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Lecture 1 Part 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1 Part 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 1 Part 2

2 What is Research? What is Research Methodology? Why do scientists often seem tentative about their explanations? Finding Research Problem? What is the difference between independent and dependent variables? What is a null hypothesis?

Broad area of research interest identified PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly identified and labeled HYPOTHESES GENERATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING Interviewing & Literature Survey DEDUCTION Hypotheses substantiated? Research questions answered DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4 Find a good theme 1. Find your interest !
2. What have the other people done about the topic ? -literature survey 3. What is the problem ? How is it formulated ? 4. How did they solve the problem ? 5. Are there unexpected results ? Why it happened ? 6. What is your opinion ? 1. Do you have any idea to improve the research ? 2. Do you have different approach to solve the problem ?

5 What is a Variable. Simply, something that varies
What is a Variable? Simply, something that varies. Specifically, variables represent persons or objects that can be manipulated, controlled, or merely measured for the sake of research.

6 Independent Variables
Independent Variables. These variables are ones that are more or less controlled. Scientists manipulate these variables as they see fit. They still vary, but the variation is relatively known or taken into account. Often there are many in a given study

7 Dependent variables Dependent variables are not controlled or manipulated in any way, but instead are simply measured or registered. These vary in relation to the independent variables, and while results can be predicted, the data is always measured. There can be any number of dependent variables, but usually there is one to isolate reason for variation.

8 Two basic categories of human reasoning
Deduction: reasoning from general premises, which are known or presumed to be known, to more specific, certain conclusions. Induction: reasoning from specific cases to more general, but uncertain, conclusions. Both deductive and inductive arguments occur frequently and naturally…both forms of reasoning can be equally compelling and persuasive, and neither form is preferred over the other (Hollihan & Baske, 1994).

9 Deduction Vs. Induction
commonly associated with “formal logic.” involves reasoning from known premises, or premises presumed to be true, to a certain conclusion. the conclusions reached are certain, inevitable, inescapable. Induction commonly known as “informal logic,” or “everyday argument” involves drawing uncertain inferences, based on probabalistic reasoning. the conclusions reached are probable, reasonable, plausible, believable.

10 Inductive or deductive reasoning?
A sample of fifty motorists who were stopped by the CHP at a sobriety checkpoint on a Saturday at midnight revealed that one in four drivers were either uninsured, intoxicated, or both. Thus, if you get involved in an accident on the freeway there is a 25% chance the other motorist will be drunk or uninsured. The Law of the Sea treaty states that any vessel beyond a 12 mile limit is in international waters. The treaty also states that any vessel in international waters cannot be legally stopped or boarded. Therefore, when the U.S. Coast Guard intercepts boats coming from Cuba or Haiti more than 12 miles from the U.S. coast, it is violating the Law of the Sea.

11 What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
Theory: Broad based explanation of phenomena Hypothesis : Proposed explanation for narrow set of phenomena

12 Types of Research Applied Research: Research done with the intention of applying the results of its finding to solving specific problems currently being experienced (Real life) Basic Research: Research done with the intention to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena that occur and to build theories based on the research results. Both types of research follow the same steps of systematic inquiry to arrive at solutions to problems.


14 Pure Research Pure research is also know as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory of refinement of an existing theory. Pure research formed the basis for innumerable scientific and technological inventions like steam engine, Machines, Telecommunications, Electronic Gadgets etc.

15 Pure research offers solutions to many practical problems
Pure research offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical Problem. It develops many alternative solutions. Example of Pure Research 1. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity 2. Newton’s Contributions

16 Applied Research Applied research is carried on to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem oriented and action directed. It immediate and practical result. Applied research in the field of Technology, Management, Commerce, Economics.

17 Applied research can contribute now facts:
It can put theory to the test It may aid in conceptual clarification It may integrate previously existing theories Example: 1. Market research carried on for developing a new market.

18 Objectives Descriptive research: attempts to describe systematically a situation problem, phenomenon, service or program, or provides information live condition on community Correlation Research: discover or establish relationship, association, interdependence between two or more situations.

19 Explanatory: Attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of situation or phenomenon. Exploratory: To explore an area where little is known.

20 Inquiry Mode: The process being adopted to find answers
Approaches: 1. Structured - Quantitative 2. Unstructured - Qualitative

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Concentrated issue - maximum probing Free exchange of information Easier to arrange Best for intimate, sensitive issues Flexibility Expensive Time consuming Exhausting for Interviewer Interviewer errors Respondent bias or reliability

22 KEEP IN MIND THAT … Qualitative research generally deals in words, images and the subjective Quantitative research generally deals in numbers, logic and the objective Quantitative research focuses on the left brain - objective, comfortable with logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Qualitative research deals with the right brain - the hemisphere accountable for processing data as words, emotions, feelings, emotions, colour, and music.


EXPERIMENTATION METHOD: Scientific investigation in which an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables.*

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Specific research problem Clear independent and dependent variable High level of reliability Minimum personal judgement Limited outcomes due to structured method Unability to control the environment Expensive(large number of respondents)

26 Differences between qualitative and quantitative research
Involves unstructured interviews, observation, and content analysis. Subjective Inductive Little structure Little manipulation of subjects Takes a great deal of time to conduct Little social distance between researcher and subject Involves experiments, surveys, testing, and structured content analysis, interviews, and observation. Objective Deductive High degree of structure Some manipulation of subjects May take little time to conduct Much social distance between researcher and subject

27 The applications of research
From the viewpoint of The service provider The administrator Manager and/ or planner The consumer The professional To answer question such as: How many people are using the service or the product? Why do some people use the service/ product while others do not? To answer question such as: What types of service/ product are needed by the community? How many service providers are needed? To answer question such as: Am I, as a consumer getting value for money? How good are the service providers? To answer question such as: Which is the most effective intervention for a particular problem? What is the relationship between X and Y?

28 Characteristics of Research
Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.        Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.     Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. Systematic Procedures adopted to undertake an investigation, follow a certain logical sequence.

29 Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment.
Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures. Replicability. The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results

30 Characteristics of Research
Controlled Exploring causality in relation to two variables, in a way that minimizes the effects of other factors affecting relationship Rigorous Ensuring that, the procedures followed to find answers to the question are relevant, appropriate and justified Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.

31 Characteristics of Research (Cont..)
Valid and verifiable Verification of the conclusion on the basis of your findings Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study.

32 References
(Research Methodology - An Introduction) Ranjit Kumar (Research Methodology- A Step by Step guide for Beginners)

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