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Chi Square Interpretation

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Examples of Presentations The following are examples of presentations of chi-square tables and their interpretations. These interpretations target a non-academic audience, and would be appropriate for presenting information to those not familiar with statistics. These examples assume presenters have time constraints, and audiences have limited knowledge about chi-square analysis. The interpretations are succinct and simplified. Please note: Slides are to be used only as simplified examples of how chi-square can be used and interpreted. The data is not valid or reliable.

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Hypothesis Peoples attitude towards sacrificing time with family for the sake of their job is contingent on their gender.

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Measurement of Indicators Attitude towards sacrificing family for job was measured by asking respondents the extent to which they agreed that employees should expect to sacrifice time with their family for the sake of their job. Gender was measured by asking respondents to indicate if they were male or female.

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Cross Tabulation - Acceptable to Sacrifice Time with Family For Job by Gender Strongly Strongly Gender Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total____________ Female 22.92 (11) 33.33 (16) 27.08 (13) 10.42 (5) 6.25 (3) 48.00 (48) Male 1.92 (1) 26.92 (14) 23.08 (12) 46.15 (24) 1.92 (1) 52.00 (52) Total12.00 (12) 30.00 (30) 25.00 (25) 29.00 (29) 4.00 (4) 100.00 (100) Chi Square 21.83** **p>.001 _____________________________________________. Note: Number in parentheses are frequency of agreement in each category

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Response to statement: It is acceptable to sacrifice time with your family for your job

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Conclusions With a chi square of 21.83 and a probability of less than.001, we can conclude that there is a relationship between gender and attitudes toward family and work. Men are more than 4 times as likely to agree, and females are more than 11 times as likely to disagree that it is okay to sacrifice time with family for work.

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Constructed by Tandi McBride Modified by Dr. Carol Albrecht Texas A&M Students Attitudes on The Death Penalty

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Chi Square Hypothesis The extent to which respondents felt the legal system is fair is contingent on their political affiliation. The extent to which respondents felt the legal system is fair is contingent on their political affiliation. Students who are politically conservative are more likely to perceive the legal system as fair compared to students who are not politically conservative. Students who are politically conservative are more likely to perceive the legal system as fair compared to students who are not politically conservative.

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Chi Square Table Table 3. Cross Tabulation of Perception of Legal System by Political Ideology ____________________________________________________________________________ The Legal System is Fair Political Strongly Strongly Ideology Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total _______________________________________________________________________________ Conservative 5.17 (5) 18.97 (11) 32.76 (19) 39.66(23) 3.45(2) 60 Not Conservative 18.33 (11) 38.33 (23) 25.00 (15) 18.33 (11) 0.00 (0) 60 Total 11.86 (14) 28.81 (34) 28.81 (34) 28.81 (34) 1.69 (2) 120 ____________________________________________________________________________________ Chi Square 15.48** *p< 0.05 **p<0.01

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Conclusions With a chi square of 15.48 and a probability of less than.001, we can conclude that there is a relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward the legal system With a chi square of 15.48 and a probability of less than.001, we can conclude that there is a relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward the legal system Conservatives are more than twice as likely to agree that the legal system is fair, and non- conservatives are more than twice as likely to disagree. Conservatives are more than twice as likely to agree that the legal system is fair, and non- conservatives are more than twice as likely to disagree.

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Purpose: To evaluate students attitudes towards physical appearance Constructed by Natalie Schün Modified by Dr. Carol Albrecht

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Chi Square Table: Table 1: Cross Tabulations of Gender by Amount of Time Spent Getting Ready for a Date Time Spent Getting Ready for a Date Gender30 Minutes or LessGreater than 30 MinutesTotal Female18.18 (10)81.82 (45)55 Male76.19 (32)23.81 (10)42 Total43.30 (42)56.70 (55) Chi-Square32.64*** ***p <.0001 Note: Number in parentheses are frequency in each category.

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Chi Square: Hypothesis Whether or not respondents take more than 30 minutes getting ready for a date is contingent on their gender.

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Chart 1: Amount of time students take to get ready for a date by gender

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Chi Square Analysis With a Chi-Square statistic of 32.64, I can reject the null hypothesis at.05 level with a probability of less than.0001. This allows me to state that the amount of time spent getting ready for a date is dependent on gender.

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By: Leesa Pettus Modified: Carol Albrecht Attitudes About the War in Iraq

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Chi Square Hypothesis Students attitudes regarding what they believe the war in Iraq has accomplished is contingent upon whether or not they are conservative. Students attitudes regarding what they believe the war in Iraq has accomplished is contingent upon whether or not they are conservative.

