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Focus on 2014 GED® Content The Wonderful World of Science

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1 Focus on 2014 GED® Content The Wonderful World of Science
10/2013 Focus on 2014 GED® Content The Wonderful World of Science Presenters: Bonnie Goonen Susan Pittman Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

2 10/2013 Session Objectives Review content and context of the 2014 GED® Science Module Explore essential science practices Review the science writing samples Discuss beginning strategies for integrating science content and practices Key Points Today’s learning objectives are to: review content and context of the 2014 GED® Science module explore the new practices and the content of the 2014 GED® Science modules review a new item – short answer – and accompanying scoring rubric discuss beginning strategies for integrating science instruction into the adult education classroom Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

3 10/2013 The 2014 GED® test . . . Provides results leading to the award of a high school equivalency credential Provides evidence of readiness to enter workforce training programs or postsecondary education Provides actionable information about a candidate’s strengths and areas of developmental need Key Points A holistic framework focused on adult learners that facilitates the transition to careers and college Changes occurring in the landscape of education and the workforce require a new kind of GED® assessment to better measure adults’ preparedness for career and college to provide better information to users of the test to provide a more systematic and integrated approach for learners All to ensure that the new 2014 GED® test credential ensures remains meaningful for adult learners, employers, and institutions. GED® and GED Testing Service® are registered trademarks of the American Council on Education (ACE). They may not be used or reproduced without the express written permission of ACE or GED Testing Service. The GED® and GED Testing Service® brands are administered by GED Testing Service LLC under license from the American Council on Education. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

4 150 minutes [25 min + 45 min ER] + [10 min. break] + [70 min]
11/2013 2014 GED® test Overview Module Testing Time Raw Score Points Reasoning Through Language Arts 150 minutes [25 min + 45 min ER] + [10 min. break] + [70 min] 65 raw score points Mathematics 115 minutes 49 Science 90 minutes 40 Social Studies [65 min + 25 min ER] 44 Total Battery ~ 7.5 hours Key Points First let’s look at the time for the 2014 GED® test. Review the information on the chart. © Copyright 2013 GED Testing Service LLC. All rights reserved.

5 10/2013 A Conundrum Key Points You may wish to start with a brain teaser or short warm-up activity. This one asks participant an important question. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

6 10/2013 A Conundrum Key Points Manhole covers became well known in the United States when Microsoft started asking prospective employees this question in interviews. Other shapes can fall into the hole if turned upright on an angle. As long as it is just slightly larger than the hole, a circular cover cannot fall down the shaft, no matter what angle it is turned. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

7 10/2013 Exploring the 2014 GED® test Science Module Content – Practices – Themes Key Points Science is an integral part of each of our lives. In fact, everywhere you look – there is science. Physics, for example, teaches us how mirrors work, how glasses can aid one’s vision, and how heat can provide a safe and clean environment in our homes. Chemistry discusses the principles of matter, like atoms, molecules, and compounds. These atoms, molecules, and compounds make up the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and even the medicines that we take. Life science teaches us how all living things are categorized and why we need what we need to survive in our world. Teaching the concepts of science in our classrooms is an important part of a complete education – one needed by our students as they enter postsecondary education and the workplace. The importance of science in today’s world is overwhelming. During today’s webinar, we will look at how the 2014 GED® Science test is addressing the practices and knowledge-base of science in today’s world. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

8 10/2013 Surrounded by Science "If it's green or wiggles, it's biology. If it stinks, it's chemistry. If it doesn't work, it's physics..."     Handy Guide to Science Key Points Review the quote. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

9 10/2013 ABC Brainstorm! Identify a science concept or vocabulary word that begins with the first letter of each letter of the alphabet. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

10 10/2013 Tools In November, the GED Testing Service® posted an updated Assessment Guide for Educators, which includes a Content Comparison between the 2002 Series GED® test and the 2014 GED® test, as well as an updated Item Sampler. The Assessment Guide for Educators was further updated in July 2013. As we work through today’s webinar, we will be referencing these important tools. You will learn how to access these resources at the end of the webcast. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

11 10/2013 Item Sampler Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

12 Science Content Areas Content Areas Item Types Life Science – 40%
10/2013 Science Content Areas Content Areas Item Types Life Science – 40% Physical Science – 40% Earth and Space Science – 20% Short Answer Technology-Enhanced Items Multiple choice Fill-in-the-blank items Hot-spot items Drag-and-drop items Key Points Life science, physical science, which includes physics and chemistry, and earth and space science continue to be the content areas assessed on the 2014 GED® test, with only a minor change to the percentage of questions in each area from the 2002 series test. Graphic literacy also continues to be an integral part of the science module. However, there are also differences as the 2014 GED® test transitions to a computer-based test. Each question is aligned to both a content standard, as well as a science practice. Complexity of test questions, use of scenarios, and the readability of the new test are also changes. We are all aware that the 2014 GED® test will be a computer-based assessment. Instead of just multiple choice questions, the new assessment will implement technology-enhanced items, such as multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, hot-spot items, drag-and-drop, and two short answers. The use of technology-enhanced items allows test items to more accurately assess a student’s knowledge. We’ll take a look at the interactivity of these items later in this session. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

13 Three Dimensions Content-based core ideas Science practices
10/2013 Three Dimensions Content-based core ideas Science practices Crosscutting themes NSTA Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Core Ideas Practices Themes Key Points As we move forward and look more closely at science, it is important to realize that there are three dimensions that underline each test question: Core Ideas (content standards) Crosscutting Themes Science Practices We noted earlier that the National Science Education Standards from the National Research Council (NRC) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) guided the development of state science standards and the 2002 Series GED® test. However, these documents are over 15 years old. Needless to say, major advances have since taken place in the world of science and in our understanding of how students learn science effectively. Therefore the Next Generation Science Standards have been developed that identify content and science and engineering practices that all students should learn from kindergarten to high school. It is from this document that practices and content have been integrated into the GED® assessment targets for science. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

14 10/2013 Physical Science (40%) Conservation, transformation, and flow of energy Work, motion, and forces Chemical properties and reactions related to living systems Key Points Ok, now that we know that science practices will be a part of the assessment, let’s spend a few minutes looking at the science content of the test. The science content topics describe key concepts that are widely taught in a variety of high school-level courses and are relevant to the lives of GED® test-takers. As in the 2002 Series GED® test, the primary focus of the test continues to be the measurement of essential reasoning skills applied to scientific context. Although test-takers are not expected to have an in-depth knowledge of each subtopic, they should be familiar with each of the basic concepts in the areas of physical, life, and Earth and space science. Often referred to as core ideas, it’s clear that in the area of physical science, energy, work, and chemical properties as they relate to living systems are the main content areas. This is very similar to what had been assessed on the 2002 Series GED® test. However, remember that the level of cognitive complexity and the pairing of a science practice with each content assessment target creates a very different looking assessment. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

