2What is Research?What is Research Methodology?Why do scientists often seem tentative about their explanations?Finding Research Problem?What is the difference between independent and dependent variables?What is a null hypothesis?
3Research Workflow SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identifiedPROBLEM DEFINITIONResearch problem delineatedTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKVariables clearly identified and labeledHYPOTHESES GENERATIONSCIENTIFICRESEARCHDESIGNPRELIMINARY DATA GATHERINGInterviewing & Literature SurveyDEDUCTIONHypotheses substantiated? Research questions answeredDATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4Find a good theme 1. Find your interest ! 2. What have the other people done about the topic ?-literature survey3. What is the problem ? How is it formulated ?4. How did they solve the problem ?5. Are there unexpected results ? Why it happened ?6. What is your opinion ?1. Do you have any idea to improve the research ?2. Do you have different approach to solve the problem ?
5What is a Variable. Simply, something that varies What is a Variable? Simply, something that varies. Specifically, variables represent persons or objects that can be manipulated, controlled, or merely measured for the sake of research.
6Independent Variables Independent Variables. These variables are ones that are more or less controlled. Scientists manipulate these variables as they see fit. They still vary, but the variation is relatively known or taken into account. Often there are many in a given study
7Dependent variablesDependent variables are not controlled or manipulated in any way, but instead are simply measured or registered.These vary in relation to the independent variables, and while results can be predicted, the data is always measured.There can be any number of dependent variables, but usually there is one to isolate reason for variation.
8Two basic categories of human reasoning Deduction: reasoning from general premises, which are known or presumed to be known, to more specific, certain conclusions.Induction: reasoning from specific cases to more general, but uncertain, conclusions.Both deductive and inductive arguments occur frequently and naturally…both forms of reasoning can be equally compelling and persuasive, and neither form is preferred over the other (Hollihan & Baske, 1994).
9Deduction Vs. Induction commonly associated with “formal logic.”involves reasoning from known premises, or premises presumed to be true, to a certain conclusion.the conclusions reached are certain, inevitable, inescapable.Inductioncommonly known as “informal logic,” or “everyday argument”involves drawing uncertain inferences, based on probabalistic reasoning.the conclusions reached are probable, reasonable, plausible, believable.
10Inductive or deductive reasoning? A sample of fifty motorists who were stopped by the CHP at a sobriety checkpoint on a Saturday at midnight revealed that one in four drivers were either uninsured, intoxicated, or both. Thus, if you get involved in an accident on the freeway there is a 25% chance the other motorist will be drunk or uninsured.The Law of the Sea treaty states that any vessel beyond a 12 mile limit is in international waters. The treaty also states that any vessel in international waters cannot be legally stopped or boarded. Therefore, when the U.S. Coast Guard intercepts boats coming from Cuba or Haiti more than 12 miles from the U.S. coast, it is violating the Law of the Sea.
11What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? Theory: Broad based explanation of phenomena Hypothesis : Proposed explanation for narrow set of phenomena
12Types of ResearchApplied Research: Research done with the intention of applying the results of its finding to solving specific problems currently being experienced (Real life)Basic Research: Research done with the intention to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena that occur and to build theories based on the research results.Both types of research follow the same steps of systematic inquiry to arrive at solutions to problems.
14Pure ResearchPure research is also know as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness.It may lead to either discovery of a new theory of refinement of an existing theory.Pure research formed the basis for innumerable scientific and technological inventions like steam engine, Machines, Telecommunications, Electronic Gadgets etc.
15Pure research offers solutions to many practical problems Pure research offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical Problem. It develops many alternative solutions.Example of Pure Research1. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity2. Newton’s Contributions
16Applied ResearchApplied research is carried on to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision.It is thus problem oriented and action directed. It immediate and practical result.Applied research in the field of Technology, Management, Commerce, Economics.
17Applied research can contribute now facts: It can put theory to the testIt may aid in conceptual clarificationIt may integrate previously existing theoriesExample:1. Market research carried on for developing a new market.
18ObjectivesDescriptive research: attempts to describe systematically a situation problem, phenomenon, service or program, or provides information live condition on communityCorrelation Research: discover or establish relationship, association, interdependence between two or more situations.
19Explanatory: Attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of situation or phenomenon.Exploratory: To explore an area where little is known.
20Inquiry Mode: The process being adopted to find answers Approaches:1. Structured - Quantitative2. Unstructured - Qualitative
21QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGESConcentrated issue - maximum probingFree exchange of informationEasier to arrangeBest for intimate, sensitive issuesFlexibilityExpensiveTime consumingExhausting for InterviewerInterviewer errorsRespondent bias or reliability
22KEEP IN MIND THAT …Qualitative research generally deals in words, images and the subjectiveQuantitative research generally deals in numbers, logic and the objectiveQuantitative research focuses on the left brain - objective, comfortable with logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Qualitative research deals with the right brain - the hemisphere accountable for processing data as words, emotions, feelings, emotions, colour, and music.
23QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEY SURVEY METHOD:STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIREGIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATIONDESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION
24QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - EXPERIMENTATION EXPERIMENTATION METHOD:Scientific investigation in whichan investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables andobserves the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables.*
25QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGESSpecific research problemClear independent and dependent variableHigh level of reliabilityMinimum personal judgementLimited outcomes due to structured methodUnability to control the environmentExpensive(large number of respondents)
26Differences between qualitative and quantitative research Involves unstructured interviews, observation, and content analysis.SubjectiveInductiveLittle structureLittle manipulation of subjectsTakes a great deal of time to conductLittle social distance between researcher and subjectInvolves experiments, surveys, testing, and structured content analysis, interviews, and observation.ObjectiveDeductiveHigh degree of structureSome manipulation of subjectsMay take little time to conductMuch social distance between researcher and subject
27The applications of research From the viewpoint ofThe service providerThe administratorManager and/ or plannerThe consumerThe professionalTo answer question such as:How many people are using the service or the product?Why do some people use the service/ product while others do not?To answer question such as:What types of service/ product are needed by the community?How many service providers are needed?To answer question such as:Am I, as a consumer getting value for money?How good are the service providers?To answer question such as:Which is the most effective intervention for a particular problem?What is the relationship between X and Y?
28Characteristics of Research Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem.SystematicProcedures adopted to undertake an investigation, follow a certain logical sequence.
29Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results
30Characteristics of Research ControlledExploring causality in relation to two variables, in a way that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting relationshipRigorousEnsuring that, the procedures followed to find answers to the question are relevant, appropriate and justifiedLogical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
31Characteristics of Research (Cont..) Valid and verifiableVerification of the conclusion on the basis of your findingsAnalytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study.
32References http://www.shoreline.edu/eng102/sampthesis.htm (Research Methodology - An Introduction)Ranjit Kumar (Research Methodology- A Step by Step guide for Beginners)