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A Comprehensive Framework for Developing ICT for Development (ICT4D) Indicators Professor Clement K. Dzidonu Senior Research Fellow International Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "A Comprehensive Framework for Developing ICT for Development (ICT4D) Indicators Professor Clement K. Dzidonu Senior Research Fellow International Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Comprehensive Framework for Developing ICT for Development (ICT4D) Indicators Professor Clement K. Dzidonu Senior Research Fellow International Institute for Information Technology (INIIT) Presented at the Joint ITU/ECA Regional Workshop on ICT Indicators October 2004, Gaborone, Botswana

2 The Basic Starting Premise Developing Indicators NOT for its Own Sake Not about…Indicators for Indicators Sake,,,but rather about developing and using Indicators as a MEANS to achieve or accomplish something else (process, action, decision making,)…. Indicators are NOT an END in itself. The Indicators Business is therefore more about identifying, developing and using suitable/appropriate Indicators…to shed some lights on a phenomena, guide a particular process, monitor and assess an impact of an action or decision/policy process and provide guidance on how to proceed the next time round on an informed footing.

3 Starting Points: Examining the Digital Divide Question Is the Digital Divide = A Divide Between Technological Haves and Have-Nots = [The Digital Numbers Divide (DND)]…? –The Measure of the Divide (the Gap) Computer Penetration and Diffusion Teledensity The Level of Internet Deployment and Spread The ICT Landscape –The Point of Reference of the Divide North-South Divide Within Country Divide Rural vrs Urban Divide The Gender Divide Rather: Is The Digital Divide = Developmental Divide = [The Developmental Digital Divide (DDD)]…?

4 The Digital Divide: Scoping the Which Indicators Question The concept of the digital divide and its implications is often defined in terms of the degree of access to ICTs in general and in particular to the Internet and its related emerging advanced communication technologies. Statistics like: the number of Internet hosts and subscribers, the level of PC penetration among others are often used as a rough indicator of a measure of the digital divide between two countries Based on these estimates, most developing countries including African countries are generally regarded as having comparatively less or inadequate access to these technologies. The Contention is that: The problem of the digital divide is NOT a technological one; --- it is not merely an issue of a divide between technological-haves and the technological-have-nots The threat posed by the digital divide to African countries is more of an economic development problem than a mere technological one.

5 The digital divide and its implications has more to do with the inability of a number of countries including those in Africa to deploy, harness and exploit the developmental opportunities of the emerging digital information and technological revolution to advance the process of their socio-economic development. The deployment, exploitation and the development of ICTs to support the process of transforming the predominately agricultural economies of African countries and move them towards information and knowledge economies is the central issue ---- To answer the which indicators question… we therefore need to go beyond looking at the implications of the digital divide purely in terms of access to and the use of ICT resources and services to examine its wider implications in socio-economic development terms.

6 The Argument is that: African countries and other developing countries will eventually narrow the digital numbers divide (DND) as the technology advance and becomes more portable and affordable But narrowing the digital numbers divide will not necessary translate into narrowing (or for that matter bridging the developmental digital divide (DDD) African countries will require more efforts to bridge or narrow the DDD than will be required to address the DND… Putting in place and implementing relevant policies (NICI policies, strategies and plans) with a view to bridge the DDD and developing suitable indicators to guide this process will be one such effort.

7 Linkages Between Indicators and the ICT4D Process indicators monitor, assess, measure progress and impact indicators THE HOW..? THE WHAT..? THE BASE/CASE guide the development and target setting provide basis and make case guide policy formulation

8 ICT as Enabler of Broad-base Development ICT Sector Development agric sector industrial sector service sector private sector public sector social sector infrastructure development R&D ICT Service sector ICT Industry strategic focus ICT infrastructure The Dual Focus

9 Acknowledging that…. The Basic Question being Addressed ….. How to address the developmental challenges of African countries and accelerate their socio-economic development process through the development, deployment and exploitation of ICTs It is not just about ICTs…is more about facilitating the development process to transform the socio-economic outcomes of households, businesses and impact on government operations. The Indicators question need to be addressed within this wider context.