15 Life Science (40%) Human body and health
10/2013 Life Science (40%) Human body and health Relationship between life functions and energy intake Energy flows in ecologic networks (ecosystems) Organization of life Molecular basis for heredity Evolution transmission of disease/pathogens effects of disease or pathogens on populations disease prevention methods Key Points Life science continues to be an integral part of the science test. It’s important to note that the listing provided includes the basic topics. Within the Assessment Guide, subtopics are included to provide additional information on the types of content that could be assessed. For example: a subtopic of human body and health is the transmission of disease and pathogens (e.g. airborne, blood borne), effects of disease or pathogens on populations (e.g. demographics change, extinction), and disease prevention methods (e.g. vaccination, sanitation). Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

16 Earth and Space Science (20%)
10/2013 Earth and Space Science (20%) Interactions between Earth’s system and living things Earth and its system components and interactions Structures and organization of the cosmos Key Points Earth and space science incorporates the world around us, from natural hazards to characteristics of our Earth to how our solar system impacts our world through tides and eclipses. Like in the other two content areas, subtopics for each of the three broader topics are included in the Assessment Guide. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

17 10/2013 What’s new in Science? Items aligned to a science practice and a content area Content topics pertain to a focusing theme Human health and living systems Energy related systems Assessment targets broken down into subtopics Technology-enhanced items and short answer Key Points So, what’s new in Science? Lots! [Review each of the bullets listed to summarize what is new.] Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

18 Climb to Alignment Key Points
10/2013 Climb to Alignment Key Points We’ve been talking about science practices, but what specifically is a science practice? It’s important to understand that the GED® Science test will focus on the fundamentals of scientific reasoning, as well as the areas we often refer to as content. That is why each item on the GED® Science test will be aligned to both one science practice and one content practice. But what is a science practice? Simply put, science practices are those skills that are necessary to scientific reasoning, sometimes referred to as inquiry. The practices describe behaviors that scientists engage in as they investigate and build models and theories about the natural world and the key set of engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. The term “practices” is used instead of “skills” to emphasize that engaging in scientific investigation requires not only skill but also knowledge that is specific to each practice. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

19 Science Content Topics
10/2013 Focusing Themes Science Content Topics Life Science (40%) Physical Science Earth & Space Science (20%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Human body and health Organization of life Molecular basis for heredity Evolution Chemical properties and reactions related to human systems Interactions between Earth’s systems and living things Energy and Related Systems Relationships between life functions and energy intake Energy flows in ecologic networks (ecosystems) Conservation, transformation, and flow of energy Work, motion, and forces Earth and its system components Structure and organization of the cosmos Key Points One last area when looking at the 2014 GED® Science test is the use of focusing themes. These two themes have application across all domains of science. As such, they are a way of linking the different content areas of science that are assessed by the 2014 GED® test. The two focusing themes are human health and living systems and energy and related systems. Each science content topic is assessed using one of these focusing themes. So, each question on the 2014 GED® Science test is aligned with both a content area and a science practice and focuses on one of two crosscutting themes. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

20 Integrating a Thematic Approach

21 Building on a Theme Infectious Diseases An Outbreak of Measles
10/2013 Building on a Theme Infectious Diseases An Outbreak of Measles 161 cases of measles in the U.S. this year (January to August) Last highest year was 2011, when there were 222 cases Nearly two-thirds of cases happened in communities where many people don't vaccinate Nearly 40% of children under the age of five who get measles have to be hospitalized Key Points Due to the limited time that most adult educators have to dedicate to science, it is important that they take advantage of the focusing themes to build lessons. In this example, the current topic of the measles outbreak in the U.S. serves as the starting point for the lesson that revolves around the focusing theme of Human Health and Living Systems. Each focusing theme was selected to ensure that the test covers a wide range of important concepts and ideas as well as draws the focus to a distinct subset of ideas within each content topic. This allows an instructor to cover issues within each of the three domains of science. With the current outbreak of measles in the United States, the focusing theme of infectious diseases is one which students will be able to use their background knowledge to learn more about major concepts in life, physical, and earth and space science. Prior to starting the video, ask participants to brainstorm what they know about infectious diseases. Chart their responses. The attached video is approximately 2 minutes in length, but provides students with an introduction to infectious diseases through an overview of the current outbreak of measles. Video downloads Lengthier, but more complete videos, can be downloaded at: Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

22 Building on a Theme Key Points
10/2013 Building on a Theme Key Points This graphic organizer sets the stage for a lesson that covers all three domains of science. Starting with the video on infectious diseases, the instructor can move to discussion of life science, physical science, and earth and space science, as students learn about the interaction between these areas and human health and living systems. There are numerous resources to teach about infectious diseases. As you review the following slides, insert ideas on the resources, such as the unit lesson from the National Institute of Health at: Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

23 Villain or Victim? How do you know that a disease is infectious?
10/2013 Villain or Victim? How do you know that a disease is infectious? Do you think cancer is an infectious disease? Does being exposed to an infectious agent prove that the agent has caused your disease? Key Points Infectious diseases are not just something we deal with today. Provide students with interesting historical aspects of infectious diseases, such as the story about Typhoid Mary. Discuss how treatment of infectious diseases in today’s world is similar and yet different from the time of Mary Mallon. Discuss the types of infectious diseases that were common during your parents’ generation; your grandparents’ generation. How have the types of infectious diseases common in today’s world changed? Why? Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

24 The American Epidemics

25 Scientific Practices http://www.historyofvaccines.org/ Key Points
10/2013 Scientific Practices Key Points As you discuss infectious diseases and how today’s world has changed, make sure to include information on how scientists have been successful in stopping deadly diseases. Remember, the scientific method is an integral science practice – regardless of the theme. This short interactive segment integrates the scientific method with the outbreak of an illness. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

26 How do vaccines work? Key Points
10/2013 How do vaccines work? Key Points Understanding how vaccines are developed and how they work is an important part of physical science – chemical properties and reactions related to human systems. Questions to initiate discussion should include: What are vaccines? How do vaccines prevent the disease? How are vaccines made and tested? What might vaccine research achieve in the future? Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

27 Infectious Disease and our Earth
10/2013 Infectious Disease and our Earth Key Points In the Earth and Space Science domain, instructors can discuss how infectious diseases spread and how climate change is affecting the impact of these diseases. Instructors may wish to have students watch the video and use the sample lesson plans from the site Windows to the Universe to further the discussion on the effect of infectious disease and its connection to our world. It’s important to show students how these different areas of science are all about one major theme – Human Health and Living Systems. This video could also be used as an introduction to the lesson as it provides an overview of infectious diseases. Windows to the Universe - Changing Planet: Infectious Diseases Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

28 Don’t Forget Graphics Key Points
10/2013 Don’t Forget Graphics Key Points Of course, don’t forget to integrate graphics. Graphics and text work together to clarify a concept, such as this graph depicting the number of cases of measles in the U.S. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

29 Integrate Reading and Writing
Should any vaccine be required for children? The article presents arguments from both supporters and critics of childhood vaccines. In your response, analyze both positions presented in the article to determine which one is best supported. Use relevant and specific evidence from the article to support your response. Pro vaccines because . . . Con vaccines because . . . ProCon.org

