Presentation on theme: "Focus on 2014 GED ® Content The Wonderful World of Science Presenters: Bonnie Goonen Susan Pittman"— Presentation transcript:
Focus on 2014 GED ® Content The Wonderful World of Science Presenters: Bonnie Goonen Susan Pittman
Session Objectives Review content and context of the 2014 GED ® Science Module Explore essential science practices Review the science writing samples Discuss beginning strategies for integrating science content and practices
The 2014 GED ® test... Provides results leading to the award of a high school equivalency credential Provides evidence of readiness to enter workforce training programs or postsecondary education Provides actionable information about a candidates strengths and areas of developmental need GED ® and GED Testing Service ® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). They may not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service. The GED ® and GED Testing Service ® brands are administered by GED Testing Service LLC under license from the American Council on Education.
2014 GED ® test Overview ModuleTesting TimeRaw Score Points Reasoning Through Language Arts 150 minutes [25 min + 45 min ER] + [10 min. break] + [70 min] 65 raw score points Mathematics115 minutes49 raw score points Science 90 minutes40 raw score points Social Studies 90 minutes [65 min + 25 min ER] 44 raw score points Total Battery~ 7.5 hours
Other shapes can fall into the hole if turned upright on an angle. As long as it is just slightly larger than the hole, a circular cover cannot fall down the shaft, no matter what angle it is turned.
EXPLORING THE 2014 GED ® TEST SCIENCE MODULE CONTENT – PRACTICES – THEMES
Surrounded by Science "If it's green or wiggles, it's biology. If it stinks, it's chemistry. If it doesn't work, it's physics..." Handy Guide to Science
Science Content Areas Life Science – 40% Physical Science – 40% Earth and Space Science – 20% Content Areas Item Types Short Answer Technology-Enhanced Items Multiple choice Fill-in-the-blank items Hot-spot items Drag-and-drop items
Three Dimensions Content-based core ideas Science practices Crosscutting themes NSTA Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)
Physical Science (40%) Conservation, transformation, and flow of energy Work, motion, and forces Chemical properties and reactions related to living systems
Life Science (40%) Human body and health Relationship between life functions and energy intake Energy flows in ecologic networks (ecosystems) Organization of life Molecular basis for heredity Evolution transmission of disease/pathogens effects of disease or pathogens on populations disease prevention methods
Earth and Space Science (20%) Interactions between Earths system and living things Earth and its system components and interactions Structures and organization of the cosmos
Whats new in Science? Items aligned to a science practice and a content area Content topics pertain to a focusing theme –Human health and living systems –Energy related systems Assessment targets broken down into subtopics Technology-enhanced items and short answer
Climb to Alignment
Focusing Themes Science Content Topics Life Science (40%) Physical Science (40%) Earth & Space Science (20%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Human body and health Organization of life Molecular basis for heredity Evolution Chemical properties and reactions related to human systems Interactions between Earths systems and living things Energy and Related Systems Relationships between life functions and energy intake Energy flows in ecologic networks (ecosystems) Conservation, transformation, and flow of energy Work, motion, and forces Earth and its system components Structure and organization of the cosmos
Integrating a Thematic Approach
Building on a Theme Infectious Diseases An Outbreak of Measles 161 cases of measles in the U.S. this year (January to August) Last highest year was 2011, when there were 222 cases Nearly two-thirds of cases happened in communities where many people don't vaccinate Nearly 40% of children under the age of five who get measles have to be hospitalized
Building on a Theme
Villain or Victim? How do you know that a disease is infectious? Do you think cancer is an infectious disease? Does being exposed to an infectious agent prove that the agent has caused your disease?
The American Epidemics amhistory.si.edu/polio/americanepi/index.htm
How do vaccines work?
Infectious Disease and our Earth niverse.org/teacher_res ources/infectious_disea se.html
Dont Forget Graphics
Integrate Reading and Writing Should any vaccine be required for children? The article presents arguments from both supporters and critics of childhood vaccines. In your response, analyze both positions presented in the article to determine which one is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from the article to support your response. ProCon.org Pro vaccines because... Con vaccines because...
Disease Detective detective.html
Building on a Theme
What strategies do you use when reading?
Integrating Timed Readings
Lets Start with Reading ading-skills-for-todays-adult Questions: What is secondhand smoke? Why is it harmful?
What is close reading? Close reading is... close sustained reading of grade-level appropriate complex texts to examine their meaning thoroughly and methodically, ultimately arriving at an understanding of the text as a whole.