10 Defining the ICT Space The ICTs cut across a variety of technologies including: Computer and Comms devices, equipment and technologies Telecommunications technologies and infrastructure (fixed line, wireless, satellite-based and mobile infrastructure) Communications and network technologies and infrastructure for voice, data and video Broadcasting networks including radio and TV networks The Internet --- incorporating elements of computers, telecom and communications technologies to form an integrated multimedia infrastructure with a global reach Production technologies including those used in CIM and production systems and operations Computer-based technologies for supporting specific operations & activities in agriculture, industry and commerce

11 Educational computer-mediated delivery technologies for supporting teaching, learning and training Computer-based technologies used for supporting health delivery operations and systems, including those used in computer-aided surgery, and ICUs, Robotics technologies used in a variety of industrial processes, and manufacturing operations Microchip technologies used in ranges of consumer products, like: watches, cars, fridges, TVs, radios washing machines etc Information processing technologies used for processing simple documents to processing and transmitting information to and from space crafts

12 The ICT Indicators Space ICT4D Indicators agriculture sector industrial sector service sector social sector HRD R&D House- holds public sector ICT Infrastructure Businesses Government Impact indicators

13 CAPACITY TRANSFORMATION impact USAGE The CUT Model for ICT2D Indicators time intensity indicators

14 capacity usage transformation time The CUT Ripples Loop

15 GOAL [TO DEV. IKE] To Effect Outcomes Of Households Business, Govt BASIS [FOR POLICY] Baseline Indicators To Guide IKE Dev Policy & Plan ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF GOAL (DEV OF IKE) ON HOUSEHOLDS BUSINESS & GOVT. [ Indicators: Monitoring & Measuring the impact of IKE Dev on Hholds, Bness, Govt] MEANS [POLICY/PLAN] To Achieve Goal ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS TOWARDS GOAL – DEV OF IKE [ Indicators: Monitoring and Measuring Impact (effect) of MEANS on GOAL] ASSESSMENT OF CHANGES IN BL INDICATORS AS MEASURE OF PROGRESS/LofP TOWARDS IKE Core Indicators Specific Indicators Core Indicators Specific Indicators Core Indicators Specific Indicators

16 DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE A high income economy dominated by trading in ICT products and services An economy characterized by a large commercial services sector with a reasonably large and vibrant ICT services sector and industry An economy characterized by a technology-based knowledge-driven industrial sector An economy with a globally competitive industrial and services sector which are to a large extent driven by cutting-edge R&D encompassing basic and applied industrial and product development. An economy based on a rich pool of highly skilled human resources in critical skill areas relevant for developing and maintaining a competitive edge on the global market

17 DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE An economy in which the majority of the working population are either directly or indirectly involved in information and communications related activities An economy with a modern, efficient and competitive agricultural sector An economy characterized by a wide-spread deployment and exploitation of ICTs within the society to support the delivery of health, education, government and social services An economy characterized by a modern educational system within which ICTs are widely deployed to facilitate the delivery of educational services at all levels of the educational system An economy in which a reasonable large proportion of the population have access to information and communications technology products and services cont.

18 DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE An economy in which the provision and delivery of goods and services of the key sectors of the economy are to a large extent facilitated by information and communications technologies An economy in which the provision and delivery of services by government and its administrative machinery are to a large extent facilitated by information and communications technologies An economy based on an advanced and reliable national information and communications infrastructure An economy based on a literate society with a high proportion of computer literates cont.

19 Defining the Policy Space Human Resource Development Developing a Globally Competitive Value- Added Services Sector Promoting Universal Access and Service ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Legal, Regulatory, and Institutional Framework & Environment Promoting Foreign and Local Direct Investment Drive in ICTs National Security and Law and Order Government Administration and Service Delivery - Promoting E-Government Promoting ICT Deployment and Social Sectors: Education, Health, and Community Developing Key Sectors of the Economy; Agriculture, Services and Industry Promoting Research & Development (R&D) Promoting the Development of E- Commerce POLICY/PLAN PILLARS

20 ICT Infrastructure Development Indicators on the level of deployment and the geographical spread of ICT infrastructure: Telecommunication infrastructure (fixed line, mobile, satellite, national backbone infrastructure); communications and computer networks infrastructure; Internet Infrastructure and International and Local Bandwidth, Broadcasting infrastructure (radio and TV); Transport infrastructure, Power infrastructure Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Main tel lines per 100 inhabitants (urban vrs. rural) Mobile Subscribers per 100 inhabitants (urban vrs. rural) No. of Internet Subscribers per 100 inhats (urban vrs. rural) No. of PCs per 100 inhabitants (urban vrs. rural) Mobile Subscriber as % total Tel Subscribers Long-Haul Internet Bandwidth No. of Internet Hosts Radios per 1000 inhabitants TVs per 1000 inhabitants

