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S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata EthicsEthics, Rules, and LawsRulesLaws Using the computer appropriately.

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Presentation on theme: "S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata EthicsEthics, Rules, and LawsRulesLaws Using the computer appropriately."— Presentation transcript:

1 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata EthicsEthics, Rules, and LawsRulesLaws Using the computer appropriately.

2 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata What are ethics Standards of right and wrong behavior A gauge of personal integrity The basis of trust and cooperation in relationships with others Back to Slide 1

3 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata What are ethics not? Laws that carry a criminal penalty Detailed instructions for every possible situation Flexible and changing depending on each unique person or situation

4 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Where do ethics come from? Values of a society Values of a school, business, or organization Values from family and heritage Values of an individual

5 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata An ethical person... Has an inner sense of what is moral and

6 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata is able to choose correct behavior in many different situations, including those that are new and different.

7 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata What follows an unethical choice? Lost opportunities Destruction of trust Damage to people and things And... ?

8 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Ethics vs. morality Morality refers to the rules and standards governing our conduct in society. Ethics: The philosophical study of morality. Analogy: Society= a town full of people driving car Morality is the road network, the traffic rules and regulations Ethics is the observation and evaluation of the drivers conduct: Ethical (staying on the road) or unethical (taking short cuts, speeding, drunk driving etc).

9 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata What is Computer Ethics? An attempt at definitions: Computer ethics is concerned with standards of conduct applying to the use of computers. Computer ethics can be understood as that branch of applied ethics which studies and analyzes social and ethical impacts of information technology.

10 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Why do we need computer ethics? New technology poses new problems. The growth of the Internet has created several new legal issues Traditional laws are outdated/anachronistic in cyberspace Some main concerns in computer ethics today are questions of copyright privacy censorship Example: My MSc. thesis was copied and parts were published under a different name. Is this something I should anticipate since I published my work on the Internet without any copyright restrictions?

11 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Basic Ethical Principles The same in all professions and other aspects of life Honesty Responsibility Fairness Tolerance There are cultural differences. Example: In Poland it is unethical to throw away bread. Ethics change with the times and a change in laws

12 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata New technology = new ethical problems Traditional rules of conduct are not always applicable to a new medium A question that often arises: Should a device, a technique or technology be restricted because people can use it for illegal or harmful actions as well as beneficial ones? Example Mobile phones now come equipped with cameras. It can be misused in several ways and cause a moral threat to the society, children and teen agers, speacialy the students. Question : Should students be allowed to take their mobile phones to school or not?

13 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics 1. THOU SHALT NOT USE A COMPUTER TO HARM OTHER PEOPLE. 2. THOU SHALT NOT INTERFERE WITH OTHER PEOPLE'S COMPUTER WORK. 3. THOU SHALT NOT SNOOP AROUND IN OTHER PEOPLE'S COMPUTER FILES. 4. THOU SHALT NOT USE A COMPUTER TO STEAL. 5. THOU SHALT NOT USE A COMPUTER TO BEAR FALSE WITNESS. 6. THOU SHALT NOT COPY OR USE PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE FOR WHICH YOU HAVE NOT PAID. 7. THOU SHALT NOT USE OTHER PEOPLE'S COMPUTER RESOURCES WITHOUT AUTHORIZATION OR PROPER COMPENSATION. 8. THOU SHALT NOT APPROPRIATE OTHER PEOPLE'S INTELLECTUAL OUTPUT. 9. THOU SHALT THINK ABOUT THE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE PROGRAM YOU ARE WRITING OR THE SYSTEM YOU ARE DESIGNING. 10. THOU SHALT ALWAYS USE A COMPUTER IN WAYS THAT INSURE CONSIDERATION AND RESPECT FOR YOUR FELLOW HUMANS.