30 10/2013 Disease Detective Key Points As with all science, provide students with the opportunity to explore a scientific concept. Hands-on experiments, videos, or a science detective activity assist students in applying what they have learned about the transmission of an infectious disease. Instructors may wish to have students use this activity to develop their own experimental design of how to prevent the transference of an infectious disease and what properties of the disease can be controlled. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

31 Building on a Theme Key Points
10/2013 Building on a Theme Key Points Review the elements of the lesson. Discuss challenges that instructors may have in accessing information. Discuss the importance of taking advantage of the numerous resources available on the World Wide Web. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

32 What strategies do you use when reading?
10/2013 What strategies do you use when reading? Key Points Have participants identify the strategies that they use when reading non-fiction text, such as science. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

33 Integrating Timed Readings
10/2013 Integrating Timed Readings Key Points Discuss the importance of timed readings in building reading rate. Have participants read the sample in the guide. Provide one minute. The text is approximately the length that GED® students should be able to read with comprehension in one minute – about words. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

34 Let’s Start with Reading
10/2013 Let’s Start with Reading Questions:   What is secondhand smoke?  Why is it harmful?  Key Points Discuss possible sites and materials for timed reading and a process - daily for a couple minutes with a couple of text-dependent questions to check for comprehension of what has been read. Remember, materials used for timed readings should be at a student’s reading level so that the student is not struggling with decoding. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

35 What is close reading? Close reading is . . .
10/2013 What is close reading? Close reading is . . . close sustained reading of grade-level appropriate complex texts to examine their meaning thoroughly and methodically, ultimately arriving at an understanding of the text as a whole. Key Points Review the Common Core requirement for students to be able to read closely to gain meaning. R.CCR.1 states: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. “Texts” means a variety of fiction and non-fiction formats and not just a textbook. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

36 Close reading is NOT… Skimming for answers Surface processing
10/2013 Close reading is NOT… Skimming for answers Surface processing Reading and forgetting Key Points Close reading is not: Skimming for answers: Much of what we call “school reading” falls into this category. Students who are preoccupied with completing an assignment that requires locating literal information rather than deeper comprehension can bypass reading and skim for details that can be copied down. Although the work may be acceptable there is no evidence that comprehension has occurred. Surface processing: This refers to reading without thinking about what the author is trying to communicate. Students see the words but do not engage in an inner dialogue. They are only reading to “get it done” and teachers often hear “I read it, but I didn't understand it.” Reading and forgetting: When students fail to employ proficient reading strategies, they are unlikely to learn from their reading. As a result, the information is not internalized and is susceptible to rapid forgetting. In addition, students are unable to demonstrate carry-over from their reading to class discussions, follow-up activities, and assessments. In each of these scenarios, there is an absence of higher level thinking. When students are engaged in Close Reading, they are thinking on a higher level and the result will be deeper comprehension. Reference: Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning, 3rd edition, Doug Buehl p. 4. Students can actively read textbooks without close reading them. Close Reading is not necessarily active reading and just finding the main idea or just annotating. (Consortium on Reaching Excellence in Education, Inc.) Note to Trainer: Explain that these practices may be appropriate for certain purposes but not for close reading. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

37 Benefits Close reading . . .
10/2013 Benefits Close reading . . . Strengthens student critical thinking skills. Enhances student content understanding through relevant applications. Engages students with exciting new perspectives. Helps students develop ability to read complex text independently. Key Points Review the points on what close reading means. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

38 Skills for Close Reading
10/2013 Skills for Close Reading “Tapping one’s prior knowledge related to informational text structure. Topical and vocabulary knowledge. Setting a purpose for reading. Self-monitoring for meaning. Determining what is important. Synthesizing.” (p. 10) Sunday Cummins PhD. Close Reading of Information Texts: Assessment Driven Instruction. Guilford Press, 2012. Key Points Continue discussion on the types of skills/strategies that can be used for teaching close reading. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

39 A Model for Explicit Instruction of Complex Text
10/2013 A Model for Explicit Instruction of Complex Text Provide context. Read text aloud. Students reread the text independently. Guide discussion of the text after “chunking.” Give students constructed response writing opportunity. Key Points Here is the sequence for ONE method of sharing a complex Informational text sample with students. It important to reinforce that this is a way to help students to put together the stages of their reading into a whole that will represent their enhanced understanding of science content Provide instruction when necessary, to give students a context in which to understand the text. Read text aloud. Students reread using strategies such as think-alouds. Guide discussion with a series of specific text-dependent questions and tasks. Provide a constructed response writing prompt. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

40 Life Science Application
10/2013 Life Science Application Untangling the Roots of Cancer As you read the article, identify one or two text-dependent questions that you would use in your Science classroom to ensure that students have completed a close reading. Key Points Review a few ways that the new test will integrate different areas across the content. Discuss that this is an example of a life science type of reading. Have participants create one or two text-dependent questions that they could use with this article. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

41 Questions for Understanding
10/2013 Questions for Understanding Text-dependent questions How is the recent evidence about cancer cell formation different from earlier evidence? What is the author’s prediction about the cause of cancer? Application questions How does the author explain the “root” cause of cancer? Inquiry questions Based on what you have learned from this reading, if you were a cancer research scientist, what would you focus on next? Use evidence to explain why you would choose this research direction? Key Points Review different types of questions that could be used with this article . Discuss similarities and differences between the different question types. Text-dependent - We look for questions that can be answered specifically from the text…not based on personal experience. Application - We look for questions that lead to critical thinking about what the author has stated.. The ‘How’ and the ‘Why’ questions where answers are found within the text. Student responses to these questions…may also be used as a formative assessment to inform the teacher of content that may need revisiting. The Inquiry Question should lead to further investigation—perhaps from outside resources. It may lead to a short research project. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

42 Effective readers use text structure to . . .
10/2013 Effective readers use text structure to . . . Predict what is to be read Comprehend/understand text Observe the way the author has organized the text Look for key words and concepts Note the different headings and subheadings Notice and interpret graphics Key Points Research supports that effective readers use text structure to aid in comprehension. Review the different ways that text structure can be used. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

43 Types of Text Structure
10/2013 Types of Text Structure Description Sequence and Order Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Key Points Review the different types of text structures. You may wish to have participants share examples of text that use each type of structure. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

44 Integrating Writing and Reading
10/2013 Integrating Writing and Reading Key Points Review the importance of integrating writing and reading to learn scientific concepts. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

45 Brainstorm Time! Constructed response is . . . Key Points
10/2013 Brainstorm Time! Constructed response is . . . Key Points Have participants brainstorm words and phrases that define constructed response. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

46 Science Short Answers Excerpt Prompt Short Answer Key Points
10/2013 Science Short Answers Excerpt Prompt Short Answer Key Points The GED® 2014 Science test includes two short answers. Similar in appearance to extended response in both Reasoning through Language Arts and Social Studies, this type of question requires that a test-taker read the excerpt, unpack the prompt, and then keyboard a response to the question. Test-takers are expected to complete a short answer question in approximately 10 minutes. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