Close reading is NOT… Skimming for answers Surface processing Reading and forgetting
Benefits Close reading... Strengthens student critical thinking skills. Enhances student content understanding through relevant applications. Engages students with exciting new perspectives. Helps students develop ability to read complex text independently.
Skills for Close Reading Tapping ones prior knowledge related to informational text structure. Topical and vocabulary knowledge. Setting a purpose for reading. Self-monitoring for meaning. Determining what is important. Synthesizing. (p. 10) Sunday Cummins PhD. Close Reading of Information Texts: Assessment Driven Instruction. Guilford Press, 2012.
A Model for Explicit Instruction of Complex Text Provide context. Read text aloud. Students reread the text independently. Guide discussion of the text after chunking. Give students constructed response writing opportunity.
Life Science Application Untangling the Roots of Cancer As you read the article, identify one or two text-dependent questions that you would use in your Science classroom to ensure that students have completed a close reading.
Questions for Understanding Text-dependent questions –How is the recent evidence about cancer cell formation different from earlier evidence? –What is the authors prediction about the cause of cancer? Application questions –How does the author explain the root cause of cancer? Inquiry questions –Based on what you have learned from this reading, if you were a cancer research scientist, what would you focus on next? Use evidence to explain why you would choose this research direction?
Effective readers use text structure to... Predict what is to be read Comprehend/understand text Observe the way the author has organized the text Look for key words and concepts Note the different headings and subheadings Notice and interpret graphics
Types of Text Structure Description Sequence and Order Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution
Integrating Writing and Reading
Brainstorm Time! Constructed response is...
Science Short Answers Prompt Short Answer Excerpt
Short Answer Scoring Rubric Because each item will have its own rules for scoring, scoring guides will be developed alongside the item itself. GEDTS ® Assessment Guide for Educators 3.3.
Sample Science Prompt Deforestation, or clearing away trees, is occurring in tropical rain forests. Explain how deforestation could disrupt the life cycle of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis in tropical rain forests. Include multiple pieces of evidence from the text to support your answer. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete.
Reviewing the Anchor Papers Read the short answers Identify the following: –Claim or stance –Evidence to support claim or stance –Strengths and weaknesses of each writing sample
Students will need to... Read complex text Identify precise details Determine cause and effect Identify evidence within text Develop an experimentation process Understand science content Produce a response that provides an explanation supported by evidence and/or the scientific method
Teach constructed response 1.Read the passage and question 2.Unpack the prompt (identify key words) 3.Rewrite the question in your own words and turn the question into a topic sentence/ thesis statement 4.Collect relevant details from passage 5.Organize details into a logical order 6.Draft your answer 7.Re-read and edit/revise your answer making sure all parts of the question are answered
Use a Process Use a step-by-step approach, including how to: unpack a prompt set up a claim (thesis statement or hypothesis) identify evidence to support the claim
Unpack a GED ® Prompt Deforestation, or clearing away trees, is occurring in tropical rain forests. Explain how deforestation could disrupt the life cycle of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis in tropical rain forests. Include multiple pieces of evidence from the text to support your answer. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete.
Unpack a GED ® Prompt Deforestation, or clearing away trees, is occurring in tropical rain forests. Explain how deforestation could disrupt the life cycle of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis in tropical rain forests. Include multiple pieces of evidence from the text to support your answer. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. DoWhat ExplainHow deforestation disrupts the OU life cycle IncludeMultiple piece of evidence TypeResponse Take10 minutes
Unpack a GED ® Prompt A farmer purchased 30 acres of farmland. The farmer calculated that the average topsoil thickness on the farmland is about 20 centimeters. The farmer wants to maintain the thickness of the soil on this farmland by reducing erosion. The farmer plans to test the effectiveness of two different farming methods for reducing soil erosion. Method 1: No-till (planting crops without plowing the soil) Method 2: Winter cover crop (growing plants during the winter that are plowed into the soil in spring) The farmer hypothesizes that using either method will reduce erosion compared to using traditional farming methods (plowing and no cover crop). Design a controlled experiment that the farmer can use to test this hypothesis. Include descriptions of data collection and how the farmer will determine whether his hypothesis is correct. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete.
Unpack a GED ® Prompt Design a controlled experiment that the farmer can use to test this hypothesis. Include descriptions of data collection and how the farmer will determine whether his hypothesis is correct. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. DoWhat DesignControlled experiment IncludeData collection descriptions to support hypothesis TypeResponse Take10 minutes
Develop a Thesis/Hypothesis Thesis Statement = The main idea or main point of a written assignment. –Clearly identifies a topic –Contains an opinion or stance on the topic –Creates a roadmap for the writing –Answers the question: What am I trying to prove? –Usually located in the introduction
Whats Your Claim? ____________ position on _________________ is clearly supported by _______________ and _____________________. _____________________ argues that ____________________________, which is supported by _____________________. A key issue raised in both _________________________ and __________________ is that ______________________. The long-standing position of ______________ is supported by __________ and _______________________. In discussion of ______________________, one controversial issue has been ___________________. ________________ believes that _______________________ as supported by _________________________________.
Whats a Hypothesis? Educated guess about how things work. Prediction Use If, then statements –If ____ [I do this], then _____ [this will happen] Focuses on one variable only. Example: If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light, then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer.
Whats the Evidence? What are the key words phrases ideas data that support the claim from the excerpt or the hypothesis?
Dont Forget to Revise and Edit Structure and content Make changes to the substance of the writing from one draft to another Make corrections Ensure adherence to standard English conventions Use editing checklist A dd R emove M ove S ubstitute L ists I ntroductory E xtra information S entences
How Do I Know? Inquiry-based Teaching Strategy Problem Statement Data Collection Analysis Conclusions Determine what is to be investigated and formulate a question or hypothesis. Gather as much information as possible about the topic from appropriate sources. Examine and discuss the findings and provide explanations or clarity. Based on analysis, determine solutions related to the original problem statement.
How Science Works u/flowchart_ noninteracti ve.php
Life Science Big Ideas Science Content Topics Life Science (40%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Human body and health Organization of life Molecular basis for heredity Evolution Energy and Related Systems Relationships between life functions and energy intake Energy flows in ecologic networks (ecosystems) transmission of disease/pathogens effects of disease or pathogens on populations disease prevention methods
Surrounded by Science Understanding vs. Knowing –Whats the difference? –How do you know you really understand it? –Can you describe or picture it?
What Is It?
Improving Visual Literacy QAR (Question and Answer Relationships) Identify the type of visual or graphic to be analyzed Understand relationships in graphics Use QARs with questions and graphics One picture is worth a thousand words.
QARs with Visuals QAR
Life Science Graphics organization of life Mechanisms of recessive and dominant inheritance of traits
Life Science Graphics Organization of Life
At 10:00 a.m. on Sunday, the Lin family set out on a car ride. For the first hour they traveled at an average speed of 40 miles per hour. In the second hour, traffic was heavy, so they only drove at 20 miles per hour. From 12 P.M. to 1 P.M., they stopped for lunch and did not drive at all. After lunch, it started to rain, so they decided to go home. They drove at 30 miles per hour to get home. Which of these graphs represents distance from the starting point over time? Total distance traveled over time? Speed over time? Hunger over time? How would you label the intervals on the y-axis of each graph? At 10:00 a.m. on Sunday, the Lin family set out on a car ride. For the first hour they traveled at an average speed of 40 miles per hour. In the second hour, traffic was heavy, so they only drove at 20 miles per hour. From 12 P.M. to 1 P.M., they stopped for lunch and did not drive at all. After lunch, it started to rain, so they decided to go home. They drove at 30 miles per hour to get home. Which of these graphs represents distance from the starting point over time? Total distance traveled over time? Speed over time? Hunger over time? How would you label the intervals on the y-axis of each graph?
Human body and health Using Graphics in Real Life Checking Your Heart Rate
Graphic Gallery The Graphics Gallery C/VL/GG/index.html
the right tools for the job
Remember, a calculator isnt just for math anymore...
Science and the Use of a Calculator
Human Body and Health Whats My BMI?
Determining My BMI Convert weight in pounds (without clothes) to kilograms Divide pounds by 2.2 = ______________kg Convert height in inches (without shoes) to meters Divide inches by 39.4 =____________meters Square the meters =____________________ Divide body weight by height squared = ____________Body Mass Index Kg ÷ (m) 2 = BMI)
Surrounded by Science Make Your Calories Count! (Another way to incorporate graphic literacy!) Go to the following website and complete the activities: intro.htmlhttp://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ear/hwm/hwm intro.html
Too Much to Learn – Use Videos!
Human Body and Health How Strong Are You?
Time Out for an Incredible Life Science Fact How Many Skins Have You Had? In each year there are 365 days (except for leap year when there are 366 days). If we divide the number of days it takes to replace your skin cells (35) into the number of days in a year (365) you can see that the skin is replaced about 10 times. 365/35 = Now if you replace your skin on average 10 times each year for 20 years you find that you have worn about 200 skins! 10 X 20 = 200 Now it's your turn. How many skins have you had? How many skins will you have had by the time you are 35 and 50 years old?
