Presentation on theme: "Visualizations and images as objects of knowledge in art and design Prof. Lily Díaz School of Arts, Design and Architecture Aalto University Media Lab."— Presentation transcript:
Visualizations and images as objects of knowledge in art and design Prof. Lily Díaz School of Arts, Design and Architecture Aalto University Media Lab Helsinki
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Knowledge in design Tacit and embedded in practice Situated and dependent on context
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Visualisation artifacts They operate at a meta-indexical level. Meta-indexical: They are more than the sum of its parts They serve as the holding ground where codified and uncodified knowledge can meet.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Visualisation artifacts and knowledge They can operate as a holding place for tacit knowledge. (Tacit knowledge cannot easily be verbalized.) They can operate as a holding place for experiential knowledge. (Experiential knowledge is knowledge acquired through practice.) Many times, they are also the product of a situated practice. (Situated practice: They are context specific. In order to have access to the meaning of a representation, one must also have access to the codes.)
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Visualisation artifacts and tacit knowledge Transform other ways of knowing, such as verbal and mathematical modes, into a visual format. Index, frame, or re-frame unarticulated knowledge. Represent different ways of knowing (or practices) through their ability to merge diverse systems of representation such as verbal, mathematical, pictorial...
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Visualisation artifacts as boundary objects Boundary objects that facilitate the coordination of work because they can be interpreted in a tightly focused way by specialists, while being simultaneously readable by generalists. (Leigh Star S. 1999) They create an arena for social interaction: the design process can be shared, at different points in time, by different members of a community. Since they influence the design process, it can be argued that, to a large extent they also influence the production process.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Boundary object
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Boundary object
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Not all images are created equal...
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Iconicity Said of a sign or image that is a naturalistic representation of the object it denotes. (Elkins, 1999) –Based on the fact that an image of a real object is usually based on an artifact of the real world. –Based on the fact that images can display diverse grades of similarity with that object.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Iconicity
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Iconicity and visualization Berenice Abbott, c
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schema Images with pictures, writing and notations, usually based in reference lines and other geometric configurations. Is an abstract and simplified representation of a phenomenon, a structure, or a process in the world. It is of a Gestalt nature since it presents all the diverse relationships that exist between the elements of a given phenomenon, structure, or process in an almost simultaneous and synchronic manner. (Costa, 1998)
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization Involves the construction of abstract schema with the objective of effecting a graphic transformation of non- visible phenomena. For the purpose of communication, it makes use of methods of: –Abstraction –Synthesis –Intelligibility
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization taxonomy (Joan Costa, Abraham Moles) 1. Visualizations based on different degrees of iconicity. Childrens books Diverse didactic materials. 2. Visualization of information of a figurative nature Maps, thematic cartography, road maps, urban maps, architectural plans. 3. Schematization and inclusion of simple pictographs Functional graphics such as those found in help and instruction manuals. Weather graphics. 4.Use of statistics and figurative information.Technical and industrial graphics. 5. Use of abstraction and presentation of non-visible phenomena. Scientific illustrations, scientific iconography. 6. Use of abstract analogy; zero degree of iconicity Schematics that presents ideas, phenomena, and invisible processes. 7. Schematization of textual, non-iconic information. Schematics that presents algebraic equations and scientific formulas.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization of an object
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Iconicity and schematization (Case study on chocolate)
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 1 1. Visualization based on different degrees of iconicity –Example: Children s books, didactic illustrations
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 1
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 2 Visualization of information of a figurative nature. – Example: Maps, thematic cartography, road maps, urban maps and plans, architectural maps.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 2
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 3 Visualization based on schematization, simplification, and inclusion of pictograms. – Example: Functional graphics found in help manuals, weather graphics. –Objective is to explain different dimension of phenomena.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 3
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 4 Visualization based on schematization that makes use of statistics and figurative information. –Technical and industrial graphics
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 4
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 5 Visualization based on abstraction. Includes the presentation of non-visible reality, phenomena, and conditions. –Example: Scientific illustrations used in didactic communications, quantitative graphics, scientific iconography.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 5
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 6 Visualization based on abstraction through analogy. Schematization with zero degree of iconicity. –Schematics that presents ideas, phenomena, and invisible processes.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 6
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 7 Schematization of information that is of an entirely textual, non-iconic nature.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Schematization level 7
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Visualizations and models in art and design Translation of information into graphical format. Makes use of both iconic and schematic representations. Narrative-like structure, rhetorics.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Visualisations Provide an ability to comprehend huge amounts of data. Allows for the perception of emergent properties that were not anticipated. Facilitates hypothesis building. Revelatory aspect.
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Mediators that use tacit knowledge? Committed Interiorized Projective
Lily Díaz-Kommonen We keep expanding our body into the world, by assimilating to it sets of particulars which we integrate into reasonable entities. Thus we form intellectually and practically an interpreted universe populated by entities the particulars of which we have interiorized for the sake of comprehending their meaning in the shape of coherent entities. (Polanyi, 29)
Lily Díaz-Kommonen We cannot really tell beforehand what people are going to see in images... so......we must test...
Lily Díaz-Kommonen Partial List of Sources Bertin, Jacques, The Semiology of Graphics, Diagrams, Networks,Maps, The University of Wisconsin Press,1983. Bowker, Geoffrey and Susan Leigh Star,Classification and its Consequences, MIT Press, Costa, Joan, La Esquemática, Visualizar la Información, Paidós, Barcelona, Moles, Abraham, Grafismo Funcionl, Barcelona, Ceac, Elkins, James, The Domain of Images, Cornell University Press, O Neal, Hank, Berenice Abbott, American Photographer, McGraw-Hill, 1982 Polanyi, Michael, The Tacit Dimension, Peter Smith, 1983.