2Main IdeasAfter a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time.Louis’ abuse of power led to revolution that would inspire the call for democratic government throughout the world.
3Introduction 1559, Henry of France died. Left four young sons. Three of the sons ruled but were all incompetent.Their mother, Catherine de Medici was the real power.Catherine tried to preserve royal authority but religious wars between the Catholics and Huguenots made it difficult.
4Religious Wars and Power Struggles Catholics and Huguenots fought 8 religious wars between1572 – St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris.Sparked a six week nationwide slaughter of the Huguenots.Huguenot nobles were attending a wedding for Catherine’s daughter and Henry of Navarre.
5Henry of Navarre Catherine and her last son died in 1589. Henry inherited the throne.Became Henry IV, the first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France.Catholics opposed Henry.Henry gave up Protestantism and converted for the sake of his country.
6Edict of Nantes 1568 – Henry declared – that the Huguenots could live in peace in Franceand set up their own houses of worship in some cities.This is an example of religious toleration.Known as the Edict of Nantes
7Rebuilding France Henry devoted his reign to rebuilding France. He restored the monarchy in France to a strong position.Some people were happy and welcomed peace.Others disliked Henry for his religious compromise.1610 – Henry was stabbed to death while riding in his carriage.
8Louis XIII & Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII = Henry’s sonTook over after Henry’s deathVery weak king1624 – appointed Cardinal Richelieu, a Catholic minister, to assist him.
9Cardinal Richelieu In a sense – the ruler of France. Wanted to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy.Went about this by two steps…
10Richelieu’s Steps 1. Moved against Huguenots. Still allowed them to practice, but would not let them build walls around their cities.2. Sought to weaken nobles’ power.Increased the power of government officials that were middle class.Richelieu also got France involved in the Thirty Years’ War against the Hapsburgs.
11Skepticism The idea that nothing can ever be known for certain. French thinkers expressed an attitude of doubt toward churches that claimed to have the only correct set of doctrines.
12Montaigne & DescartesRead the three paragraphs under Montaigne and Descartes on page 163 in your text.Answer the following questions:How might political and religious leaders have reacted to the work of Montaigne?Did Descartes’ response to the challenges of skeptics such as Montaigne put an end to the skeptics’ arguments? Explain.
13Louis XIV Comes to Power The efforts of Henry IV and Richelieu strengthened the French monarchy and paved the way for Louis XIV.Louis XIV became the most powerful ruler in French history.“I am the state.”Was four when he began his reign.
14Louis, the Boy King Louis XIII died in 1643, leaving his son to reign. Richelieu’s successor, Cardinal Mazarin really ruled France.Mazarin ended the Thirty Years’ War.
15Mazarin Many people hated Mazarin, particularly the nobles. Strengthened the central government.Nobles led riots and threatened the king’s life.Louis would never forget the fear.Wanted to be so strong that he could never be threatened by them again.
16Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority Mazarin died in 1661, leaving 22 year old Louis to rule alone.Excluded nobles from councils to weaken their power.Increased power of intendants (officials who collected taxes & administered justice).Demanded regular communication between local officials and him.
17Economic GrowthLouis devoted himself to making sure that France attained economic, political and cultural brilliance.Minister of Finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, assisted him greatly in achieving these goals.Tried to make France self-sufficient.Manufacture everything & not rely on imports.
18Jean Baptiste ColbertGave government funds & tax breaks to French companies.Placed a high tariff on imports.Encouraged people to migrate to Canada.After Colbert died, Louis recalled the Edict of Nantes.Response? Huguenots fled the country.Result? France lost many skilled workers.
19The Sun King’s Grand Style Spent a fortune to surround himself with luxuries.Each meal was a feast.Built a fabulous palace known as Versailles.Page 166.
27Louis Controls the Nobility Required hundreds of nobles to live with him.At least 100 of the most privileged nobles waited outside Louis’ canopy bed to help him dress.Four would have the honor of handing him his slippers or holding his sleeves.
28Patronage of the ArtsVersailles was a center of the arts during Louis’ reign.Louis made opera & ballet more popular.
29Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Under Louis, France was the most powerful country in Europe.1660, France’s population was about 20 million.4 times that of England10 times that of the NetherlandsFrench army was ahead in terms of size, training and weaponry.
30Attempts to Expand France’s Boundaries 1667, Louis invades the Spanish Netherlands.Gains 12 townsTries the same with the DutchThey flood the city and stop France.Louis continued to try to fight wars.Problem? The rest of Europe had formed an alliance and wanted to stop France.
31William of OrangeDutch prince, William of Orange, became the king of England.Joined the League of Augsburg – Hapsburg emperor, Kings of Sweden, and SpainDefeated France
32France’s Problems & Louis’ Mistakes Series of poor harvestsConstant warfareNew taxes (to pay for the war)MistakesMassive PopulationExpanding FranceContinuous expansion
33War of the Spanish Succession French longed for peace.Instead, got another war.1700 – Charles II (King of Spain) dies and leaves throne to Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV’s grandson).Enemies were now both ruled by French Bourbons.England, Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several German and Italian states joined together against France and Spain
34Treaty of Utrecht War dragged on until 1714. Under the Treaty of Utrecht, Louis’ grandson could remain king as long as France & Spain did not unite.Big Winner? Great BritainGreat Britain gets Gibraltar, permission to sell slaves in Spanish Colonies, and gave Britain Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay area
35Louis’ Death and Legacy Last years – More sad than gloriousRegretted the suffering he brought to France due to his wars.Died in 1715 – led to great rejoicing.Positive side – France was a great powerNegative side – war and Versailles left France in great debt