47 Short Answer Scoring Rubric
10/2013 Short Answer Scoring Rubric “Because each item will have its own rules for scoring, scoring guides will be developed alongside the item itself.” GEDTS® Assessment Guide for Educators 3.3. 1 2 3 Key Points Each short answer (SA) item on the 2014 GED® Science test assessment will be scored on a three-point scale. For some items, the three points will be accumulated when the test-taker identifies or analyzes up to three specific details or correct answers. One point would be given for each “correct” response. However, scoring guides will also represent the variety of answers that are drawn from the various responses obtained when the short answer items are field tested. Test-takers are creative and may come up with correct responses that use different words or ideas than initially noted. The use of these exemplars plus the scoring guides will provide an accurate assessment of the writing samples provided by test-takers in short answers. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

48 10/2013 Sample Science Prompt Deforestation, or clearing away trees, is occurring in tropical rain forests. Explain how deforestation could disrupt the life cycle of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis in tropical rain forests. Include multiple pieces of evidence from the text to support your answer. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. Key Points Review the science prompt. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

49 Reviewing the Anchor Papers
10/2013 Reviewing the Anchor Papers Read the short answers Identify the following: Claim or stance Evidence to support claim or stance Strengths and weaknesses of each writing sample Key Points Have participants read each anchor paper and discuss the various strengths and weaknesses. Have participants identify the following: Claim or stance (thesis statement) taken by each writer Evidence included in the response to support the claim or stance Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

50 Students will need to . . . Read complex text Identify precise details
10/2013 Students will need to . . . Read complex text Identify precise details Determine cause and effect Identify evidence within text Develop an experimentation process Understand science content Produce a response that provides an explanation supported by evidence and/or the scientific method Key Points Review the types of skills that students will need to demonstrate in order to effectively answer the constructed response (short answer) questions. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

51 Teach constructed response
10/2013 Teach constructed response Read the passage and question Unpack the prompt (identify key words) Rewrite the question in your own words and turn the question into a topic sentence/ thesis statement Collect relevant details from passage Organize details into a logical order Draft your answer Re-read and edit/revise your answer making sure all parts of the question are answered Key Points In order to effectively create a constructed response, students need to complete several basic steps. The first step requires the student to read the passage(s) and the accompanying question or prompt. Students must learn how to read critically in order to extract meaning from the passage(s). Students must also unpack the prompt, which requires that they identify key words that will tell them what they need to do in order to effectively respond to that prompt. The next step in the process is to rewrite the question by turning it into a thesis statement that clearly outlines the claim or stance. Once the thesis statement has been developed, the student must collect the relevant details, or evidence, from the passage(s). Remember, a constructed response does not provide their opinion, but rather the stance they have taken based on the prompt. After extracting the evidence from the passage, the student will need to organize his/her evidence in a logical manner in order to draft the response. At this point, the student drafts his/her response. Please note that the emphasis here is placed on the word “draft.” The last step in the process is for the student to re-read and then edit and revise as needed before considering that the response is complete. This also provides the student the opportunity to make sure that he/she has responded to all parts of the question or prompt. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

52 Use a Process Use a step-by-step approach, including how to:
10/2013 Use a Process Use a step-by-step approach, including how to: unpack a prompt set up a claim (thesis statement or hypothesis) identify evidence to support the claim Key Points Discuss the types of strategies that instructors will need to include in the science classroom. Reinforce that the other steps of the process are often currently taught in today’s adult education classroom – organization, drafting an answer, and revise/edit. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

53 10/2013 Unpack a GED® Prompt Deforestation, or clearing away trees, is occurring in tropical rain forests. Explain how deforestation could disrupt the life cycle of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis in tropical rain forests. Include multiple pieces of evidence from the text to support your answer. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. Key Points Review the science prompt. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

54 Unpack a GED® Prompt Do What Explain
10/2013 Unpack a GED® Prompt Deforestation, or clearing away trees, is occurring in tropical rain forests. Explain how deforestation could disrupt the life cycle of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis in tropical rain forests. Include multiple pieces of evidence from the text to support your answer. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. Do What Explain How deforestation disrupts the OU life cycle Include Multiple piece of evidence Type Response Take 10 minutes Key Points Model how to unpack a science prompt. Have participants assist in completing the key elements of the prompt in the chart. Discuss their responses and address any questions or concerns. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

55 10/2013 Unpack a GED® Prompt A farmer purchased 30 acres of farmland. The farmer calculated that the average topsoil thickness on the farmland is about 20 centimeters. The farmer wants to maintain the thickness of the soil on this farmland by reducing erosion. The farmer plans to test the effectiveness of two different farming methods for reducing soil erosion. Method 1: No-till (planting crops without plowing the soil) Method 2: Winter cover crop (growing plants during the winter that are plowed into the soil in spring) The farmer hypothesizes that using either method will reduce erosion compared to using traditional farming methods (plowing and no cover crop). Design a controlled experiment that the farmer can use to test this hypothesis. Include descriptions of data collection and how the farmer will determine whether his hypothesis is correct. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. Key Points Have participants unpack this prompt individually or in small groups. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

56 Unpack a GED® Prompt Do What Design Controlled experiment Include
10/2013 Unpack a GED® Prompt Design a controlled experiment that the farmer can use to test this hypothesis. Include descriptions of data collection and how the farmer will determine whether his hypothesis is correct. Type your response in the box. This task may require approximately 10 minutes to complete. Do What Design Controlled experiment Include Data collection descriptions to support hypothesis Type Response Take 10 minutes Key Points Check that participants included the key elements of the prompt in the chart. Discuss their responses and address any questions or concerns. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

57 Develop a Thesis/Hypothesis
10/2013 Develop a Thesis/Hypothesis Thesis Statement = The main idea or main point of a written assignment. Clearly identifies a topic Contains an opinion or stance on the topic Creates a roadmap for the writing Answers the question: “What am I trying to prove?” Usually located in the introduction Key Points Review the steps of writing a thesis statement: Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement 1. Your thesis statement should be specific. It should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence. 2. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper. 3. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

58 10/2013 What’s Your Claim?  ____________ position on _________________ is clearly supported by _______________ and _____________________. _____________________ argues that ____________________________, which is supported by _____________________. A key issue raised in both _________________________ and __________________ is that ______________________. The long-standing position of ______________ is supported by __________ and _______________________. In discussion of ______________________, one controversial issue has been ___________________. ________________ believes that _______________________ as supported by _________________________________. Key Points Discuss the use of thesis frames. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

59 What’s a Hypothesis? Educated guess about how things work. Prediction
10/2013 What’s a Hypothesis? Educated guess about how things work. Prediction Use If, then statements If ____ [I do this], then _____ [this will happen] Focuses on one variable only. Example: If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light , then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer. Key Points Discuss how students will need to write a hypothesis statement for some types of short answer questions, such as the short answer response in the item sample. Demonstrate examples of writing a hypothesis. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

60 What’s the Evidence? What are the key words phrases ideas data
10/2013 What’s the Evidence? What are the key words phrases ideas data that support the claim from the excerpt or the hypothesis? Key Points Discuss identifying the evidence in the texts or from the experimental design in order to create an effective short answer. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