21 Human Resource Development Indicators on ICT Human Resource Capacity; Human Resource Capacity in key Skill Areas; Human Resource Capacity in Key Sectors of the Economy: Agriculture, Services and Industry. Indicators on the Human Resource Development Capacity of the Universities, Colleges and Other HRD Institutions and Establishments; Research and R&D Human Resource Capacity. Indicators on the supply and demand of human resources in key technical, managerial and professional skill areas across all sectors Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Total Supply and Demand of ICT Skills: (Programmers/ Software/System Developers/Analysts, Computer Scientists, Telecomm/ Network Engineers/Technicians etc) Level of Employment in the ICT industry (in absolute terms and % of total workforce (and gender distribution in terms of ICT Skills/Employment) Salary of ICT professionals by type of ICT Skill/ Employment Number of universities and colleges offering ICT programs

22 Promoting Universal Access and Service Indicators on the spread of ICTs (computers, telecom network and services, Internet) within the society and community; Indicators on the penetration of ICT services and resources within the community and society; Indicators on the level and degree of exploitation of ICTs with the economy and society Indicators on the degree and level of deployment of ICT infrastructure and services in rural communities Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. No. per 1000 inhabitants (within 5 km/walking distance) proximity to an Tel. Access Facility (IAF) No. per 1000 inhabitants (within 5 km/walking distance) proximity to an Internet Access Facility (IAF) Number of telecenters/comms centers per 1000 inhabitants Number of Public Phones per 1000 inhabitants (rural vrs. urban) Tel./Internet Access Charges [Tel/Internet Connection Charge, Monthly Tel/Internet Subscription rate, Fixed Line/Mobile Tel Tariffs: 3 minutes Local Call, Fixed Line/Mobile Tel Tarriffs: Subscription as % GDP per capita]

23 Government Administration and Service Delivery – E- Government Indicators on the degree and level of: the deployment and exploitation of ICTs as well as the deployment and implementation of e-government systems and initiatives within Government Ministries, Department, and Public Agencies and Establishments. Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. No. and Percent of Govt. MDAs with Internet Connection No and Percent of Govt. MDAs with corporate networks No. and Percent of Govt. MDAs with Web Sites Percent of Govt MDA that implement E-Gov Systems (e.g. Back office systems etc) Percent of Govt MDA providing services online Percent of ICT personnel (per total staff) in Govt MDAs Percent Expenditure on ICTs (per total expenditure) in Govt MDAs

24 Promoting the Development of Electronic Commerce Indicators on the degree and level of the deployment and exploitation of ICTs within private sector organizations in the services, and industrial sector Indicators on the diffusion of ICTs and the Internet within the services, and industrial sector. Indicators on the extent of the development and production of ICT products (software development, computer and communication devices) and the provision of ICT services (telecom services, Internet services, web and content dev. services, ICT equipment maintenance and repair services etc) within the economy Indicators on the degree and the extent of the provision of e-commerce facilitation services (banking services, merchant services, fulfillment house services, etc) Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Percent of Establishment placing orders over the Internet: Agric Sector Percent of Business placing orders over the Internet: Service Sector Percent of Firms placing orders over the Internet: Industrial Sector

25 Percent of Establishment receiving orders over the Internet: Agric Sector Percent of Business receiving orders over the Internet: Service Sector Percent of Firms receiving orders over the Internet: Industrial Sector Percentage of local Banks proving online banking services Percentage of population with credit cards Software Exports as percentage of total non-traditional exports Percent of locally sold ICT goods and services produced locally Indicators Cont….. Indicator to gauge the e-commerce legislative enabling environment Country Global competitiveness index Business Facilitation Index Digital Divide Index

26 Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services & Industry Indicators on the level of deployment and the degree of exploitation and utilization of ICTs within the key sectors of the economy: services, industry and agricultural sectors Indicators on the spread of ICTs within the key sectors of the economy: services, industry and agric sectors Indicators on the demand and supply of ICT-skills within the key sectors: services, industry & agric sectors Indicators on the level of ICT-related investment in key sectors of the economy: services, industry and agricultural sectors Indicators on the growth rate, productivity levels of each of the key sectors of the economy Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Indicator to measure ICT contribution GDP/GNI Growth Indicator to measure ICT contribution Agriculture Value Added Indicator to measure ICT contribution Services Value Added Indicator to measure ICT contribution Industrial Value Added Indicator to measure the contribution to Export Earnings ICT FDI (as percent of total FDI inflow) Avrg size (no. of emplys) of ICT firms Percent of ICT Personal (per Total staff): Agric Sector Percent of ICT Personal ( per Total staff): Service Sector Percent of ICT Personal ( per Total staff): Industrial Sector

