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Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

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1 Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes
3 Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

2 Chapter 3 Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes
Key Concepts 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes

3 Chapter 3 Opening Question
How does an understanding of proteins and enzymes help to explain how aspirin works?

4 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Nucleic acids are polymers specialized for storage, transmission, and use of genetic information. DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid RNA = ribonucleic acid Monomers: Nucleotides

5 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Nucleotide: Pentose sugar + N-containing base + phosphate group Nucleosides: Pentose sugar + N-containing base

6 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Bases: Pyrimidines—single rings Purines—double rings Sugars: DNA contains deoxyribose RNA contains ribose

7 Figure 3.1 Nucleotides Have Three Components

8 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Nucleotides bond in condensation reactions to form phosphodiester linkages. Nucleic acids grow in the 5′ to 3′ direction.

9 Figure 3.2 Linking Nucleotides Together

10 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Oligonucleotides have about 20 monomers, and include small RNA molecules important for DNA replication and gene expression. DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, the longest polymers in the living world.

11 Table 3.1 Distinguishing RNA from DNA

12 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Complementary base pairing: adenine and thymine always pair (A-T) cytosine and guanine always pair (C-G)

13 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Base pairs are linked by hydrogen bonds. There are so many hydrogen bonds in DNA and RNA that they form a fairly strong attraction, but not as strong as covalent bonds. Thus, base pairs can be separated with only a small amount of energy. LINK Hydrogen bonds play an essential role in the chemistry of life; see Concept 2.2

14 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
RNA is usually single-stranded, but may be folded into 3-D structures, by hydrogen bonding. Folding occurs by complementary base pairing, so structure is determined by the order of bases.

15 Figure 3.3 RNA (Part 1)

16 Figure 3.3 RNA (Part 2)

17 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
DNA—two polynucleotide strands form a “ladder” that twists into a double helix. Sugar-phosphate groups form the sides of the ladder, the hydrogen-bonded bases form the rungs. VIDEO 3.1 Deoxyribonucleic acid: A three-dimensional model VIDEO 3.2 Cell Visualization: The structure of DNA

18 Figure 3.4 DNA (Part 1)

19 Figure 3.4 DNA (Part 2)

20 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
DNA is an informational molecule: genetic information is in the sequence of base pairs. DNA has two functions: Replication Gene expression—base sequences are copied to RNA, and specify amino acids sequences in proteins.

21 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
DNA replication and transcription depend on the base pairing: 5′-TCAGCA-3′ 3′-AGTCGT-5′ 3′-AGTCGT-5′ transcribes to RNA with the sequence 5′-UCAGCA-3′.

22 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
Genome—complete set of DNA in a living organism Genes—DNA sequences that encode specific proteins and are transcribed into RNA Not all genes are transcribed in all cells of an organism.

23 Figure 3.5 DNA Replication and Transcription

24 Concept 3.1 Nucleic Acids Are Informational Macromolecules
DNA base sequences reveal evolutionary relationships. Closely related living species should have more similar base sequences than species that are more distantly related. Scientists are now able to determine and compare entire genomes of organisms to study evolutionary relationships. ANIMATED TUTORIAL 3.1 Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids and Proteins LINK The use of DNA sequences to reconstruct the evolutionary history of life is described in Chapter 16

25 Major functions of proteins: Enzymes—catalytic proteins
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Major functions of proteins: Enzymes—catalytic proteins • Defensive proteins (e.g., antibodies) • Hormonal and regulatory proteins—control physiological processes • Receptor proteins—receive and respond to molecular signals Storage proteins store amino acids

26 • Structural proteins—physical stability and movement
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles • Structural proteins—physical stability and movement • Transport proteins carry substances (e.g., hemoglobin) • Genetic regulatory proteins regulate when, how, and to what extent a gene is expressed

27 Protein monomers are amino acids.
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Protein monomers are amino acids. Amino and carboxylic acid functional groups allow them to act as both acid and base. The R group differs in each amino acid.

28 They are grouped according to properties conferred by the R groups.
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Only 20 amino acids occur extensively in the proteins of all organisms. They are grouped according to properties conferred by the R groups.

29 Table 3.2 The Twenty Amino Acids in Proteins (Part 1)

30 Table 3.2 The Twenty Amino Acids in Proteins (Part 2)

31 Table 3.2 The Twenty Amino Acids in Proteins (Part 3)

32 Table 3.2 The Twenty Amino Acids in Proteins (Part 4)

33 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles
Cysteine side chains can form covalent bonds— a disulfide bridge, or disulfide bond.

34 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles
Oligopeptides or peptides—short polymers of 20 or fewer amino acids (some hormones and signaling molecules) Polypeptides or proteins range in size from insulin, which has 51 amino acids, to huge molecules such as the muscle protein titin, with 34,350 amino acids.

