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Post Classical China. Song Dynasty Post Classical China Sui, Tang, Song In Romepolitical fragmentation China regained unity under Sui Dynasty (589-618)

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Presentation on theme: "Post Classical China. Song Dynasty Post Classical China Sui, Tang, Song In Romepolitical fragmentation China regained unity under Sui Dynasty (589-618)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Post Classical China

2 Song Dynasty

3 Post Classical China Sui, Tang, Song In Romepolitical fragmentation China regained unity under Sui Dynasty (589-618) Great Canal system –an engineering feat without parallel in the world of its time Linked China north and south economically and enabled prosperity

4 Tang and Song Tang 618-907 Song 960-1279 Renewed unity Gold Age of Chinese Achievement NeoconfucianismConfucianism incorporating insights of Buddhism and Daoism Politically created 6 ministries (finance, personnel, rites, army, justice, public works)

5 Chinas Mona Lisa: Beijing Qingming scroll

6 What does this scroll tell you about China during the Song Dynasty?

7 Golden Age Exam Systemreinstated and further entrenched Ability to print books Placing numbers on exams not namesalso, people were searched when taking the exam- prevent cheating Basing system on merit- a challenge to aristocracy (usually found a way around it anyway)

8 Great inventions Paper Printing Gunpowder Compass

9 Song Economic Revolution Made China by far the richest, most skilled, and most populous country on earth Endured GREAT population Growth From 60 million during Tang to 120 million by 1200. Why would this bemust have to do with food production. Remarkable achievements in agricultural production, particularly the adoption of a fast ripening and drought resistant strain of rice from Vietnam MOST IMPORTANT: producing for the market, rather than for local consumption became a very widespread phenomenon. Paper money contributed to Chinese commercialization

10 Urbanization China became the most urbanized country in the world Marco Polo would describe Hangzhou (city): beyond dispute the finest and noblest city in the world Supplying cities with foodthanks to network of canals, rivers, lakes. Cheap transportation: worlds most populous trading area

11 Iron Production Industrial production soared Supplied metal for coins, armor, arrowheads, tools, construction, bells in Buddhist monasteries

12 Women in Song Dynasty LESS THAN GOLDEN AGE Turning point in history of Chinese patriarchy During Tang Steppe nomads had introduced a life that favored females (women rode horses, participated in social life)however by Song Dynasty a restored Confucianism Tightened patriarchal restrictions on women Restored earlier Han images of female submission and passivity

13 Sima Guang on Women The boy leads the girl, the girl follows the boy the duty of husbands to be resolute and wives to be docile begins with this Women were distraction to mens pursuit of a contemplative life

14 Foot binding Began to spread during Tang Elite families at first New images of female beauty and eroticism that emphasized small size, delicacy, and reticence In other ways there was progress for women– property rights expanded Women were educated more– for the sake of educating their sons. Thus tightened and gave women opportunities

15 Chinas Many Interactions How did China view its nomadic neighborsvisa versa China is NOT self contained Chinas most enduring interaction with foreigners lay to the northnomadic pastoral peoples of the steppes They traded, were raided Nomads also saw China as a threat The Great Wall was built in their face Prevented trading at some times Sometimes the Chinese sent military campaigns directed at nomads The Chinese needed nomads horses Skins, furs, hides were also valuable to Chinese Pastoral Nomads also controlled parts of the Silk Road

16 The Tribute System Way of Chinese managing relationships with surrounding people A set of practices that required non Chinese authorities to acknowledge Chinese superiority and their own subordinate place in a Chinese centered world order. Kowtowseries of ritual bowings and prostrations and present their tribute to emperor What did they get in exchange: access to trade

17 Tribute with Xiongnu In reality– the Xiongnu were just as powerful Xiongnu had the power to devastate China Chinese promised Xiongnu grain, wine, silk as gifts In reality, tribute in reverse or protection money In return- Xiongnu would refuse military incursions into China The Chinese were not always able to dictate the terms of the tribute system Unlike the people of Southern China who absorbed Chinese culture, northern nomads maintained own culture

18 Tribute: Korea, Vietnam, Japan Newly emerging states of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Unlike northern nomads, these cultures were sedentary and agricultural Unlike people in SOUTHERN China, these people were influenced by China but NEVER became Chinese


20 Korea and China Resisted Chinese political control Participated in Chinas tribute system Leaders embraced connection with China Wanted to become a miniature China To Korea from China: Luxury goods Ceremonial clothing Silk Teas Confucian and Buddhist texts Artwork Korean students went to Chinastudied Confucianism, natural sciences, the arts Confucian schools were set up in Korea HOW DO YOU THINK CHINESE CULTURE IMPACTED WOMEN IN KOREA?

21 KOREA KOREA remained Korean 688Political independence Chinese influence was mostly towards the elite Buddhism though was a great impact

22 Vietnam Like Korea, the elite culture of Vietnam borrowed heavily from China Adopted Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, administrative techniques, exam system, artistic and literary styles Vietnam achieved political independence Participated in tribute system


24 Differences with Vietnam The Vietnamese heartland was incorporated into China for over 1000 years. Chinese regarded Vietnamese as Southern Barbarians Chinese saw them as another rice producing area Elite were educated in Chinese culture Some rebellions to go against Chinese rule/influence Took to the 10 th century for Vietnam to rebel as a separate state

25 Vietnam as a separate state Emperors like China Claimed the Mandate of Heaven Chinese court rituals More so than KoreanChinese based exam system in Vietnam Merit based scholar gentry class Vietnamese remained committed to Chinese culture

26 Vietnam Beyond the elite there remained much that was uniquely Vietnamese i.e. cockfighting Greater role of women in social and economic life Female Buddha Language

27 Japan Unlike Korea and Vietnam, the Japanese islands were physical separated from China by 100 miles of Ocean Thus Japans vey extensive borrowing from Chinese civilization was voluntary –not under threat Began to develop a centralized bureaucratic state like China


29 Japannot the same bureaucratic system Japan would become decentralized Would become feudalistic Shinto was never replaced by Buddhism Marriages were made and broken often DEVELOPED MORE DISTINCT due to geographic location Separate from China physically

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