Physical Science Content Science Content Topics Physical Science (40%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Chemical properties and reactions related to human systems Energy and Related Systems Conservation, transformation, and flow of energy Work, motion, and forces
Work/Motion/Forces Scientific Inquiry Lab
1666 Newtons Three Laws of Motion Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Gravity and Air Resistance Analyzing Data How does air resistance affect the acceleration of falling objects? Effects of Air Resistance Paper TypeTime Flat paper Loosely crumpled paper Tightly crumpled paper Your paper design
Chemical properties/reactions related to human systems Bubble Gum Physics
A Lighter Moment
The Changing World of the Atom!
How Big is an Atom?
Chemical properties/reactions related to human systems Forensic Science
The Story The chef at a prize-winning restaurant found his kitchen ransacked. He was furious, especially because he had been preparing for a big banquet. In fact, he had been working so frantically that he had spilled flour and baking soda all over the counter. As soon as the chef reported the crime, the police got right on the job. They have narrowed the search to two suspects. One suspect is the local caterer, a man who is competitive with the chef. He was known to be baking a cake for the banquet to try to steer some attention away from the chef. The second suspect is the woman who owns the banquet hall. Even though she hired the chef, she has never really liked him for reasons no one really knows. The police have collected important evidence: samples of different white substances found throughout each suspects house. Police officers think that whoever committed this crime tracked the substance home. For this reason, police want to determine what the substances are and deduce whether they might have come from the chefs kitchen. They have labeled the substance at the caterers house substance 1 and the substance at the banquet hall owners house substance 2.
The Clues Are In! Answer the following: Substance 1 is: Substance 2 is: Who ransacked the chefs kitchen?
Science Mysteries Why do teachers use science mysteries? To engage students who may often shun science To teach basic science knowledge through exploration To connect science to real life situations How do teachers use science mysteries? Teachers often have students read and discuss the first episode. Then students continue the story on their own until the mystery is solved. Classroom discussion summarizes what students have learned.
A Lighter Moment
Earth and Space Science Science Content Topics Earth & Space Science (20%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Interactions between Earths systems and living things Energy and Related Systems Earth and its system components Structure and organization of the cosmos
An Introduction to Earth and Space Science
Structure and Organization of the Cosmos Space Science How Far Is It Really?
Interactions between Earths systems and living things Use the following words in a narrative sentence/paragraph: temperatures, southern, glacier, earth, tropical, rainforest, jungle, ice cap, moderate
Science Narrative Chain Although some of the places on the earth experience moderate temperature changes throughout the year, there are also areas where the temperatures are quite drastic. In some of the southern regions, one might experience a tropical rainforest or jungle-like atmosphere which is very hot and humid. Some parts of the earth are very cold all year long and are composed of glaciers or ice caps.
What are variables? – A review Independent VariableDependent VariableControl Variable What is tested by the scientist What is changed by the scientist (What I change…) What is observed What is measured The effect caused by the independent variable. The data (What do I measure?) Things that could change but dont Kept constant (the same) by scientists These allow for a fair test. (What stays the same?)
A Lighter Moment Real Science! (or is it?) One horsepower is the amount of energy it takes to drag a horse 500 feet in one second. You can listen to thunder after lightning and tell how close you came to getting hit. If you dont hear it, you got hit, so never mind. When people run around and around in circles, we say they are crazy. When planets do it we say they are orbiting. The body consists of three parts - the brainium, the borax and the abominable cavity. The brainium contains the brain, the borax contains the heart and lungs, and the abominable cavity contains the bowels, of which there are five - a, e, i, o and u.
Getting Started: Integrating Science Build students close reading skills Show students the Big Ideas Use hands-on demonstrations & experiments Incorporate videos, photographs, Internet tours Connect science to everyday life Construct and interpret graphs, charts, tables, diagrams Solve problems through inquiry Integrate writing as a tool for reading comprehension
Access the World Wide Web
Resources, Resources, Resources
Two Practice Products Focus on test content and testing experience –See item types –Practice on technology- enhanced items/tools –Get feedback on right or wrong answers and why the answers are right or wrong Focus on readiness for GED® test – Timed ½-length test – Same user experience as the official test – Generalized and focused feedback – Same registration process and login as for GED® test Online Tutorial
A mind stretched to a new idea never goes back to its original dimensions. Oliver Wendell Holmes A mind stretched to a new idea never goes back to its original dimensions. Oliver Wendell Holmes
Bonnie Goonen Susan Pittman The IPDAE project is supported with funds provided through the Adult and Family Literacy Act, Division of Career and Adult Education, Florida Department of Education.