14 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata INTERNET ETHICS AND OBJECTIONABLE MATERIALS Three categories of objectionable material Pornographic material Racist literature Illegal acts Incorrect, inappropriate, or dangerous material Inaccurate information

15 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata What are rules Specific guidelines about appropriate use of computers as outlined in... Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs) Professional Codes of Ethics Classroom Disclosures Back to Slide 1

16 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata with... consequences and punishments issued by the computer owners if rules are violated. This way to AUP

17 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata

18 What are laws Regulations passed by state and federal bodies that protect against some forms of misuse of computers and information resources. Back to Slide 1

19 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata So what if I break the law? You may not be discovered, this time, but next time... A serial number may be traced A help line may become suspicious An acquaintance may report you A web address may record your visits And more...

20 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata And just like that, youre a criminal... with a record and maybe a fine and maybe even a jail sentence when youre convicted of breaking the law.

21 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Copyright laws. Software developers own their programs. Software buyers only own the right to use the software according to the license agreement. No copying, reselling, lending, renting, leasing, or distributing is legal without the software owners permission.

22 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Copyright vs. Plagiarism Copyright One who violates copyright breaks laws that protect the rights of the creator of an original work Violation of copyright law may results in fines, imprisonment, or both Plagiarism One who plagiarizes breaks a moral code by claiming credit for the work of someone else Plagiarism may result in academic dismissal or loss of job.

23 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Software licenses: Four types Public Domain Freeware Shareware All Rights Reserved

24 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Public Domain License This software has no owner and is not protected by copyright law. It was either created with public funds, or the ownership was forfeited by the creator. Rare Unreliable Poor quality Virus-laden No cost? That may be exactly how much this software is worth.

25 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Freeware License Freeware is copyrighted software that is licensed to be copied and distributed without charge. Freeware is free because the license says it is, but its still under the owners control. Some freeware is really good stuff. Pegasus Mail Eudora Light Netscape Internet Explorer

26 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Shareware License The software is licensed for copying and sharing for a trial period, but payment must be made to the owner for permanent use. Some shareware trials expire on a certain date Payment depends on the honor system Purchasing (the right to use) the software may also get you a version with more powerful features and published documentation.

27 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata All Rights Reserved License May be used by the purchaser according the exact details spelled out in the license agreement. You cant legally use it--or even possess it-- without the owners permission.

28 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT, DO NOT OPEN THE ENCLOSED PACKET OR BREAK THE SEAL ON THE CD-ROM The only right granted to the Customer is the right to USE the SOFTWARE and accompanying documentation in accordance with this License Agreement. The customer may not modify, translate, copy, reproduce, reverse engineer, disassemble, decompile, or otherwise derive source code from, the SOFTWARE or accompanying documentation, or use it as a basis for the preparation of other software programs Customers who have purchased a Single-User license may INSTALL and USE the SOFTWARE on one computer. The software and accompanying documentation may not be transmitted electronically, including over the Internet, rented, loaned, leased, sold, distributed, made available, directly or indirectly, for USE by any other person or entity not covered by this License Agreement. Excerpts from QuarkXPress software license agreement

29 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Even if you can. Even if no one will ever find out. Follow the license agreement or you will be breaking the law.

30 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Software piracy. Conviction of a first offense can result in a fine of up to 250,000. and a jail sentence of up to five years.

31 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata

32 Laws about nuisance or harassment. It doesnt matter if your intention was to be funny, or friendly, or something else. If the person you contact through the Internet is uncomfortable, Or its illegal.

33 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Laws concerning fraud or plagiarism. Individuals who create intellectual property have the right to receive credit Owners of recorded works deserve to be protected from the incorrect use of their creations

34 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Be sure to give credit where credit is due. Cite borrowed material with textual citations and a references slide using an accepted format. Use material in a way that preserves the meaning and context intended by the author

35 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Laws about vandalism. Attempts to harm or destroy data or hardware of another user, agency, or network can be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.

36 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Laws about privacy. Private information cannot be legally used without permission from its owner. Information is owned by the person it describes. Medical records and school grades are protected by privacy laws.

37 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Other categories of personal information have become more public in recent years. Courts have not set a consistent precedent to preserve the privacy of your full name, address, telephone numbers, debts you owe, court judgments against you, courses youve taken, and police actions relating to you.

38 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Be ethical. Dont share personal information without that persons permission.

39 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata Always consider ethics, rules, and laws as you choose how to behave when using computers.

40 S. Agarwal, St. Xaviers College, Kolkata THANKS…


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