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L ECTIO D IVINA W ORKSHOP Rev. Randy Soto, SThD Archdiocese of Saint Louis Lay Formation Program 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "L ECTIO D IVINA W ORKSHOP Rev. Randy Soto, SThD Archdiocese of Saint Louis Lay Formation Program 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 L ECTIO D IVINA W ORKSHOP Rev. Randy Soto, SThD Archdiocese of Saint Louis Lay Formation Program 2013

2 I. The Human Word and Communication Phillip and the Ethiopian Eunuch (Act 8). Do you understand what you are reading? Same as then, we too need someone to explain to us the Sacred Text which contains Gods Revelation to his People.

3 A. Three functions of the Word Expression of a personal message which can be oral or not Call someone to dialogue in order to produce a response Information of objective data with precision and didactics

4 B. The three worlds of the Word World of the Author: God and the Hagiographers World of the Reader: Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow World of the Text OT & NT

5 C. What is the Official Teaching of the Catholic Church on the Bible? 1. Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei Verbum of Vatican II, The Reading of the Bible in the Church, CDF, Post-Synodal Exhortation Verbum Domini by Pope Benedict XVI, 2010.

6 II. The Bible The word ta Biblia, is the neuter plural of the Greek root to biblion which means book." It follows, that the Bible is a collection of books and not just one book. In the Catholic Church it is also called: Sacra Pagina, Pagina Coelestis, Sacred Books, The Scriptures, The Sacred Text, Divine Revelation, or The Holy Text. It is also common to name the Bible by one of the parts in which it is divided: Old Testament and/ or New Testament.

7 III. Divine Revelation In His goodness and wisdom God chose to reveal Himself and to make known to us the hidden purpose of His will (see Eph. 1:9) (DV 2).

8 1.What does God reveal to us? His Identity and his Plan for Salvation of all mankind. 2. How does God reveal? Through Words (dicta) and deeds (facta). 3. How was Revelation transmitted? By means of the Apostolic Tradition. 4. Who is the Authentic Interpreter of the Bible? By Christ explicit will, the Magisterium of the Church.

9 5. Who is the Author of Sacred Scriptures? God through the Hagiographers. 6. How were the Sacred Books put into writing? Papyri, Parchment and Scrolls

10 Leningrad Codex, 10 th century A.D.

11 Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1947 Fragment of Daniel in Hebrew

12 Physical Map of Israel

13 Political Map of Israel

14 Qumram Caves

15 Isaiahs Scroll of Qumram

16 Manuscripts of the NT Papyrus of the s II, belongs to the Gospel according to Saint John

17 Codex Vaticanus 4th Century

18 Codex Sinaiticus Complete text of the NT y de los LXX


20 Ugaritic Text

21 One common source in two different modes of transmission: Tradition and Sacred Scripture are intimately united and imbricated. For they spring forth from the same source, in a way we can say they merge and tend to the same goal

22 Saint Jerome, Patron Saint de los Biblical Scholars

23 6 Where was the Bible written? Along the regions of the Mediterranean Sea

24 7. When was the Bible written? It began to be written about three thousands years ago. The OT from BC; and the NT around AD. There is no dogma about this dates. 8. In which Languages was the Bible written? Aramaic, Hebrew y Greek

25 IV. Inspiration Those divinely revealed realities which are contained and presented in Sacred Scripture have been committed to writing under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. For holy mother Church, relying on the belief of the Apostles (see John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-20, 3:15- 16), holds that the books of both the Old and New Testaments in their entirety, with all their parts, are sacred and canonical because written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God as their author and have been handed on as such to the Church herself (DV 11)

26 What is Inspiration? how does it work? Inspiration is the Charisma by which the sacred authors (Hagiographers) wrote down what God wanted to Reveal to us. Under his special care the Holy Spirit guides the hagiographer in his writings (1Corintios 2:13), in such a way that what they write down is considered as the Authentic Word of God.

27 V. Inspiration and Canonicity: Canonicity of Sacred Scripture.

28 VI. Inspiration and the Truth of the Scripture Therefore, since everything asserted by the inspired authors or sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it follows that the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred writings for the sake of salvation. Therefore "all Scripture is divinely inspired and has its use for teaching the truth and refuting error, for reformation of manners and discipline in right living, so that the man who belongs to God may be efficient and equipped for good work of every kind" (2 Tim. 3:16-17, Greek text) (DV 11).

29 1 er. Criterion of Totality: The truth is found in entire Bible 2 do. Criterion of Progression: Divine Revelation has always been given in a progressively and steady way. 3 er. Criterion of Incarnation: God became man. 4 to. Criterion of Catholicity: Read the Bible in and with the whole Church Universal 5 to. Criterion of Salvation: The Truth is for our salvation 6 to. Criterion Distinction between Authenticity & Canonicity All the books of the Bible are canonical, but not all of them are authentic, some were written by Pseudoepigraphy, and others through Amanuenses or secretaries. 7 mo. Criterion : Distinction between Integrity e Historicity 8 vo. Criterion: Distinction between History y Literary Genre, that is: content and form. 9 no. Criterion of Text, Context and Pretext 10 mo. Criterion of Comprehension of a more holistic approach to Revelation and Inspiration.