27 Indicators Cont….. Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Agric Sector Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Service Sector Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Industrial Sector Percent of Staff/Workers that use Internet: Agric Sector Percent of Staff/Workers that use Internet: Service Sector Percent of Staff/Workers that use Internet: Industrial Sector Percent of Establishments with Web Site: Agric Sector Percent of Business with Web Site that use PCs: Service Sector Percent of Firms with Web site: Industrial Sector Percent of Establishments with Corporate Network: Agric Sector Percent of Business with Corporate Network: Service Sector Percent of Firms with Corporate Network: Industrial Sector

28 Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health, and Community Indicators of the level of diffusion and level of utilization of ICTs (computers, Internet etc) within the educational, health sectors and in the community Indicators to measure the degree of the deployment, penetration and the exploitation of ICTs in schools Indicators on community access to ICT services (rural vrs urban) Access and connectivity indicators on telecom and communication services: telephone and Internet services Indicators on gender-related ICT access and usage statistics Indicators on the level of ICT expenditure and investment in the educational and health sectors Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Percent of schools with PCs (urban vrs rural) Percent of schools with tel (fixed/mobile) (urban vrs rural) Percent of school with Internet connectivity (urban vrs rural) Percent of schools with electricity (urban vrs. rural) Percent of schools with Web Sites (urban vrs rural) Percent of schools implementing schoolnet (urban vrs rural)

29 Average computer to pupil ratio (urban vrs rural) Percent ICT expenditure as per total school budget (urban vrs rural) No. of ICT literate Teachers per school (urban vrs. rural) ICT literate Teachers as percent of total no. of Teachers per school (urban vrs. rural) Percent of hospitals/health centers with PCs (urban vrs rural) Percent of hospitals/health centers with Internet connectivity (urban vrs rural) Percent of hospitals/health centers with Web Sites (urban vrs rural) Percent of schools implementing telemedicine (urban vrs rural) Average computer to doctor/medical personnel ratio (urban vrs rural) Indicators Cont…..

30 Promoting Research and Development Indicators to measure to research and R&D human resource base Indicators to measure national expenditure and investment in research and R&D Indicators on the volume and value of research and R&D output Indicators on ICT product and services development related research and R&D work Example Baseline Indicators The BASIS: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Expenditure on R&D as percent of GDP Number of Scientists and Engineers per 1000 inhabitants High tech Exports as percent of Total Exports Industry R&D Expenditure as percent of total company budgetary expenditure Number of industrial patent per 1000 inhabitants Number of Research Degree Recipient per annum

31 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Dev, of IKE A high income economy dominated by trading in ICT products and services ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Government Admin & Service Delivery – E-Government Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Indicators to monitor and measure economic growth, productivity (agric, industrial, services), GDP and GNI attributable to ICT4D initiatives The ICT4D Indicators Framework Cont…

32 An economy characterized by a large commercial services sector with a reasonably large and vibrant ICT services sector and industry ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Indicators to measure the contribution of the ICT production and services sector to economic growth, GDP and GNI Indicators to monitor and measure the size of the commercial services sub-sector activities IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Dev, of IKE The ICT4D Indicators Framework

33 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE An economy characterized by a technology-based knowledge-driven industrial ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Promoting R&D Indicators to monitor and assess the knowledge-based activities of the industrial sector Indicators to monitor, assesses and measure the contribution of knowledge-based industrial sub- sector activities to economic growth, GDP and GNI An economy with a globally competitive industrial and services sector which are to a large extent driven by cutting- edge R&D encompassing basic and applied industrial and product development. ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Dev Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Promoting R&D Indicators to assess R&D expenditure per million of population Indicators to assess the impact of R&D on productivity in the industrial and services sector Indicators to measure the size of high-tech exports attributable to R&D Cont…

34 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE An economy in which the majority of the working population are either directly or indirectly involved in information and communications related activities ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Government Administration and Service Delivery – E- Government Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Indicators [Indexes] to measure the proportion of the working population involved in information and communication related activities of the economy Indicators to measure the gender composition of the working population involved in information and communication related activities of the economy Cont…

35 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE An economy with a modern, efficient and competitive agricultural sector ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Promoting R&D Indicators to measure the extent of mechanization of agricultural production activities Indicators to measure the extent of commercialization of agricultural activities Indicators to measure expenditure and investment on agricultural research and R&D Indicators on the degree of deployment and exploitation of ICTs to support agricultural activities (production, processing, distribution and marketing) Cont…

36 An economy characterized by a wide-spread deployment and exploitation of ICTs within the society to support the delivery of health, education, government and social services ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Government Administration and Service Delivery – E- Government Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Indicators to measure the extent of the deployment and the spread of ICTs within the community Indicators to monitor and measure the degree of deployment, and exploitation of ICTs within the Educational, and Health sector and institutions Indicators to monitor and measure the degree of adoption of ICTs to support operations and activities within government and public sector institutions Indicators to monitor and measure the degree of diffusion of ICTs within education, health and govt. institutions IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Cont…

