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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 9: Privacy, Crime, and Security 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Computers Are Your Future Chapter 9: Privacy, Crime, and Security 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computers Are Your Future Chapter 9: Privacy, Crime, and Security 1

2 Privacy, Crime, and Security 2

3 Objectives Understand how technological developments are eroding privacy and anonymity. List the types of computer crime and cybercrime. List the types of computer criminals. 3

4 Objectives Understand computer system security risks. Describe how to protect your computer system and yourself. Define encryption and explain how it makes online information secure. 4

5 Objectives Describe the issues the government faces when balancing the need to access encrypted data and the publics right to privacy. Distinguish between electronic discovery and computer forensics. 5

6 Privacy in Cyberspace Privacy o Individuals ability to restrict or eliminate the collection, use, and sale of confidential personal information 6

7 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Anonymity o Means to communicate without disclosing ones identity o More difficult with the use of computers and the Internet 7

8 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Technologies that jeopardize anonymity o Cookies o Global unique identifiers o Ubiquitous computing o Radio frequency identification 8

9 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Cookies o Small files written to your hard disk by Web sites visited o Examples include: Track your browsing habits Gather personal information without your consent o Can be disabled o Banner adstargeted display ads based on cookies 9

10 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Global unique identifer (GUID) o Identification number produced by software or a piece of hardware o Web servers read the GUID. o Users are not always aware of the GUID. o If used, companies typically allow users to opt out. o Civil liberties groups and public concern have decreased the use of GUIDs. 10

11 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Ubiquitous computing o Interacting with multiple networked devices Example: adjusting heat or light based on signals sent by monitors built into clothing o Active badgetransmits infrared signals to create an electronic trail o Current deviceshold private information that can be exploited if the device is lost or stolen Example: smartphones 11

12 UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12

13 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Radio frequency identification (RFID) o Uses radio waves to track a chip or tag o Used for inventory control in stores o Recognizes microchips in pets o May compromise anonymity and privacy if information stored on RFID tags attached to U.S. passports 13

14 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent 14

15 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent SPAM o Unsolicited messages sent in bulk over electronic mailing systems 15

16 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Protecting privacy online o Use products such as Anonymous Surfing or IronKey Secure USB flash. o Use free Web-based throwaway addresses in chat rooms and for mailing lists. o Tell children not give out personal information. o Complete forms only if you see a privacy statement. o Turn off cookies Prevent the activity of Web beacons o Transparent graphic images placed on a Web site or in an used to monitor Web or behavior 16

17 IronKey Secure USB flash Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17

18 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Protecting privacy at home o Create logins and passwords for each person using the computer. o Do not save account numbers or passwords. o Close a secured account site when not using a computer. o Use strong passwords Do use: difficult to guess passwords; at least 14 characters or more long; uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters Dont use: a recognizable word or phrase; name of anything or anyone close to you, including names of family members or pets; recognizable strings of numbers, such as social security numbers or birth dates 18

19 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Do not leave cell phones in public places. Turn off services not in use, especially Bluetooth. Verify that devices have secure configurations. 19

20 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent Employee monitoring o Majority of large U.S. employers observe employee phone calls, s, Web browsing habits, and computer files Protecting privacy at work o Refrain from making personal calls on a work phone o Avoid using company for personal purposes o Assume you are monitored o Be aware of shoulder surfing 20

21 The Problem: Collection of Information Without Consent 21

22 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Computer crimes o Computer-based activities that violate the law Cybercrimes o Crimes perpetrated through the Internet o Many Web sites educate users about cybercrime and cybercriminals Cyberlaw o Area of law dedicated to computer crime 22

23 Computer Crime and Cybercrime 23

24 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Types of computer crime o Identify theftcriminal access to personal information in order to impersonate someone o Dumpster divingdisgruntled employees or thieves go through a companys trash to find information they can steal o Phishing attackslegitimate-looking s or Web sites created in an attempt to obtain confidential data about a person o Spear phishing (similar to phishing)uses targeted fake e- mails and social engineering to trick recipients into providing personal information to enable identity theft 24

25 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Types of computer crime (cont.) o Malware (short for malicious software)programs that intentionally harm a computer system or allow individuals to gain access without permission Tips to protect yourself from malware: o Know who you are dealing with o Keep your Web browser and operating system up to date o Back up important files o Protect children online o Use security software tools and keep them up to date o Use strong passwords o Learn what to do if something goes wrong 25

26 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Types of computer crime (cont.) o Spywaresoftware that gathers private information and tracks Web use Adwareform of spyware that generates annoying pop-up and banner ads Keyloggersrecord keystrokes to provide cybercriminals with confidential data 26

27 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Types of computer crime (cont.) o Computer viruscode concealed inside a program that can harm or destroy files Many spread through attachments File infectorsattach themselves to files Payloadrefers to the dangerous actions a virus performs. Macro virusesattach to data files and take advantage of application macros Boot sector virusesexecute each time you start the computer SPIMspam text message sent via a cell phone or instant messaging service 27

28 Computer Crime and Cybercrime 28

29 Rogue programs o Logic bombhidden computer code that sits dormant on a system until triggered. