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Community Development & Capacity Building First Nations & Inuit Health Branch September 2012
COPYRIGHT/PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE The material in the Indigenous Community Development Curriculum (Curriculum) is covered by the provisions of the Copyright Act, by Canadian laws, policies, regulations and international agreements. Such provisions serve to identify the information source and, in specific instances, to prohibit reproduction of materials without copyright clearance. Unless otherwise specified, this authorization is also applicable to all published information regardless of its format. Non-commercial Reproduction Personal or public non-commercial use and may be reproduced, in part or in whole, and by any means, without charge or further permission, is permissible unless otherwise specified. Users are required to: Exercise due diligence in ensuring the accuracy of the materials reproduced; Indicate both the complete title of the materials reproduced, as well as the author organization (First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada); and Indicate that the reproduction is a copy of an official work that is published by the Government of Canada and that the reproduction has not been produced in affiliation with, or with the endorsement of the Government of Canada. Commercial Reproduction Reproduction of multiple copies of materials of the Curriculum, in whole or in part, for the purposes of commercial redistribution is prohibited except with written permission from the Government of Canada's copyright administrator, Public Works and Government Services Canada. Through the permission granting process, Public Works and Government Services Canada helps ensure individuals/organizations wishing to reproduce Government of Canada materials for commercial purposes have access to the most accurate, up- to-date versions. To obtain permission to reproduce materials on this site for commercial purposes please contact Crown Copyright and Licensing. ©FNIHB-HC 2
CDCB Framework approach Indigenous community development is dependent on the combined capacities of the communitys individuals, public service and governance – community development happens from within. Role and opportunity for governments and partners - to support the capacity of community individuals, organizations and governance excellence. By supporting capacity which leads to community development, First Nations and Inuit communities will address their own social determinants of health, based on their own assets, including Indigenous knowledge and culture. This is the game-changer to improve health outcomes. For governments and partners - Strengthened knowledge and competencies in effectively partnering with communities (including cultural competence), and strengthened community partnerships are necessary elements for success. ©FNIHB-HC 3
Theory of Change Previous policies to implement community-centred approaches have resulted in momentary shifts, but policy alone does not result in transformative change. CDCB is using an organizational change approach to increase the likelihood of transformative change: Empower community members, FNIHB employees and external partners with knowledge and competencies – to know more is to do better (Elder Paul Skanks). Encourage natural networks of people that provide supports and opportunities for discussion on how to implement Indigenous community development Build champions at every level Maintain a vision of the future that generates hope and commitment ©FNIHB-HC 4
Healthy Community is the Vision Krawl, 1994, Indicators of healthy community people getting involved in their community greater sense of trust, caring and sharing among community members positive parenting sharing of intergenerational wisdom [and culture] openness and communication among community members, without blaming or shame clear role expectations and people taking responsibility sense of connectedness and sensitivity to one another which promotes healthy partnerships and collective action Adapted from Whanāu Ora, New Zealand approach to Māori family health and wellbeing. Community and family well-being will be realised when [extended] families are: Self managing Living healthy lifestyles Participating fully in society Confidently participating in the First Nations/Inuit world Economically secure and successfully Involved in wealth creation Cohesive, resilient, nurturing ©FNIHB-HC 5
6 ©FNIHB-HC 6 Working Definition: Community Development The foundational value and belief of community development is that the people themselves can improve their community by working together, building consensus on priorities and actions, building on community assets, and developing individual and community capacity. Community development is a principled, values-based approach to support better outcomes in First Nations and Inuit health, by empowering communities to manage their own services, building on their own strengths including culture. Community development is not a program – the principle is to embed community development knowledge and expertise across the whole branch, in every policy and program.