61 Structure Beginning Middle Ending
10/2013 Structure Beginning The introduction states the main idea or position. It begins with a topic sentence/thesis/hypothesis statement. The beginning restates the question and sets the stage to answer the prompt. Middle Answer the question first. Provide important information the author stated and meant. This is where you go to the text(s) and provide examples/evidence and important details to support the answer. Sample phrases to introduce each text reference include: … stated; in the text …; for example . . . Include background information as required through the prompt. Ending Write a closing that summarizes the position taken or restates the thesis statement in a different way. Key Points Reinforce the use of a beginning, middle, ending structure rather than the artificial structure of the five-paragraph essay that is often used in the classroom. Discuss that scientific writing, whether analyzing text or creating an experimental design, follows this type of structure. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

62 Don’t Forget to Revise and Edit
10/2013 Don’t Forget to Revise and Edit A dd R emove M ove S ubstitute Structure and content Make changes to the substance of the writing from one draft to another L ists I ntroductory E xtra information S entences Make corrections Ensure adherence to standard English conventions Use editing checklist Key Points When a student has gathered feedback about the writing, then it is time to begin revising. The fifth and sixth steps of the writing process involve making changes to the writing and correcting any errors. Make sure that your student understands the difference between revising and editing. Revising is rewriting in order to improve the flow of the writing and fill in gaps or additional information that the reader will need in order to understand the thoughts the writer is trying to convey. Editing is correcting misspellings, grammar errors, punctuation or capitalization. Students should revise first and then edit. Sometimes, a student will need to repeat the process several times. Effective writers may spend more time on this part of the process than on the others. You may wish to share the acronym ARMS with your student. ARMS serves as a reminder to students that when they revise their work they may need to: Add – include additional words, phrases, or information to fill in any gaps. Remove – take out words, phrases, or information that is not needed. Move – move words, phrases, or information to other locations with the writing to aid in organization and flow of the writing. Substitute – change the wording when possible. For example, limit the use of the word “I” to start a sentence or rather than describing something as fantastic, use words such as excellent, incredible, or amazing. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

63 10/2013 Key Points Discuss the importance of teaching the “big ideas” or concepts of science. The following slides provide sample activities for some of the big ideas in science. Additional activities are available in the teacher workbook/guide. Activities can be added or deleted to the training session based on time. Reinforce the need to use inquiry based learning. Students learn best when actively engaged in “doing” science, rather than just “reading” about science. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

64 Inquiry-based Teaching Strategy
10/2013 How Do I Know? Inquiry-based Teaching Strategy Problem Statement Data Collection Analysis Conclusions Determine what is to be investigated and formulate a question or hypothesis. Gather as much information as possible about the topic from appropriate sources. Examine and discuss the findings and provide explanations or clarity. Based on analysis, determine solutions related to the original problem statement. Key Points Discuss the importance of integrating an inquiry-based teaching strategy in science. Review the different steps in inquiry-based teaching. This process will be used in activities throughout the training. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

65 10/2013 How Science Works Key Points This flowchart represents the process of scientific inquiry, through which we build reliable knowledge of the natural world. You can use it to trace the development of different scientific ideas and/or the research efforts of individual scientists. Most ideas take a circuitous path through the process, shaped by unique people and events. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

66 Science Content Topics
10/2013 Life Science Big Ideas transmission of disease/pathogens effects of disease or pathogens on populations disease prevention methods Science Content Topics Life Science (40%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Human body and health Organization of life Molecular basis for heredity Evolution Energy and Related Systems Relationships between life functions and energy intake Energy flows in ecologic networks (ecosystems) GED Science Module Life Science 40% Key Points Review the overarching themes and content topics of life science. The following activities provide beginning steps for teaching selected content topics. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

67 Surrounded by Science Understanding vs. Knowing What’s the difference?
10/2013 Surrounded by Science Understanding vs. Knowing What’s the difference? How do you know you really understand it? Can you describe or picture it? Key Points Teachers want their students to understand the concepts they are teaching. But too often we focus on knowing and not understanding. The following slides are “fun” for participants as you reinforce that knowing minute details are not the basis for effective teaching of science. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

68 What Is It? Key Points What is it? Pollen 10/2013
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69 What Is It? Key Points What is it? Fingerprint 10/2013
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70 What Is It? Key Points What is it? Velcro 10/2013
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71 What Is It? Key Points What is it? Head of a tapeworm 10/2013
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72 What Is It? Key Points What is it? Retina of the eye 10/2013
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73 Improving Visual Literacy
10/2013 Improving Visual Literacy QAR (Question and Answer Relationships) Identify the type of visual or graphic to be analyzed Understand relationships in graphics Use QARs with questions and graphics Key Points Visual (sometimes referred to as graphic) literacy continues to be an integral part of various types of texts, as well as media. It’s often said that one picture is worth a thousand words. Think for a moment about all of the different types of graphs and charts we have seen throughout this webinar on sample GED® test items. One strategy for improving visual literacy is QAR (Question and Answer Relationships). This strategy is often used to improve reading comprehension skills, but it can also be used in analyzing different visuals. “One picture is worth a thousand words.” Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

74 QARs with Visuals QAR In the Image In my head Author and me On My Own
10/2013 QARs with Visuals In the Image Right There Think & Search In my head Author and me On My Own QAR Key Points The Question-Answer Relationships framework was first developed by Taffy E. Raphael (1982, 1986). QAR helps students increase reading comprehension by recognizing different types of questions and understanding where the answers to those questions can be found. When adapting the framework to graphics, students analyze the visual and ask themselves questions about where to find specific information. For example, some information is found “right there” in the graphic. Students ask themselves – “What do I see?” However, some times students need to think about how certain details in a visual relate to one another or to the visual as a whole. Think and search requires that students ask themselves summarizing questions on how the details add to the visual as a whole. Information in a visual may need to be inferred or obtained through background knowledge. Questions in this area are often referred to as “In My Head.” Students may need to make inferences regarding a visual, especially visuals such as photographs. What was the author’s purpose in presenting information in a particular way? Sometimes, students need to focus on making personal connections to the visual or graphic based on experiences and knowledge. “On my own” requires that students draw conclusions and make inferences based on what they see and what they know. Although there are numerous strategies for interpreting visuals, QAR is one that can be used both when reading text and visuals. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

75 Life Science Graphics organization of life
10/2013 Life Science Graphics organization of life Key Points Review how to read the graphic using QAR. Mechanisms of recessive and dominant inheritance. Recessive Inheritance Both parents carry a normal gene (N), and a faulty, recessive, gene (n). The parents, although carriers, are unaffected by the faulty gene. Their offspring are affected, not affected, or carriers. This type of inheritance was first shown by Mendel. Dominant Inheritance One parent has a single, faulty dominant gene (D), which overpowers its normal counterpart (d), affecting that parent. When the affected parent mates with an unaffected and non-carrier mate (dd), the offspring are either affected or not affected, but they are not carriers. Mechanisms of recessive and dominant inheritance of traits Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