30 VII. Inspiration and the Book of the Bible Papyri & Codexes Unctiales del 0T y NT. Greek Versions Latin versions or translations Syrian versions Spanish version Critical Editions BibleWorks 9, Accordance 9 ISA ( Biblia Clerus ( E-sword ( & (

31 Critical Editions of ABS

32 VII. Bible Timeline

33 Important Dates B.C. Bible-relatedCultural/historicalGlobal Perspective Abram and Sara (Genesis 17:8) covenant community, extended family, nomadic herders * Bronze Age * Egypt: Old Kingdom * No. America: early Inuit society 1800 Joseph in Egypt Israelites enslaved in Egypt agricultural society patriarchal structure * Egypt: Age of Pharaohs * Mesopotamia: Epic of Gilgamesh written (c. 1750) * Crete: Minoan civilization 1250 Moses, the Exodus wilderness nomadic tribal migration * China: Shang dynasty (c ) 1210Joshuainvasion of Canaan * Rise of India's civilizations 1120Judges (Judges 1) agricultural economy tribal villages * Greece: c Trojan War * China: Chou dynasty Saul David Solomon monarchy --multiple villages to kingdom * Central America: founding of Mayan dynasties

34 writing of much biblical text Early prophets (Amos) Solomon's kingdom divided: North, Israel; South, Judah 722 Assyrians conquer Israel * North Africa: founding of Carthage by Phoenicians * Greece: first Olympic Games; Homeric epics * Italy: founding of Rome Hilkiah finds Deuteronomy text Editing of OT material Prophecies of Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Habakkuk 587 Babylonians conquer Judah, destroy Temple, deport people to Babylon * Persia: Zoroaster * Greece: Aesop's Fables; Sappho; laws of Solon Building of Second Temple Prophecy of Zechariah, Haggai 538 Cyrus allows Israelites to return to Jerusalem; Judah a Persian province * India: Siddhartha Gautauma, the Buddha (c ) * China: Confucius (c ) * Greece: Archaic period Esther becomes Queen of Persia 458 Ezra sent to Judah 444 Nehemiah 397 Prophecy of Malachi Ezra's reforms; building of Second Temple * Greece: Persian Wars; Classical Age; Pericles in Athens; Parthenon built; Socrates, Plato, Euripides, etc.; Peloponnesian War Septuagint translated in Alexandria 333 Alexander the Great conquers Persian Empire; Hellenization begins * Rise of Roman Republic

35 First books OT Apocrypha written Seleucid heirs of Alexander rule Judea * China: Han dynasty * Rome conquers Carthage, Greece, and Asia Minor Maccabean revolt overthrows Seleucids Jewish self-rule under Hasmoneans 143 Essenes community begins B.C. 4 B.C. birth of Jesus 4 B.C. death of Herod the Great 63 B.C. Romans invade, violate Temple; Judea becomes a Roman province 30 B.C.-180 A.D. Pax Romana (Roman peace) unites Mediterranean world * B.C. Sicily and Italy: Romans defeat slave revolt led by Spartacus, crucify 6,000 * 30 B.C. death of Cleopatra; Rome annexes Egypt; Rome shifts from Republic to Empire under Augustus 6Quirinius' census Zealots' tax revolt heavy hand of Rome on Palestine * Rome consolidates power * Golden Age of Latin literature: Virgil, Ovid, etc.

36 30sThe adult life and ministry of Jesus Rabbi Hillel the Elder, Babylon Emperor Tiberius 36-69Oral transmission of message and story of Jesus Letters of Paul 60 Mark 61 Hebrews 62 Matthew 64 1Peter 67 Luke -Acts 67 2Peter Dead Sea Scrolls hidden in caves church in Jerusalem missionary travels of Paul 67, Peter martyred * China: Buddhism introduced * 64 Rome: Emperor Nero, Great Fire; persecution of Christians Didache Jude, James ,2,3 Jn 90 Council of Jamnia, formation of Hebrew Bible canon; 1st Epistle of Clement 96 Apocalypse 70 Jewish revolt against Rome fails; Jerusalem sacked, Temple destroyed by Romans ; The center of Christianity shifts from Jerusalem to Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome; Martyrdoms under Domitian, Trajan, etc. * 70 Josephus writes The Jewish War * 79 Pompeii: Mt. Vesuvius erupts * 117 Greatest expanse of Roman Empire * 100s Greatest expanse of Han Chinese empire

37 IX. Christ is the center of all Scripture After God spoke long ago in various portions and in various ways to our ancestors through the prophets, in these last days he has spoken to us in a son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he created the world (Heb 1:1-2) X. Jesus sends the 12 to preach the Word (Mt 28:20) He climbed a mountain and invited those he wanted with him. They climbed together. He settled on twelve, and designated them apostles. The plan was that they would be with him, and he would send them out to proclaim the Word (Mar 3:13-14). XI. Mary, Mother of the Word Incarnate is a model for any disciple for she put into practice Gods Word.

38 What is Lectio Divina? Lectio Divina is a devout and prayerful reading of Sacred Scripture. It can be done by an individual or by a group of faithful people. This inspired reading can only be done under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, who moves our beings into attentive reading, meditation, prayer and contemplation. Lectio Divina is done in three steps: Pray-Read-Pray. And we read in five movements: lectio, meditatio, oratio, contemplatio, et actio. XII. Lectio Divina

39 1. First step is to pray calling the Holy Spirit. [Seek and you shall find, knock and it shall be opened to you] Lc 11:9 2. The second step is to read, in five movements, according to the Schema given by Pope Benedict XVI in Verbum Domini 87: A. First movement: Lectio Scripturae [Seek by reading] B. Second movement: Meditatio [Find by meditating] C. Third movement : Oratio [Knock by praying] D. Fourth movement : Contemplatio [God will open to you] E. Fifth movement : Actio [Enter joyfully to cooperate His grace] 3. Third step is to pray by giving thanks to God

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