffeehouses and Media Bars and opened a special Starbucks Entertainment area at iTunes. Also customers can wirelessly browse, search for, preview, buy and download music from the iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store in several Starbucks stores Starbucks is Fair Trade Certified, Starbucks initiated C.A.F.E. (Coffee and Farmer Equity) Practices, Black Apron Exclusives
Strategic logic - Starbucks Coffee Starbucks management is constantly improving training resources, not only at the product knowledge level, but also in areas that help store partners take ownership in the business….. employee turnover rate, according to some reports, is 120% less than the industry level Starbucks paid on average, $2.64 per kg for high-quality coffee beans. This was 74% higher than the commodity markets price during the year. Other examples are: partnerships with firms like Johnson Development Corporation, acquired businesses like Ethos Water and started the Starbucks Foundation 4. 5.
Systems thinking #1 An organization from a competence-based perspective is seen as an open social system Open social system = dynamic and complex collection of elements, interacting as a structured functional entity that continuously interacts with its environment energy, material and information flow between the different elements that compose the system feedback is used to regulate the dynamic behavior of the system: feedback is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input
Systems thinking #2 Environment Organization Assets Process Products/ServicesCustomersResources Stakeholders Competitors The purpose of strategy is to enable the institution to achieve its desired results in a continuous changing environment
Hierarchy of assets # 2 Assets Tangible assetsIntangible assets PhysicalFinancialHumanTechnologicalReputation c haracteristics production facilities location production flexibility capacity surpluses property and equipment receivables from clients cash and cash equivalents liabilities equity knowlegde and expertise adaptability loyalty availability pe rformance patents, copyright, company secrets R&D facilities qualifications of employees brands corporate image corporate identity relationship with suppliers customer satisfaction
Hierarchy of assets # 3 Skills are special forms of capability, usually embedded in individuals or teams, that are useful in specialized situations or related to the use of a specialized asset Capabilities are repeatable patterns of action in the use of assets to create, produce and/or offer products to a market. Capabilities arise from the coordinated activities of groups of people who pool their individual skills in using assets to generate organizational action
Hierarchy of assets # 4 Competence is the ability (being capable of) to apply assets in a coordinated way (interaction and integration of capabilities) in order to reach a certain aim. If this coordinated interaction and integration of capabilities leads to reach a certain aim (e.g. introduce new products successfully) then these capabilities lead to a competence Furthermore a competence is related to processes and interaction between the assets in an organization and lies generally embedded in certain organizational units, such as sales, marketing, logistics or production
Hierarchy of assets # 5 Core competences is defined as an unique combination of knowledge, capabilities, structures, technologies and processes in an organization, which makes it possible to provide products or services which absolutely no other organization can produce in the same way, at the same moment and at the same speed Core competences and competences add the most value to the realization of the organization goals and objectives From: Sanchez, R. (2002), Understanding competence-based management Identifying and managing five modes of competence, Journal of Business Research, Volume 57, pp
Manager as a puzzler He who wants to understand how the organization achieves competitive advantage, must search for the system resources For developing an integrated system of resources, management needs extraordinary analytic and appraisal skills A certain model for the puzzle of an organization system of resources that can be imitated does not exist If managers want to develop an integrated system of resources, the pieces of the puzzle eventually have to fit
Organization as open social system Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 From: Sanchez, R. (2004), Understanding competence-based management Identifying and managing five modes of competence, Journal of Business Research, Volume 57, pp Strategic logic Management processes Intangible assets Tangible assets Operations Product offers Product markets Firm-adressable resources Borders of the data data & Competitors decisions policies & procedures budgets revenue organization
Competence mode # 1 Cognitive flexibility to imagine alternative strategic logics: Depends on managers ability to perceive market needs and identify specific market preferences the organization might serve, to determine the characteristics of products and services that can satisfy those needs and preferences, to design supply chains and select appropriate distribution channels for realizing new products, and ultimately to define product offers that will be perceived by markets as having attractive net delivered customer value 1.
Competence mode # 2 Cognitive flexibility to imagine alternative management processes: Depends on managers ability to identify the kinds of resources (assets, skills and capabilities) required to carry out a given strategic logic, to create effective organization designs (allocations of tasks, decision making and information flows) for the processes that will use the required resources and to define appropriate controls and incentives for monitoring and motivating the value-creating processes envisioned by a given strategic logic 2.
Competence mode # 3 Coordination flexibility to identify, configure and deploy resources: Depends on the ability of a firms managers - in this case, usually the midlevel managers of larger firms, but also top managers of smaller firms - to acquire or access, configure and deploy chains of resources for leveraging product offers capable of creating value in the markets targeted by the firm. These resources may include both firm-specific resources that are acquired and become internalized by a firm and firm-addressable resources that the firm can access but that remain external to the firm 3.
Competence mode # 4 Resource flexibility to be used in alternative operations: Depends on the managers ability of the resources in an organizations resource chains to be used in alternative ways. In essence, within the resource chains available to an organization, the intrinsic resource flexibility of the resources composing those chains will constrain the different ways in which the organizations available resource chains can be used 4.
Competence mode # 5 Operating flexibility in applying skills and capabilities to available resources: The operating flexibility depends fundamentally on the skills and capabilities an organization can apply at the working level in using its available resources. This mode is therefore expressed by the operating flexibilities that result from the collective capabilities of a firms human resources - in this case, primarily its front- line managers and employees - to sustain efficient use of available resources when facing a range of variations in inputs, in required outputs and in the environmental conditions affecting the operations of the firm 5.
Competence leveraging vs. building Competence developing Creation of new strategic options Competence leveraging Realization of strategic options Internal cashflow From: R. Sanchez, A. Heene (2004), The new strategic management: organization, competition and competence
Strategic working with competences Define the role of the organization within the social-economic environment Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Phase 7 Determine the goals and objectives of the organization Determine the need for competences of the organization Inventory the present competences of the organization Analyse the fit between the present and needed competences Competence-based training and development Determine to what extent the goals and objectives are realised Determine effective work behaviour based on the formulated objectives Performance appraisal and competence-based rewarding Phase 8 From: Vernhout, A. (2004), Strategisch werken met competenties: theorie en praktijk van het competentiedenken
Management exists for the sake of the institutions results and performance. It has to start with the intended results and has to organize the resources of the institution to attain these results ~ Peter F. Drucker Management…..
Further reading R. Sanchez, A. Heene (2004), The new strategic management: organization, competition and competence A. Heene, S. Vermeylen (1999), De stille kracht van de onderneming: competentiedenken in strategisch management A. Vernhout (2004), Strategisch werken met competenties: theorie en praktijk van het competentiedenken