76 Life Science Graphics Organization of Life
10/2013 Life Science Graphics Organization of Life Key Points Review how to read the graphic using QAR. This is the type of graphic with print that students can use to compare and contrast. Remember the process of mitosis? Mitosis is a process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell. In a typical animal cell, mitosis can be divided into four principals stages: Prophase: The chromatin, diffuse in interphase, condenses into chromosomes. Each chromosome has duplicated and now consists of two sister chromatids. At the end of prophase, the nuclear envelope breaks down into vesicles. Metaphase: The chromosomes align at the equitorial plate and are held in place by microtubules attached to the mitotic spindle and to part of the centromere. Anaphase: The centromeres divide. Sister chromatids separate and move toward the corresponding poles. Telephase: Daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles and the microtubules disappear. The condensed chromatin expands and the nuclear envelope reappears. Cytokinesis: The cytoplasm divides, the cell membrane pinches inward ultimately producing two daughter cells . How about meiosis? Meiosis is the type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced. Meiosis involves a reduction in the amount of genetic material. One parent cell produces four daughter cells. Daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes found in the original parent cell and with crossing over, are genetically different. Meiosis differs from mitosis primarily because there are two cell divisions in meiosis, resulting in cells with a haploid number of chromosomes. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

77 10/2013 Key Points Discuss that graphics for life science (and other science areas) are everywhere. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

78 10/2013 At 10:00 a.m. on Sunday, the Lin family set out on a car ride. For the first hour they traveled at an average speed of 40 miles per hour. In the second hour, traffic was heavy, so they only drove at 20 miles per hour. From 12 P.M. to 1 P.M., they stopped for lunch and did not drive at all. After lunch, it started to rain, so they decided to go home. They drove at 30 miles per hour to get home. Which of these graphs represents distance from the starting point over time? Total distance traveled over time? Speed over time? Hunger over time? How would you label the intervals on the y-axis of each graph? Story: At 10:00 a.m. on Sunday, the Lin family set out on a car ride. For the first hour they traveled at an average speed of 40 miles per hour. In the second hour, traffic was heavy, so they only drove at 20 miles per hour. From 12 P.M. to 1 P.M., they stopped for lunch and did not drive at all. After lunch, it started to rain, so they decided to go home. They drove at 30 miles per hour to get home. Which of these graphs represents distance from the starting point over time? Total distance traveled over time? Speed over time? Hunger over time? How would you label the intervals on the y-axis of each graph? Solution to The Lins Go On An Outing- Session 6 Distance from starting point over time = Graph A Why? Since we’re considering the distance from the starting point, we’re looking for a graph that begins at zero, increases generally until their lunch break, then decreases again after lunch to end at zero again. They drive 40 mph in the first part of their trip, then drive at 20 mph later in the morning. Therefore the distance from the starting point should increase more quickly earlier in the morning, because they are driving faster. When they stop for lunch, the distance from starting point should remain the same for an hour. When they drive home, it is at a speed that is between their initial 40 mph and 20 mph; the slope of the line representing driving home should not be as steep as the start of the graph, but steeper than the graph from 11am-noon. Total distance traveled over time = Graph E Why? Since we’re considering total distance traveled, we’re looking for a graph that begins at zero and ends at a high point on the graph. Since they drove at 40 mph initially, the total distance traveled should increase most quickly in the first hour. The second hour, it should increase more slowly. During their lunch hour, it should remain unchanged (represented by a horizontal line), then it should increase at a rate in between what they did in the first and second hours until the end of the trip. Speed over time = Graph G Why? (Note: This graph ignores the changes in speed when the Lins speed up and slow down in between the different time periods and at the end of the trip.) In the first hour of their trip, the Lins drove at 40 mph. Since this speed did not vary in the first hour, we’re looking for a graph that shows a constant y-value (40 mph) for the first hour of time – this will appear as a horizontal line. (Why?) In the second hour, they drove only 20 mph, so again the 2nd hour will show a constant y-value (20 mph) but it will be less than the first hour. During their lunch hour, it will appear as zero. Then from 1-3 pm, the graph should show a constant y-value (30 mph) until the end of the trip. Hunger over time = Graph D Why? Since we are considering hunger over time, the graph should begin somewhat lower in the morning and increase until lunchtime. Then it should drop off quickly and start increasing gradually in the afternoon. (Those with children of various ages may imagine different graphs that involve hunger peaking rather constantly throughout the day!) Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

79 Using Graphics in Real Life Checking Your Heart Rate
10/2013 Human body and health Let’s Apply! Using Graphics in Real Life Checking Your Heart Rate Key Points An easy activity for integrating graphics is to have participants check their heart rate when sitting, standing, and finally walking. At this end of each phase, the participants note heart rate so they can graph appropriately at the end of the activity. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

80 Graphic Gallery All Kinds of Graphics! The Graphics Gallery
10/2013 Graphic Gallery All Kinds of Graphics! The Graphics Gallery Key Points Discuss accessing graphic galleries, such as this one, for use in the science classroom. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

81 the right tools for the job
10/2013 Key Points Discuss that tools are often used in science. Have participants identify different scientific tools (microscopes, etc.) and how they can access and use scientific tools in their adult education program. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

82 Remember, a calculator isn’t just for math anymore . . .
10/2013 Remember, a calculator isn’t just for math anymore . . . Key Points A calculator isn’t just for math anymore. The 2014 GED® test presents a real integration of the different content areas. Questions dealing with statistics and data are often viewed on the Science and Social Studies tests, rather than primarily in the area of Mathematics. Graphics continue to be integrated throughout the different content areas. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

83 Science and the Use of a Calculator
10/2013 Science and the Use of a Calculator Key Points Because of this integration, there is sometimes a need for the use of the calculator on the new Science test, such as seen on this question. Remember, the calculator is the Texas Instruments TI-30XS MultiView™ scientific calculator, and it is accessed on-screen within the computer-testing software. Let’s take a quick look at the skills test-takers need to use in order to accurately respond to this science question. This question requires test-takers to describe a data set statistically. A test-taker must first complete a series of mathematical calculations, using the given equation. Then they must complete a second series of mathematical calculations which will provide them with the average of the data set. Because of it’s complexity, this item is a DOK 2. Test-takers do have the option of using a calculator in order to compute the density and then the average or mean. However, unless a test-taker has the mathematical reasoning skills necessary to determine how to complete the correct calculation trail, he/she will not be successful in answering this question from the physical science content area. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

84 What’s My BMI? Human Body and Health Let’s Apply! Key Points
10/2013 Human Body and Health Let’s Apply! What’s My BMI? Key Points Have participants use a calculator to determine their BMI. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

85 10/2013 Determining My BMI Convert weight in pounds (without clothes) to kilograms Divide pounds by 2.2 = ______________kg Convert height in inches (without shoes) to meters Divide inches by 39.4 =____________meters Square the meters =____________________ Divide body weight by height squared = ____________Body Mass Index Kg ÷ (m)2 = BMI) Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

