2 Key conceptsWhat characteristics do the three groups of nonvascular plants shareWhat characteristics do the three groups of seedless vascular plants share?
3 IntroductionImagine you are hiking in the forest. You see many ferns along the trail. You walk a little father and stop to rest near a stream. Here you see mosses everywhere=on the forest floor on rocks and along the banks of the stream. Although ferns and mosses look very different, they have something in common. They reproduce without forming seeds.
4 Nonvascular Plants Three major groups of nonvascular plants Mosses Liverworts and hornwortsThey are low growing plants that live in moist areas where they can absorb water and other nutrients directly from their environment
5 Mosses Green, fuzzy in the gametophyte generation Rhizoids anchor the moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soil
6 LiverwortsGrow on a thick crust of moist rocks or soil along the sides of a stream
7 HornwortsSeldom found on tree trunks or rocks, live in moist soil, mixed in with grass plants
8 Seedless vascular plants Among the plants were huge, tree-sized ferns as well as trees with branches that grew in a series of circles along the trunk. Other trees resembled giant sticks with leaves up to one meter long. When the leaves dropped off, they left diamond-shaped scars. These tall odd-looking trees were the ancestors of three groups of plants that are alive today-ferns-horsetails, and club mosses. They are seedless plants that have vascular tissue
9 Characteristics of seedless vascular plants Do not produce seedsReproduce by producing sporesVascular plants grow tallStrong cell walls providing strength and stabilityNeed to grow in moist surroundings in order for gametophytes produce egg cells and sperm cells
11 HorsetailsLong, coarse, needlelike branches grow in a circle around each jointStems contains silicaDuring colonial times, Americans used the plants to scrub their pots and pans
12 Club Mosses Club mosses have vascular tissue Grow in moist woodlands and near streams
13 1. Which part of plant look like roots rhyzoids
14 2. Which parts look like true stems and leaves Green stem like and leaf like structures
15 3. Why do scientists call these moss parts roots, stems and leaves? They do not have transport tissue as true roots, stems and leaves do
16 4. How are mosses and other nonvascular plants limited by their lack of vascular tissue? They do not grow very because they cannot transport water as far and as fast as is needed for a tall plant to survive
17 5. How are these plants similar to most larger plants today? They have vascular tissue
18 6. What structures give these seedless plants strength and stability? Vascular tissue
19 7. Why is moisture important for reproduction in seedless vascular plants? Sperm must swim through water to the eggs
20 8. What advantage is the cuticle to the plant? It helps prevent water loss from the plant
21 9. What two characteristics do mosses, liverworts, and hornworts share? They are low growing and live in moist environments where they can absorb water and nutrients directly from their environment
22 10. What two characteristics do ferns horsetails and club mosses share? Vascular tissue and the use of spores to reproduce
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