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Chi Square Methodology Measurement of Indicators Political Ideology Political Ideology –Respondents were asked to rank their political ideology from very conservative to very liberal. –Categories were then collapsed into conservative and not conservative Attitudes T oward Iraq War Attitudes T oward Iraq War –Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed that the Iraq War had accomplished nothing

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Chi Square Table Table 1. Cross Tabulations of Political Ideology by Belief that the War in Iraq Has Accomplished Nothing. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Believe That the War in Iraq Has Accomplished Nothing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Political Ideology Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree Total--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Conservative 58.82 (20) 35.29 (12) 5.88 (2) 0.00 (0) 0.00 (0) 34 Conservative 58.82 (20) 35.29 (12) 5.88 (2) 0.00 (0) 0.00 (0) 34 Not Not Conservative 18.18 (12) 25.76 (17) 28.79 (19) 12.12 (8) 15.15 (10) 66 Conservative 18.18 (12) 25.76 (17) 28.79 (19) 12.12 (8) 15.15 (10) 66--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 32.00 (32) 29.00 (29) 21.00 (21) 8.00 (8) 10.00 (10) (100) Total 32.00 (32) 29.00 (29) 21.00 (21) 8.00 (8) 10.00 (10) (100) Chi Square 27.17*** Chi Square 27.17*** ***p<.0001 ***p<.0001

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Chi Square Analysis My chi square statistic is significant and has a probability of <.0001, therefore, I can reject the null hypothesis. My chi square statistic is significant and has a probability of <.0001, therefore, I can reject the null hypothesis. Conservatives are almost three times more likely than non-conservatives to strongly disagree that the war in Iraq has accomplished nothing. Conservatives are almost three times more likely than non-conservatives to strongly disagree that the war in Iraq has accomplished nothing. None of the conservatives either agreed or strongly agreed that the War in Iraq has accomplished nothing. None of the conservatives either agreed or strongly agreed that the War in Iraq has accomplished nothing. More than a quarter of the non-conservatives (27.27%) More than a quarter of the non-conservatives (27.27%) either agreed or strongly agreed that the War in Iraq either agreed or strongly agreed that the War in Iraq accomplished nothing. accomplished nothing.

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Factors Influencing High School Students Perception of Current and Future Education Constructed By: Lorena Garcia Modified by Carol Albrecht

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Hypothesis What inspires high school students to be successful in school is contingent on the respondents race.

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Measurement of Indicators Race Students were asked to circle their racial classification given a fairly large number of possibilities including other (specify) Inspiration Students were asked what inspired or motivated them to be successful in school Answers were recorded and categorized into the following: Family (i.e. siblings, parents, aunts, uncles, etc.) Future education (i.e. going to college or other post high school education) Current Accomplishments (i.e. membership in honor society, etc.) Fear (i.e. parents would punish them if they did not do well, etc.) Nothing (i.e. they were not currently motivated to do well)

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Cross Tabulations of Race by What Inspires High School Students to be Successful Students Inspirations Race FamilyFutureCurrent Fear/ TotalEducationAccomplishments Nothing __________________________________________________________________________________________ White 24.52 (38)19.35 (30)47.74 (74) 8.39 (13) 100 African American 34.18 (27)6.33 (5)34.18 (27) 25.32 (20) 100 Mexican American 43.24 (32)2.70 (2)33.78 (25) 20.27 (15) 100 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Total 31.49 (97)12.01 (37)40.91 (126) 15.58 (48) (308) Chi Square 34.80*** ***p<.0001 Note: Number in parenthesis are frequency of response in each category

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In Conclusion… For my Chi Square analysis, I was able to reject my null hypothesis (with an chi-square statistic of 34.80 and a p<.001), thus providing support that race does have an impact on what inspires high school students to be successful. White students are almost nine times more likely than Mexican Americans and three times more likely than African Americans to indicate that future education inspires them. African Americans and Mexican Americans are much more likely to indicate that fear or nothing inspires them than White Americans.

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Texas A&M Students Attitudes Towards the Legalization of Marijuana Constructed by Chelsea Moore Modified by Dr. Carol Albrecht

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Hypothesis The level of agreement to the statement, Marijuana should remain illegal is contingent on the students political views. The level of agreement to the statement, Marijuana should remain illegal is contingent on the students political views.

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Measurement of Indicators Students were asked to indicate their level of agreement to the statement, Marijuana should remain illegal. Students were asked to indicate their level of agreement to the statement, Marijuana should remain illegal. Political views were measured by asking students to rank themselves from very conservative to very liberal. Answers were collapsed into two categories (e.g., non- conservative and conservative). Political views were measured by asking students to rank themselves from very conservative to very liberal. Answers were collapsed into two categories (e.g., non- conservative and conservative).

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Chi Square Table 1. Cross Tabulations of Political Views by Support of Keeping Marijuana Illegal Support of Keeping Marijuana Illegal Political ViewsStrongly Disagree DisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly Agree Total Non-conservative24.49 (12)12.24 (6)28.57 (14)14.29 (7)20.41 (10)100.00 (49) Conservative4.26 (2)10.64 (5)14.89 (7)27.66 (13)42.55 (20)100.00 (47) Total14.58 (14)11.46 (11)21.88 (21)20.83 (20)31.25 (30)100.00 (96) Chi-square *** p<0.001 14.67***

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Chi Square The chi square statistic is 14.67 and the probability is less than 0.001, so we can reject the null hypothesis. The chi square statistic is 14.67 and the probability is less than 0.001, so we can reject the null hypothesis. Conservatives were twice as likely to strongly agree, and non-conservatives were almost six times as likely to strongly disagree. Conservatives were twice as likely to strongly agree, and non-conservatives were almost six times as likely to strongly disagree.

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