86 10/2013 Surrounded by Science Make Your Calories Count! (Another way to incorporate graphic literacy!) Go to the following website and complete the activities: Key Points Discuss that a lesson on healthy lifestyles can incorporate different types of life science concepts/knowledge. The website is one way to integrate real-world science into the classroom. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

87 Too Much to Learn – Use Videos!
10/2013 Too Much to Learn – Use Videos! Key Points Discuss that besides graphics, videos can be used in the adult education classroom to show the wonders of life science, especially when science tools such as field trips to a science museum and microscopes to see things not seen by the human eye, are not available. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

88 How Strong Are You? Human Body and Health Let’s Apply! Key Points
10/2013 Human Body and Health Let’s Apply! How Strong Are You? Key Points Select two participants to assist you in this experiment. Model for the group how to crumple a piece of newspaper. Ask participants to predict how many pieces of newspaper each person can crumple before tiring. Once the predictions are made, ask the two volunteers which is their dominant hand. Tell the volunteers that you need them to crumple the paper using only their non-dominant hand in an extended position. Discuss why the two volunteers either met or didn’t meet the predictions. This activity leads to discussion on non-dominance. This activity and more are available in the teacher workbook/guide. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

89 Time Out for an Incredible Life Science Fact
10/2013 Time Out for an Incredible Life Science Fact How Many Skins Have You Had? In each year there are 365 days (except for leap year when there are 366 days). If we divide the number of days it takes to replace your skin cells (35) into the number of days in a year (365) you can see that the skin is replaced about 10 times. 365/35 = Now if you replace your skin on average 10 times each year for 20 years you find that you have worn about 200 skins! 10 X 20 = 200 Now it's your turn. How many skins have you had? How many skins will you have had by the time you are 35 and 50 years old? Key Points Review that there are numerous life science concepts that can be covered by the 2014 GED® test. Although not all of them can be covered, discuss the importance of connecting the concepts to real-world situations. This is an interesting short activity that can lead to discussions about the human body. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

90 Physical Science Content
10/2013 Physical Science Content Science Content Topics Physical Science (40%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Chemical properties and reactions related to human systems Energy and Related Systems Conservation, transformation, and flow of energy Work, motion, and forces Key Points Review the different physical science content topics for each of the two focusing themes. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

91 Scientific Inquiry Lab
10/2013 Work/Motion/Forces Let’s Apply! Scientific Inquiry Lab Key Points Have participants complete the activity – Scientific Inquiry Lab. Participants should work in small groups. The activity/worksheet is located in the teacher workbook/guide. Discuss the hypothesis used by each group. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

92 1666 Newton’s Three Laws of Motion
10/2013 1666 Newton’s Three Laws of Motion Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Key Points Review Newton’s laws of motion. You may wish to use a short video as a review prior to having participants complete the activity. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

93 Gravity and Air Resistance
10/2013 Gravity and Air Resistance Analyzing Data How does air resistance affect the acceleration of falling objects? Effects of Air Resistance Paper Type Time Flat paper Loosely crumpled paper Tightly crumpled paper Your paper design Key Points Have participants complete the activity – Scientific Inquiry Lab. Participants should work in small groups. The activity/worksheet is located in the teacher workbook/guide. Discuss the hypothesis used by each group. Have participants show their “special design.” If participants need additional information on the scientific method, you may wish to review the different steps Observation / Asking a Question Form a Hypothesis Design a Controlled Experiment Record and Analyze Results (quantitative versus qualitative data) Draw Conclusions Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

94 Chemical properties/reactions related to human systems
10/2013 Chemical properties/reactions related to human systems Let’s Apply! Bubble Gum Physics Key Points Trainer may wish to use this activity instead of the one on Newton. Same format should be used. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

95 A Lighter Moment Key Points
10/2013 A Lighter Moment Key Points There are great videos on the atom and how atoms make up everything. Review this as a major concept in physical science. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

96 The Changing World of the Atom!
10/2013 The Changing World of the Atom! Key Points Science does change, especially those things that we cannot see. Take a look at the difference between what we thought an atom looked like in the 1900s and today’s model. That’s important to remember as you look at the different models in physical science. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

97 How Big is an Atom? Key Points
10/2013 How Big is an Atom? Key Points This short video from Nova is one example of a great resource for use in the science classroom to show students what an atom really looks like and its size. Trainers may wish to use an activity where participants see if they can cut a piece of paper the width of an atom. The activity is in the teacher workbook/guide. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

98 Chemical properties/reactions related to human systems
10/2013 Chemical properties/reactions related to human systems Let’s Apply! Forensic Science Key Points Trainers may wish to use this inquiry activity in their training. Participants have the opportunity to act like CSI agents as they solve a mystery. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

99 10/2013 The Story The chef at a prize-winning restaurant found his kitchen ransacked. He was furious, especially because he had been preparing for a big banquet. In fact, he had been working so frantically that he had spilled flour and baking soda all over the counter. As soon as the chef reported the crime, the police got right on the job. They have narrowed the search to two suspects. One suspect is the local caterer, a man who is competitive with the chef. He was known to be baking a cake for the banquet to try to steer some attention away from the chef. The second suspect is the woman who owns the banquet hall. Even though she hired the chef, she has never really liked him for reasons no one really knows. The police have collected important evidence: samples of different white substances found throughout each suspect’s house. Police officers think that whoever committed this crime tracked the substance home. For this reason, police want to determine what the substances are and deduce whether they might have come from the chef’s kitchen. They have labeled the substance at the caterer’s house “substance 1” and the substance at the banquet hall owner’s house “substance 2.” Key Points Review the scenario. Make sure to have all equipment/materials necessary for the activity. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

100 The Clues Are In! Answer the following: Substance 1 is:
10/2013 The Clues Are In! Answer the following: Substance 1 is: Substance 2 is: Who ransacked the chef’s kitchen? Key Points Substance 1 is: baking soda Substance 2 is: cornstarch The local caterer. He had a motive; he wanted to outshine the chef. Also, the police said the chef had spilled flour and baking soda, so the person who ransacked the kitchen would have tracked either one of those substances into his or her own house. Signs of baking soda were found in the caterer’s home, while cornstarch was found in the banquet hall owner’s house. It is not exactly clear why the banquet hall owner was using cornstarch, but one theory is that she mixes it with baby powder and puts it on after taking a bath. Even though the caterer had baking soda in his kitchen, too, the fact that it was found throughout the house, even at the front door, indicates that he tracked it in after ransacking the chef’s kitchen. The presence of baking soda in his house is strong evidence that the caterer most likely committed the crime. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

101 Science Mysteries Why do teachers use science mysteries?
10/2013 Science Mysteries Why do teachers use science mysteries? To engage students who may often shun science To teach basic science knowledge through exploration To connect science to real life situations How do teachers use science mysteries? Teachers often have students read and discuss the first episode. Then students continue the story on their own until the mystery is solved. Classroom discussion summarizes what students have learned. Key Points Review the reasons for using science mysteries in the classroom. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

102 10/2013 A Lighter Moment We don’t have to know everything there is about science, but we can select some basic items to make science real and connected! Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