Community development is not new This increasing level of health in Aboriginal communities must be built on three pillars. The first, and most significant, is community development, both socio-economic development and cultural and spiritual development, to remove the conditions of poverty and apathy which prevent the members of the community from achieving a state of physical, mental and social well-being. (1979) ©FNIHB-HC 7
Commitment to Community Development Community development is a priority of the Health Canada Executive Committee workplan. FNIHB ADMs speech to the AFNs Health Policy Forum highlighted community development Linked to FNIHB draft Strategic Plan FNIHB Regional Directors have shown their support and commitment to the content and approach, and an RD co-chairs the National Advisory Committee AFN and ITK both participate and are co-chairs of the National Advisory Committee. ©FNIHB-HC 8
Community Development Community Capacity Partnerships for Community Health & Well- being Government & Partners Knowledge & Competencies Indigenous Knowledge & Culture Strength- Based Community- Centred Leadership in Community Holistic Health & Well-being Community Development and Capacity Building Framework and Principles Cultural Competence ©FNIHB-HC 9
Pillars of the CDCB Framework Pillars or entry points to support Indigenous Community Development (ICD) in communities. Building our own knowledge and competencies in ICD and cultural competence, to be better partners. Working with innovative partners such as other governments, corporations and non-profits to support community well-being. Always supporting ongoing development of capacities in communities. ©FNIHB-HC 10
Principles of the Framework ©FNIHB-HC 11
Community Capacity – What is it? Capacity of individuals + capacity of community organizations = building blocks for community development. For example: Capacities in communicating and sharing plans for the future, working together to achieve a shared plan, and evaluating progress. Why is it helpful? Community development is built on individual and organizational capacities. Successful communities have the capacity to identify and address their own determinants of health. In practice – how do we implement? First do no harm – do not compromise community capacity, decision-making, self-determination and hope Focus on opportunities to leverage partnerships to support capacity development in individuals and organizations. ©FNIHB-HC 12
Community Capacity definitions What community insiders need to have, to know, to do, and to be, in order to effectively influence the primary determinants of health that are affecting them (United Nations Development Program). Sometimes described at three levels: Individual Level - development of conditions that allow individuals to build and enhance existing knowledge and skills, the establishment of conditions that will allow individuals to engage in the process of learning and adapting to change Institutional Level - aiding and supporting institutions/organizations in forming sound policies, organizational structures, and effective methods of management and controls Societal Level - support the establishment of a more interactive public administration that learns equally from its actions and from feedback it receives from the population at large. Capacity building must be used to develop public administrators that are responsive and accountable. ©FNIHB-HC 13
14 Individual Capacity Safety Healing Personal health practices including culture Social supports Ready to learn Ready for work Service Delivery Continuing education for work and career Communication Project management E-technology Sector-Specific Capacity: health, ECD and education, housing & public works, PSE, lands & resources, family & community supports, social development, economic development, policing, membership Governance Policy and decision making Communication and negotiation Organizational design Management & controls Community engagement & moral authority Leadership Partnerships & Collaboration Accreditation Organizational Capacity Communication and negotiation Public administration Policy and decision- making HR management Financial mgmt & fundraising Strategic Planning Information management Performance measurement Community engagement Partnerships & Collaboration Accreditation Public Service Capacity Community Capacities ©FNIHB-HC 14
Why is it helpful? Strength of culture in community is a determinant of community wellness. In practice, how to implement: Culture is an essential determinant of health in communities, and an eligible expense in FNIHB health programs. It is the responsibility of FNIHB and of FNIHB employees to be culturally competent. Indigenous Knowledge & Culture - WHAT is it? Culture (traditional and cultural activities, indigenous intelligence) is an important, and perhaps the most important protective factor in community. Culture acts as a buffer against crisis. Cultural discontinuity is a risk factor, particularly in mental health. ©FNIHB-HC 15
Indigenous Culture & Knowledge Culture The commonalities around which a group of people have developed values, norms, family styles, social roles and behaviours, in response to the political, economic and social realities they face Culture and identity are central to Indigenous perceptions and definitions of health and ill health. History matters: Colonization and residential schools discounted Indigenous cultures, churches and society labelled culture as evil and uncivilized, and the federal government criminalized cultural practices. Community healing from colonization and residential schools includes the process to reclaim and revive cultural knowledge and traditions – and this is a foundation for community development. Successful communities Community cultural identity, esteem and strength is associated with strong social support networks, inclusive social structures, and sense of hope for the future. ©FNIHB-HC 16