37 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE An economy characterized by a modern educational system within which ICTs are widely deployed to facilitate the delivery of educational services at all levels of the educational system ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Promoting R&D Legal, Regulatory & Institutional Framework and Environment Indicators to measure the ICT adoption rate within the educational system Indicators to measure the degree of modernization within the educational system [Educational system modernization coefficients/indexes] An economy in which a reasonable large proportion of the population have access to information and communications technology products and services ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Indicators to measure the contribution of ICT products and services sector to GDP, GNI Indicators to monitor and measure household expenditure on ICT products and services Indicators to capture changes in consumption patterns of households Cont…

38 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE An economy in which the provision and delivery of goods and services of the key sectors of the economy are to a large extent facilitated by information and communications technologies ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Legal, Regulatory & Institutional Framework and Environment Indicators to measure the degree of the deployment of ICT infrastructure within the country Indicators to measure the level of Internet connectivity and usage within specific relevant sectors of the economy Indicators to assess the degree to which organizations and establishments within key sectors of the economy makes use of ICTs to facilitate the provision of services Cont…

39 An economy based on an advanced and reliable national information and communications infrastructure ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Legal, Regulatory & Institutional Framework and Environment Indicators monitor and measure the level and the spread of ICT infrastructure Indicators to measure the spread and density of various information and communication technologies within the society and communities Indicators to measure the extent of the deployment of communications and network systems and technologies within organizations and indicator Indicators to measure the diffusion rate of ICT infrastructure within key sectors of the economy IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Cont…

40 IKE Feature/Sub-Goal GOAL Relevant Policy Pillars MEANS Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE An economy based on a rich pool of highly skilled human resources in critical skill areas relevant for developing and maintaining a competitive edge on the global market Human Resource Development Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Promoting R&D Human resource development indicators Indicators to measure the quality of human resources Indicators to assess the critical nature of various skills to the IKE Indicators to assess the critical mass requirement of various IKE skills An economy based on a literate society with a high proportion of computer literates Human Resource Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Promoting R&D Indicators to measure the ICT literacy within the society Indicators to measure the level and the spread computer awareness within the country Indicators to measure the degree of adoption computer education and training within the educational system Indicators on computer-related skills and professional within the workforce Cont…

41 Economic Outcomes Indicators Social Outcomes Indicators ICT Access & Usage Outcomes Indicators Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Households HOUSEHOLDS Household Income Levels Employment Levels Gross National Income Levels Education Impact Indicators Health Impact Indicators Social Services Impact Indicators Household ICT Access Levels Households ICT Ownership Household Level ICT Penetration Households ICT Usage Levels

42 Economic Outcomes Indicators ICT Access & Usage Outcomes Indicators Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Businesses BUSINESSES Productivity Levels Global Competitiveness Levels Gross National Income Levels FDI and Local Investment Level Profitability Levels Business ICT Access Levels Business ICT Ownership Levels Business Level of ICT Penetration Business ICT Deployment Levels Business ICT Production Levels Business ICT Usage Levels

43 Performance Outcomes Indicators ICT Access & Usage Outcomes Indicators Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Government GOVERNMENT Productivity Levels Operational Efficiency Levels Service Delivery Improvement Levels Reduction in Corruption Level Reduction in Inefficiency Levels Level of Computerization E-Gov Service Delivery Performance Index/Rating Govt. MDA ICT Access Levels Govt. MDA ICT Ownership Levels Govt. MDA Level of ICT Penetration Govt. MDA ICT Deployment Levels Govt. MDA ICT Production Levels Govt. MDA ICT Usage Levels

44 Concluding on the Which Indicator Question The position therefore is that the which indicators question will need to be addressed holistically (taking the broad picture perspective) in terms of: which indicators to develop to: guide the ICT4D policy formulation and implementation process [Type 1 ICT4D Indicators] monitor, assess and measure the impact of the policy implementation process to establish the extent which the GOAL to move to an IKE (developing the information society) is being achieved [Type 2 ICT4D Indicators] monitor, assess and measure the impact of the policy implementation process on households, businesses and government processes and service delivery [Type 1 ICT4D Indicators]

45 Concluding on the Question of Methodology/Approach For each of the specific indicators need to decide on the: purpose/type of the indicator [Type 1, Type2, Type 3]: relevant information to be collected/gathered; possible sources of the relevant information to be gathered; methods to be used for obtaining or gathering the required information; relevant types of questionnaire to be used in cases where a postal survey or a face-to-face interview is required and format in which the information gathered as per each indicator is to be presented or summarized.

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