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September 10, 2013 Athena, protector of Athens (1 st cent. BC)

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Presentation on theme: "September 10, 2013 Athena, protector of Athens (1 st cent. BC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 September 10, 2013 Athena, protector of Athens (1 st cent. BC)

2 Achilles fights Hector, Athena and Apollo watch, Vase from BC

3 Achilles dragging Hector, Water jar from BC

4 independent community of citizens inhabiting a city and the countryside around it (Hunt 34). Persistence of tribes as voting units Earliest citizens were farmers, later importance of land holding to citizenship Justice administered by officials of polis as was military action and religious ceremonies Percentage of citizens varied


6 Monarchyrule of one man for good of all Tyrannyrule of one man for personal gain Aristocracyrule of state by the best in society Oligarchyrule of state by wealthiest (usually to increase their wealth) Democracyrule by many for good of all Mob Ruleself-interested rule by many

7 Aristotle, The Politics, 350 BC It is clear then that a state is not a mere society, having a common place, established for the prevention of mutual crime and for the sake of exchange. These are conditions without which a state cannot exist; but all of them together do not constitute a state, which is a community of families and aggregations of families in well-being for the sake of a perfect and self-sufficing life. Such a community can only be established among those who live in

8 the same place and intermarry. Hence there arise in cities family connexions, brotherhoods, common sacrifices, amusements which draw men together. But they are created by friendship, for to choose to live together is friendship. The end of the state is the good life, and these are the means towards it. And the state is the union of families and villages in a perfect and self-sufficing life, by which we mean a happy and honorable life. Our conclusion, then, is that political society exists

9 for the sake of noble actions, and not of living together. Hence they who contribute most to such a society have a greater share in it than those who have the same or a greater freedom or nobility of birth but are inferior to them in political excellence; or than those who exceed them in wealth but are surpassed by them in excellence.

10 Especially likely in a relatively democratic polis Tyrants often boosted cultural and political development Outgrowth of struggle of popular classes against aristocracy Heydey in the 6 th cent. BC

11 Land shortage Seized territory of Messenia in BC Messenians made into serfshelots 650 Helot revolt Lycurgus –800s-600s BC? Equal distribution of land for all citizens Removal of luxuries At seven moved from home to military training group Dependence of Spartan society on Helots Mixed governmentking, council of elders, assembly


13 By 700 BC included whole plain of Attica Kings, then archons (1 year), then council (Areopagus) Economic crisis in 500s BC, Solon given powers of arbitration economic reforms different classes of citizens council of 400 Athens became slave owning state

14 Peisistratos and his sons Rewarded followers with land Helped poorest people Cultural/ religious innovations Removed by Spartans in 510 BC

15 Kleisthenes, returned to Athens in 508 BC Democratia Crafted Athenian constitution Council of generals ostracism

16 Begun by Darius I, continued by his son Xerxes I Darius I and Xerxes I


18 490 BC – Darius I sends fleet to Greece Athenians defeat Persians, send messenger home to Athens - inspiration for modern marathons Persians abandon campaign and return home

19 Begins in 480 BC United Greek forces commanded by Spartans The famous 300 Spartans die fighting at Thermopylae Xerxes advances on Greece, including Athens

20 480 BC -Themistocles sees Salamis as ideal for naval battle, Greek fleet victorious 479 BC – Remaining Persian land forces defeated at Plataea

21 Initially designed to manage the ongoing threat of Persia Member states supposed to contribute ships or money BC: war with Persians ended, Athenian control of league became stricter No secession 454 treasury of league moved to Athens Athenian empire

22 Age of Pericles, Golden Age of Athens

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