Presentation on theme: "Each of the letters have been argued over Dates vary from as early as 45 to as late as 120 Harris dates them in the last portion of the first century,"— Presentation transcript:
Each of the letters have been argued over Dates vary from as early as 45 to as late as 120 Harris dates them in the last portion of the first century, after Jerusalem fell Others arent so sure Most agree that they reflect a set of new problems in the church Jewish difficulties are still possibly present, but other problems have surfaced
False teachers Who was Jesus? Was he human? Was he a spiritual being? Was he a superman? Behavior in the church…who do we admit, how do we deal with apostasy? How do we deal with the delay of the Parousia? How should Christians deal with suffering? Physical suffering and illness?
Probably the central issue How should Christians live in a world that was antithetical to Christian values? Roman persecution is there, especially in Hebrews, but the major issue is how do live daily live faithfully?
Elegant Greek No author is named Probably not Paul Some argue it was written by a woman A good argument can be made for being addressed to the Christian community in Rome, after the persecution of Claudius, before Neros attack, but no real proof
Plato and Socrates The eternal forms Everything on earth is a copy See the chart in Harris on page 393 This is the first unique feature of Hebrews
Jesus is presented as the superior one (ch. 1) The author says he was perfect, sinless, 7:15 A High Priest after the order of Melchizedek Abraham offered a tithe to Melchizedek in Genesis 14 The lesser offers to the greater Therefore Melchizedek was greater than Abraham and the priesthood of Israel
Jesus as perfect high priest entered the heavenly temple, made the perfect sacrifice for sin, i.e. himself, as the perfect high priest in the perfect temple Therefore sacrifice is at an end Ephapax, a Greek word meaning never to be repeated again, the unique sacrifice ch 9 and 10 He is the permanent mediator (7:24-25, 9:15-22)
Ch. 10:26-39 Hold fast Do not deny the faith, there is no second chance… Hebrews lists a long series of faithful heroes and heroines from Jewish scriptures in Heb. 11 as examples of faithful living
Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not see. 11:1
Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight and the sin that clings so closely, and let us run with perseverance the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus the pioneer and perfecter of our faith who for the sake of the joy that was set before him endured the cross, disregarding its shame, and has taken his seat at the right hand of the throne of God. 12:1-2
Therefore since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us give thanks, by which we offer to God an acceptable worship with reverence and awe, for indeed our God is a consuming fire. 12:28
Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever. Do not be carried away by all kinds of strange teachings. 13:8
Imitate the life and faith of your leaders Imitate the life and faith of those who surround you Imitate Jesus Move to perfect living
Attributed to the brother of Jesus Arguments for and against If by James then written around 60 a.d. Does not mention destruction of Jerusalem Is heavily influenced by Wisdom tradition
Warning against wrong conduct in the church and in the world…Be doers of the word and not merely hearers who deceive themselves Warning against improper partiality in the church FAITH WITHOUT WORKS IS DEAD 2:1
Control the tongue Practical advice on Christian values and living
Patience in suffering Note the final comment: If anyone among you wanders from the truth and is brought back by another, you should know that whoever brings back a sinner from wandering will save the sinners soul from death and will cover a multitude of sins.
If by Peter, then before 64 a.d. I Peter reflects a church that has suffered A manual of proper living Contains a high Christology
A call to holy living You are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, Gods own people. For the Lords sake, accept the authority of every human institution, whether of the emperor as supreme or of governors…honor the emperor… If you suffer for doing right you are blessed
Do not be surprised at the fiery ordeal that is taking place among you to test you
Written in Peters name Probably one of the last parts of the NT to be written Attacks false teachers and their teaching Acknowledges Pauls letter Jesus will come…even if it is delayed with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are as one day.
I John probably by author of Gospel of John Some argue not…but… Affirms physical nature of Jesus, against docetism, idea that Jesus just appeared to be a human being Affirms salvation only in Jesus Warns against false teachers
Beloved, let us love one another, because love is from God; everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. whoever does not love does not know God, for God is love…No one has ever seen God if we love one another, God lives in us and his love I perfected in us. God is love
Incidental letters Late first century Dealing with matters of hospitality and church teaching and discipline
Possibly brother of Jesus Sometime in the period a.d. Resembles Jewish style of writing Most famous verse is vv Now to him who is able to keep you from falling, and to make you stand without blemish in the presence of his glory with rejoicing, to the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority before all time and now and forever Amen.
The Revelation of St. John Please read carefully chapters 1-3, and 20-22