35 Polymerization takes place in the amino to carboxyl direction.
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Amino acids are linked in condensation reactions to form peptide linkages or bonds. Polymerization takes place in the amino to carboxyl direction.

36 Figure 3.6 Formation of a Peptide Linkage

37 Primary structure of a protein—the sequence of amino acids
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Primary structure of a protein—the sequence of amino acids

38 • α (alpha) helix—right-handed coil
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Secondary structure—regular, repeated spatial patterns in different regions, resulting from hydrogen bonding • α (alpha) helix—right-handed coil β (beta) pleated sheet—two or more polypeptide chains are extended and aligned

39 Figure 3.7 B, C The Four Levels of Protein Structure

40 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles
Tertiary structure—polypeptide chain is bent and folded; results in the definitive 3-D shape The outer surfaces present functional groups that can interact with other molecules. VIDEO 3.3 Lysozyme: A three-dimensional model

41 Interactions between R groups determine tertiary structure.
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Interactions between R groups determine tertiary structure. • Disulfide bridges hold a folded polypeptide together • Hydrogen bonds stabilize folds Hydrophobic side chains can aggregate van der Waals interactions between hydrophobic side chains • Ionic interactions form salt bridges

42 Figure 3.8 Noncovalent Interactions between Proteins and Other Molecules

43 Figure 3.9 The Structure of a Protein

44 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles
Secondary and tertiary protein structure derive from primary structure. Denaturing—heat or chemicals are used to disrupt weaker interactions in a protein, destroying secondary and tertiary structure. The protein can return to normal when cooled— all the information needed to specify the unique shape is contained in the primary structure.

45 Figure 3.10 Primary Structure Specifies Tertiary Structure (Part 1)

46 Figure 3.10 Primary Structure Specifies Tertiary Structure (Part 2)

47 Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles
Quaternary structure—two or more polypeptide chains (subunits) bind together by hydrophobic and ionic interactions, and hydrogen bonds. These weak interactions allow small changes that aid in the protein’s function. VIDEO 3.4 Hemoglobin: A three-dimensional model

48 Figure 3.7 E The Four Levels of Protein Structure

49 High concentrations of polar substances Nonpolar substances
Concept 3.2 Proteins Are Polymers with Important Structural and Metabolic Roles Factors that can disrupt the interactions that determine protein structure (denaturing): Temperature Concentration of H+ High concentrations of polar substances Nonpolar substances APPLY THE CONCEPT Proteins are polymers with important structural and metabolic roles

50 No catalyst makes a reaction occur that cannot otherwise occur.
Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Living systems depend on reactions that occur spontaneously, but at very slow rates. Catalysts are substances that speed up reactions without being permanently altered. No catalyst makes a reaction occur that cannot otherwise occur. Most biological catalysts are proteins (enzymes); a few are RNA molecules (ribozymes).

51 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions
In some exergonic reactions there is an energy barrier between reactants and products. An input of energy (the activation energy or Ea) will put reactants into a transition state.

52 Figure 3.11 Activation Energy Initiates Reactions (Part 1)

53 Figure 3.11 Activation Energy Initiates Reactions (Part 2)

54 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions
Enzymes lower the activation energy—they allow reactants to come together and react more easily. Example: A molecule of sucrose in solution may hydrolyze in about 15 days; with sucrase present, the same reaction occurs in 1 second!

55 Figure 3.12 Enzymes Lower the Energy Barrier

56 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions
Enzymes are highly specific—each one catalyzes only one chemical reaction. Reactants are substrates: they bind to a specific site on the enzyme—the active site. Specificity results from the exact 3-D shape and chemical properties of the active site.

57 Figure 3.13 Enzyme Action

58 The enzyme is not changed at the end of the reaction.
Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions The enzyme–substrate complex (ES) is held together by hydrogen bonding, electrical attraction, or temporary covalent bonding. The enzyme is not changed at the end of the reaction.

59 Enzymes may use one or more mechanisms to catalyze a reaction:
Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Enzymes may use one or more mechanisms to catalyze a reaction: Inducing strain—bonds in the substrate are stretched, putting it in an unstable transition state.

60 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions
Substrate orientation—substrates are brought together so that bonds can form. Adding chemical groups—R groups may be directly involved in the reaction.

61 Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions
Binding of substrate to enzyme is like a baseball in a catcher’s mitt. The enzyme changes shape to make the binding tight—“induced fit.”