103 Earth and Space Science
10/2013 Earth and Space Science Science Content Topics Earth & Space Science (20%) Focusing Themes Human Health and Living Systems Interactions between Earth’s systems and living things Energy and Related Systems Earth and its system components Structure and organization of the cosmos Key Points Review the overarching themes and how they connect to the earth and space science content topics. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

104 An Introduction to Earth and Space Science
10/2013 An Introduction to Earth and Space Science Key Notes Show a video as an introduction to the various concepts of earth and space science that can be “seen” rather than merely read about in the classroom. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

105 Structure and Organization of the Cosmos
10/2013 Structure and Organization of the Cosmos Let’s Apply! Space Science How Far Is It Really? Key Notes This activity provides participants with an idea of how really far it is from the earth to each of the planets. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

106 Building Academic Vocabulary
10/2013 Building Academic Vocabulary Key Points Discuss that science vocabulary is important in teaching science. Refer to the list of key concepts/terms that were created through the ABC activity at the beginning of the workshop. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

107 Narrative Chains Key Points
10/2013 Narrative Chains Key Points Discuss different strategies to use when teaching vocabulary. Narrative chains are just one way. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

108 Interactions between Earth’s systems and living things
10/2013 Interactions between Earth’s systems and living things Use the following words in a narrative sentence/paragraph: temperatures, southern, glacier, earth, tropical, rainforest, jungle, ice cap, moderate Key Points Have participants try a narrative chain. You may wish to introduce the narrative chain as follows: Let’s try one! My students have just completed a lesson on ecosystems. I want to know if they really understand the words that were used in the lesson. This is your task. Create a sentence or short paragraph that uses all of the words on the slide. [Make sure to tell your participants that they cannot write a sentence that just lists the words, such as: “My vocabulary words are: ecosystem . . . Have some of the participants share their narrative chains. Show participants how they can select words from a lesson in the series to use this strategy.] Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

109 Science Narrative Chain
10/2013 Science Narrative Chain Although some of the places on the earth experience moderate temperature changes throughout the year, there are also areas where the temperatures are quite drastic. In some of the southern regions, one might experience a tropical rainforest or jungle-like atmosphere which is very hot and humid. Some parts of the earth are very cold all year long and are composed of glaciers or ice caps. Key Points Sample narrative chain. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

110 Sample Questions/Concepts
10/2013 Sample Questions/Concepts Key Points Reinforce that science questions on the GED® test incorporate scenarios, as well as concepts and practices. This question requires that students know about dependent and independent variables, as well as how the disruption of an ecosystem can impact the natural environment. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

111 What are variables? – A review
10/2013 What are variables? – A review Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Variable What is tested by the scientist What is changed by the scientist (What I change…) What is observed What is measured The effect caused by the independent variable. The data (What do I measure?) Things that could change but don’t Kept constant (the same) by scientists These allow for a fair test. (What stays the same?) Key Points Review the different types of variables, if necessary. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

112 A Lighter Moment Real Science! (or is it?)
10/2013 A Lighter Moment Real Science! (or is it?) One horsepower is the amount of energy it takes to drag a horse 500 feet in one second. You can listen to thunder after lightning and tell how close you came to getting hit. If you don’t hear it, you got hit, so never mind. When people run around and around in circles, we say they are crazy. When planets do it we say they are orbiting. The body consists of three parts - the brainium, the borax and the abominable cavity. The brainium contains the brain, the borax contains the heart and lungs, and the abominable cavity contains the bowels, of which there are five - a, e, i, o and u. Key Points Students often have misconceptions or what could be called alternate conceptions about science and the world around them. Besides teaching concepts, you will also need to provide students with strategies to overcome their misconceptions or alternate conceptions. Take a look at a few examples of alternate conceptions taken from high school classrooms. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

113 Getting Started: Integrating Science
10/2013 Getting Started: Integrating Science Build students’ close reading skills Show students the “Big Ideas” Use hands-on demonstrations & experiments Incorporate videos, photographs, Internet tours Connect science to everyday life Construct and interpret graphs, charts, tables, diagrams Solve problems through inquiry Integrate writing as a tool for reading comprehension Key Points So, what are some ways that you can incorporate the teaching of science into your program? First identify the “Big Ideas” of science, including both content and practices. For these items, use hands-on demonstrations and experiments to help students “see” science concepts at work. Don’t forget that the World Wide Web is a wonderful resource to provide students with real-world experiences in science. From science museums to following extinct species via webcams to researching the latest information on a topic of interest, it’s important for students to connect to the science of everyday life. Of course, don’t forget graphic literacy. Have students conduct surveys and construct tables and graphs as well as interpret those already created. Just like in our workplaces and daily lives, sometimes there is not just “one answer” to a science-oriented problem. Provide students with a current problem, e.g., how to clean up oil spills in the gulf. Use open-ended questions within the classroom and have students share the evidence or rationale that was used to develop a reasonable answer. Don’t forget to integrate writing as a tool for reading comprehension and of course, don’t forget the resources provided through the GED Testing Service® website. Develop questions for class discussion and teacher-created assessment tools that are of the same cognitive rigor as the 2014 GED® test. A good place to begin is a thorough review of the Assessment Guide and the Item Samplers. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

114 Access the World Wide Web
10/2013 Access the World Wide Web Key Points Spend time showing participants the various types of resources that are available on the World Wide Web, including videos, lesson plans, and hands-on experiments. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

115 Start with some of the resources available through Florida TechNet.
10/2013 Key Points Start with some of the resources available through Florida TechNet. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

116 www.GEDtestingservice.com Key Points
10/2013 Key Points [Review url and how to access information.] Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

117 Resources, Resources, Resources
10/2013 Resources, Resources, Resources Key Points Review resources from GED Testing Service®, including marketing materials, videos, tutorials, and state and student stories about computer-based testing. And don’t forget the calculator app and tutorials. [Review the additional types of information available on the GED Testing Service® website.] Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

118 Two Practice Products Online Tutorial
10/2013 Two Practice Products Online Tutorial Focus on test content and testing experience See item types Practice on technology-enhanced items/tools Get feedback on right or wrong answers and why the answers are right or wrong Focus on readiness for GED® test Timed ½-length test Same user experience as the official test Generalized and focused feedback Same registration process and login as for GED® test Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

119 10/2013 “A mind stretched to a new idea never goes back to its original dimensions.” Oliver Wendell Holmes Key Points According to Harvey and Goudvis, “When we synthesize information, we take individual pieces of information and combine them without prior knowing… At its best, synthesis involves merging new information with existing knowledge to create an original idea, see a new perspective, or form a new line of thinking to achieve insight.” Oliver Wendell Holmes states what we hope will happen to all of our students. Learning as the world is ever-changing is definitely worthwhile for each of us. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

120 10/2013 Q & A Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman

121 Thank you for being with us today!
10/2013 Thank you for being with us today! Bonnie Goonen Susan Pittman The IPDAE project is supported with funds provided through the Adult and Family Literacy Act, Division of Career and Adult Education, Florida Department of Education. Bonnie Goonen and Susan Pittman


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