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Gregory Bateson (1972): the unit of survival is a flexible species in a flexible environment. The creature that wins against its environment destroys.

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Presentation on theme: "Gregory Bateson (1972): the unit of survival is a flexible species in a flexible environment. The creature that wins against its environment destroys."— Presentation transcript:


2 Gregory Bateson (1972): the unit of survival is a flexible species in a flexible environment. The creature that wins against its environment destroys itself. (p. 493.) A fallacy of exclusion (part/whole) is in the background of todays severe ecological and social problems. Human beings are not rational but rationalizing animals. (Aronson, 1968, p. 6.) Misperceptions and misconceptions (understood as deviations from the Batesonian meta-pattern /Khattar, Wien, 2012/) are not awarded by Evolution in the long run.

3 Growth for the sake of growth is the ideology of the cancer cell. Edward Abbey What do we mean by development and value? Economic growth and the advancement of technologies? Costs and benefits: relative safety and welfare for few; but growing inequalities and exploitation for many (20:80; Martin and Schumann, 1997). Severe ecological hazards endangering our planet.

4 Consumer society discourses are inherently paradoxical. Values of autonomy, freedom, solidarity and care are emphasized; but he same values are simultaneously invalidated by hedonistic and fragmented hyper-reality messages. (Firat, 1991) Deficit language (e.g. anti-discrimination vs. tolerance) (Cooperrider, Whitney, 1999) Double-bind discourse (what is required is sanctioned, B. Erdős, Kelemen 2011) & other forms of manipulation Results: Loss of autonomy and courage for life; fears result scapegoating and lack of social solidarity.

5 Responsibility for ourselves (care of self) Responsibility for the community (solidarity) Responsibility for the future. Generativity: leaving a valuable personal legacy for the next generation; conceiving ones life as meaningful and purposeful; belief in the species; intergenerational constitution. (Kruse, Schmitt, 2012; McAdams et al., 1997; Gál, Gulyás, Medgyessy, 2011; Erikson, 1959)

6 Consumer societies = addictive societies. The primary subject-object relation is reversed: human identities are produced by the commodities they consume. The problem of control (the subject /product/ controls the person; demonization; Firat, 1991) The irresponsibility of the addict (the character structure of consumerism) The destructive and controlling dominance and paternalism of the co-dependent person (B. Erdős, Kiss, 2012) Too manyheroes for daily tasks indicate a pathological state of society (Hankiss, 1983) RESPONSIBILITIY – CONTROL – GUILT (Social constructions)

7 Relational responsibility (McNamee, Gergen, 1999) relies on the natural interdependence of human relationships and can be realized through empowerment and enablement. Balance between the individual and the community: less social expenditures and a more meaningful (generative) life. (Lakatos, 2009) Processes of empowerment and enablement as necessary preconditions are generated in the community and the results can be maintained only in the community. (Lakatos, 2009)

8 Hedonism: pleasure of the senses; pursuit of happiness and refusal of any sufferings. Right to the maximum of pleasure (the ideology consumerism) Eudaimonia: having a good genius; happy in the sense of blessed; ethical (i. e., acknowledging and realizing interdependence) (Horváth, 2008) Antonovsky (1987): SOC (meaningfulness, comprehensibility, manageability) Csikszentmihályi (1990): autotelic personality

9 Redemption: an early family blessing (talent or attachment) indicating that the world is a place where people care…; Early sensitivity to others sufferings; Stable personal philosophy and commitment, bad or tragic episodes turn out to be a blessing: second chances; Community commitments; Stories of redemption are not always happy stories: but the initial bad experience is followed by good outcomes. (Meaningful life)

10 Ecology: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Society = reconstructive community dialogue: Resilient, Responsible, Resourceful. we can see that the problem represented by others is our problem, that the line that divides each of us from others is the same line that divides us from ourselves: for whatever story comes to be told in the end, it is of us that it speaks. And this awareness is essentially generative of a tolerance that is not merely a gift or a donation or a concession to others – which as such would at most be a moralistic project – but rather is constitutive of reason and of our own salvation. Not just the avoidance of violence towards others but also the redemption of the violence in ourselves. (Gargani, 1998)

11 Antonovsky, A. (1987) Unraveling The Mystery of Health - How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Aronson, E. (1968) 'Dissonance theory: progress and problems,' in R.P. Abelson, E. Aronson, W.J. McGuire, T.M. Newcomb, M.J. Rosenberg, and P.H. Tannenbaum (eds), Theories of Cognitive Consistency:A Sourcebook. Chicago, IL: Rand McNelly p.5-27. B. Erdos, M., Kelemen, G. (2011) The Finite Universe: Discursive Double Bind and Parrhesia in State Socialism. In: History of Communism. (2) 281-308. B. Erdős M. - Kiss Sz.: A gondoskodás jelentésének változása a felépülés során során (2012) Szociális Szemle (5) 18-32 B. Erdős M. - Kiss Sz.: A gondoskodás jelentésének változása a felépülés során során Bateson, G. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cooperrider, D. L., Whitney, D.(1999): Appreciative Inquiry. Berrett-Kochler Communications Inc., San Francisco. Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1990), Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, New York: Harper and Row. Erikson, Erik H. (1959): Identity and the Life Cycle. Growth and Crises of the Healthy Personality. New York: International Universities Press. New York: Norton, 50-101. Firat, A. F. (1991) The Consumer in Postmodernity. Advances in Consumer Researc. 18. 70-76. Gál, R. I., Gulyás, A. Medgyesi, M. (2011) Intergenerációs Alkotmány. Budapest: TÁRKI-Nemzeti Fenntartható Fejlődési Tanulmányok No. 5. Gargani, A.(1998): Religious Experience as Event and Interpretation. In: Derrida, J., Vattimo, G. (eds.): Religion. Stanford University Press, Stanford. 111-134. Hankiss, E.(1983): Társadalmi csapdák. Diagnózisok. Magvető, Budapest. Horvath, A, (2008) What Kind of Political Anthropology: Turning Iconoclasm into Golden Age. International Political Anthropology 2. 255-261. Khattar, R, Wien, C. A. (2012): Illness and the Concept Aesthetic Responsiveness in Early Childhoof Education. Journal of the Canadain Association of Curriculum Studies. 10 (2) 69-91. Kruse, A, Schmitt, E. (2012) Generativity as a Route to Active Ageing. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research. Lakatos, K. (2009). A képessé tétel folyamata. Budapest: Közösségfejlesztők Egyesülete. Martin, Hans-Peter and Schumann, Harald (1997). The Global Trap: Globalization and the Assault on Prosperity and Democracy. New York, NY: St. Martins Press McAdams, D.P., Diamond, A., de St. Aubin, E.,, Mansfield, E. (1997). Stories of commitment: The psychosocial construction of generative lives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 678-94. McNamee, S., Gergen, K.(1999):Relational Responsibility. Resources for Sustainable Dialogue. Sage, Thousand Oaks. 3-57.

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