Vocabulary Inoculation- to implant a disease agent in a person, animal, or plant to produce a disease for study or to stimulate disease resistance Variolate- to inoculate with the smallpox virus Vaccinate- to inoculate with the modified virus of any other disease, as a preventative measure
Social/Cultural, Economic, Political Effects Social People with smallpox originally were isolated from society in an attempt to contain the smallpox After vaccine was invented, they did not have to be excluded form society Anti-vaccination leagues Pox parties Opinions formed about the vaccine Economic Cost to vaccinate everyone was more expensive than some countries could afford Political Threat of biological warfare
Effect of Smallpox Vaccination (Revolution) Revolutionized society- vaccines becoming more popular Changed the way doctors treated diseases Idea of immunity- Native Americans with no immunity died from smallpox Dairymaids exposed to cowpox (weaker form of smallpox) were immune to smallpox
Effect of Smallpox Vaccination (Reaction) Anti-vaccination leagues formed in England Parents did not want childs flesh to be cut open Vaccines called unchristian because vaccinations came from animals People did not trust Jenners ideas & modern medicine In more modern times there have been pox parties Parents threw pox parties because they distrusted vaccines At a pox party, children would gather together to get infected by a child who already had smallpox
Small Picture/Big Picture and Historical Significance Small Picture People were healthier They did not have to be excluded from society Opinions formed about the vaccine Anti-vaccination leagues Pox parties Big Picture We use vaccines today to treat a variety of diseases Future vaccines treated polio, measles, and other diseases but this was not discovered in Edward Jenners lifetime.
Beginnings of Inoculation China in the 1000s A.D.- inoculation being practiced by the Chinese Having powder from smallpox scabs blown up a persons nose, or scratching matter from a smallpox sore into someones skin Emperor Kang of China wrote a letter to his descendants in 1661 when his father, Emperor Fu-lin died of small pox. In the letter, he said: The method of inoculation having been brought to light during my reign, I had it used upon you, my sons and daughters, and my descendants, and you all passed through the smallpox in the happiest possible manner…. In the beginning, when I had it tested on one or two people, some old women taxed me with extravagance, and spoke very strongly against inoculation. The courage which I summoned up to insist on its practice has saved the lives and health of millions of men. This is an extremely important thing, of which I am very proud.
Beginnings of Inoculation Cont. In 1736 I lost one of my Sons, a fine Boy of 4 Years old, taken by the Small Pox in the common way. I long regretted that I had not given it to him by Inoculation, which I mention for the Sake of Parents, who omit that Operation on the Supposition that they should never forgive themselves if a Child died under it; my Example showing that the Regret may be the same either way, and that therefore the safer should be chosen. Benjamin Franklin, quoted in Franklin on Franklin by Paul Zall
Beginnings of Inoculation Cont. In 1777 George Washington ordered mandatory inoculation for troops if they had not already had smallpox earlier in life
History of Smallpox Smallpox believed to have appeared around 10,000 BC in northeastern Africa Disease introduced to Europe sometime between 5 th & 7 th centuries and was frequently epidemic during Middle Ages Arab expansion, Crusades, and discovery of West Indies contributed to spread of smallpox African slave trade contributed to smallpox in Americas Slaves came from regions where smallpox was epidemic Smallpox introduced to New World by Spanish & Portuguese conquistadors Disease killed much of local population and was critical in fall of Aztec and Incan empires
History of Smallpox cont. Similarly, on eastern coast of North America smallpox introduced by early settlers led to decline in native population Devastating effects of smallpox gave rise to examples of biological warfare During the French and Indian War, commander of British forces in North America suggested use of smallpox to kill American Indian population hostile to the British It is suspected that a British commander sent recently variolated citizens into Continental Army encampments when about half of soldiers in Quebec got smallpox
Who was Edward Jenner? As Jenner went through school he began to take great interest in science and nature When Jenner turned 13 he became an apprentice for a surgeon and apothecary Jenner was born on May 17, 1749 in England Jenner was orphaned at age 5 and sent to live with older brother
Who was Edward Jenner cont. Jenner concluded that cowpox could protect against smallpox, and could be spread from one person to another as a protection mechanism. After the apprenticeship, Jenner moved to London and was a student of the highly praised and famous doctor, John Hunter at St. Georges Hospital in London.