Strength-based - WHAT is it? A strengths-based or assets-based approach balances risk and protective factors, and respects the resilience of communities. A recognition that every community has assets – some are just more readily identifiable. WHY is it helpful? Builds trust Builds individual and community esteem Supports potential and hope In practice: Design programs and policy starting with community strengths including culture and social connectedness. Always look for strengths and assets. ©FNIHB-HC 17
WHY is it helpful? We all share a vision of communities self- managing with control over their own social determinants of health, with support from governments and partners. In practice: Facilitate community initiative and ownership, and reduce prescriptive policy and programs. Facilitate community capacity in decision- making, facilitation and strategic planning. Community-Centred - WHAT is it? Community-based: The majority of health risk and protective factors are local. Capacity and activity to address them must also be local. A community builds on its own strengths and assets to address health risk factors. Community-paced – Sustainable action builds on capacity in the community, at the stage of community development (continuum). Community-led: The communitys sense of ownership and control over activities to address wellness is likely just as important as the activitys outcomes. ©FNIHB-HC 18
WHY is it helpful? Formal and informal community leadership is a protective factor against crisis, and an essential factor for success. In practice: Support short- and medium- term leadership development and emerging leaders in communities. Leadership in Community - WHAT is it? Leaders create vision for the future: The ultimate task of a leader is to take his or her society to where it has never been. Community leaders include those paid to lead, and also those who have leadership roles and influence in the community. ©FNIHB-HC 19
WHAT is it? First Nations, Inuit and Métis define health as holistic (physical, emotional, mental and spiritual), and activities that have impact across the circle of health will have more impact than those which focus on only one. WHY is it helpful? Factors contributing to health and wellness, and healthy communities, are larger than any one department or partner. Successful communities have innovative partnerships with neighbouring communities, NGOs and additional funders. In practice: Leverage commonalities and partnerships within FNIHB, with other departments including AANDC. Facilitate relationships between First Nations, Inuit and Métis - and the NGO and private sectors. ©FNIHB-HC 20
Cultural Competence Important enough to spend much of the afternoon on this foundation of the CDCB Framework. An expectation held by Aboriginal communities and clients A lens – principles are seen and interpreted through it A process - reflected in communications. An indicator and an outcome – evaluated by Aboriginal partners and clients A lifelong learning opportunity. ©FNIHB-HC 21
22 Employees and organizations have knowledge and competencies in ICD and cultural competence, in order to build effective relationships with communities and clients. ICD and cultural competence is implemented in FNIHB & AANDC daily work to develop policies and programs, and decision-making that affects communities. FNIHB & AANDC are effective partners with communities to support their work to develop and address SDOH. As communities request, innovative corporate and philanthropic partners support the development of community capacities, and contribute to improved health and well-being. Communities have the capacities to plan, deliver and evaluate their own quality services and public administration, and negotiate effective relationships with provinces and territories to adapt the larger systems to better meet their needs (ie. Health, education, etc) FNIHB & AANDC CDCB Framework Goals ©FNIHB-HC 22
For more information: Rose Sones LeMay Branch Lead, Community Development and Capacity Building FNIHB, Health Canada APPENDICESDraft Workplan Lessons learned in CDCB Pilots ©FNIHB-HC 23
Draft Workplan Community Capacity Review options for FNIHB to actively support capacity in communities including emerging leaders, and options on joint work with AANDC Complete pilot with Public Safety on community planning, and report on outcomes FNIHB Knowledge and Competencies Train 20% of FNIHB in Indigenous Community Development course Develop structures to support ongoing learning including GC-Connex, Forums Complete resource kit for regions to support communities in crisis, perhaps with a specific workshop Partnerships for Health Contribute to knowledge translation on building and maintaining effective innovative partnerships Increase corporate and philanthropic contribution to community capacity and health services delivery ©FNIHB-HC 24
Lessons Learned in CDCB Pilots Internal Organizational Change Takes time in focussed training to build champions at every level of organization Indigenous Community Development curriculum Community Capacity is the lever Successful communities have strong capacities in how to do strategic planning Communities plan to their own internal authorities first Community peer support networks can offer immediate and sustainable supports, and better positioned to share messages about effective management and governance Kitiganzibi, joint funding with Public Safety, FN Health Mgrs Assoc Innovative Partnerships Negotiation skills, shared sense of benefit both important to community partnerships with corporations, non-profits, other governments Ahp-cii-uk ©FNIHB-HC 25
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