62 Figure 3.14 Some Enzymes Change Shape When Substrate Binds to Them

63 Some enzymes require ions or other molecules in order to function:
Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Some enzymes require ions or other molecules in order to function: Cofactors—inorganic ions Coenzymes add or remove chemical groups from the substrate. They can participate in many different reactions. Prosthetic groups (non-amino acid groups) permanently bound to their enzymes. VIDEO 3.5 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and coenzyme NAD: A three-dimensional model

64 Table 3.3 Some Examples of Nonprotein “Partners” of Enzymes

65 Rates of catalyzed reactions:
Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Rates of catalyzed reactions: There is usually less enzyme than substrate present, so reaction rate levels off when the enzyme becomes saturated. Saturated—all enzyme molecules are bound to substrate molecules.

66 Figure 3.15 Catalyzed Reactions Reach a Maximum Rate

67 It ranges from 1 to 40 million molecules per second!
Concept 3.3 Some Proteins Act as Enzymes to Speed up Biochemical Reactions Maximum rate is used to calculate enzyme efficiency—molecules of substrate converted to product per unit time (turnover). It ranges from 1 to 40 million molecules per second!

68 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions are part of metabolic pathways—the product of one reaction is a substrate for the next.

69 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Homeostasis—the maintenance of stable internal conditions Cells can regulate metabolism by controlling the amount of an enzyme. Cells often have the ability to turn synthesis of enzymes off or on. LINK The regulation of enzyme synthesis is described in Chapter 11

70 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Chemical inhibitors can bind to enzymes and slow reaction rates. Natural inhibitors regulate metabolism; artificial inhibitors are used to treat diseases, kill pests, and study enzyme function.

71 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Irreversible inhibition—inhibitor covalently binds to a side chain in the active site. The enzyme is permanently inactivated.

72 Figure 3.16 Irreversible Inhibition

73 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Reversible inhibition (more common in cells): A competitive inhibitor competes with natural substrate for active site. A noncompetitive inhibitor binds at a site distinct from the active site—this causes change in enzyme shape and function. ANIMATED TUTORIAL 3.2 Enzyme Catalysis

74 Figure 3.17 Reversible Inhibition (Part 1)

75 Figure 3.17 Reversible Inhibition (Part 2)

76 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Allosteric regulation—non-substrate molecule binds a site other than the active site (the allosteric site) The enzyme changes shape, which alters the chemical attraction (affinity) of the active site for the substrate. Allosteric regulation can activate or inactivate enzymes. ANIMATED TUTORIAL 3.3 Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes

77 Figure 3.18 Allosteric Regulation of Enzyme Activity

78 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Protein kinases are enzymes that regulate responses to the environment by organisms. They are subject to allosteric regulation. The active form regulates the activity of other enzymes, by phosphorylating allosteric or active sites on the other enzymes. LINK The role of protein kinases in intracellular signaling pathways is described in Chapter 5

79 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Metabolic pathways: The first reaction is the commitment step—other reactions then happen in sequence. Feedback inhibition (end-product inhibition)— the final product acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the first enzyme, which shuts down the pathway.

80 Figure 3.19 Feedback Inhibition of Metabolic Pathways

81 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
pH affects enzyme activity: Acidic side chains generate H+ and become anions. Basic side chains attract H+ and become cations.

82 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Example: glutamic acid—COOH glutamic acid—COO– + H+ The law of mass action—the higher the H+ concentration, the more reaction is driven to the left to the less hydrophilic form. This can affect enzyme shape and function.

83 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Protein tertiary structure (and thus function) is very sensitive to the concentration of H+ (pH) in the environment. All enzymes have an optimal pH for activity.

84 Figure 3.20 A Enzyme Activity Is Affected by the Environment

85 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Temperature affects enzyme activity: Warming increases rates of chemical reactions, but if temperature is too high, non-covalent bonds can break and inactivate enzymes. All enzymes have an optimal temperature for activity.

86 Figure 3.20 B Enzyme Activity Is Affected by the Environment

87 Concept 3.4 Regulation of Metabolism Occurs by Regulation of Enzymes
Isozymes catalyze the same reaction but have different composition and physical properties. Isozymes may have different optimal temperatures or pH, allowing an organism to adapt to changes in its environment. APPLY THE CONCEPT Regulation of metabolism occurs by regulation of enzymes

88 Answer to Opening Question
Aspirin binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Cyclooxygenase catalyzes the commitment step for metabolic pathways that produce: Prostaglandins—involved in inflammation and pain Thromboxanes—stimulate blood clotting and constriction of blood vessels

89 Figure 3.21 Aspirin: An Enzyme Inhibitor

90 Answer to Opening Question
Aspirin binds at the active site of cyclooxygenase and transfers an acetyl group to a serine residue. Serine becomes more hydrophobic, which changes the shape of the active site and makes it inaccessible to the substrate.

91 Figure 3.22 Inhibition by Covalent Modification (Part 1)

92 Figure 3.22 Inhibition by Covalent Modification (Part 2)


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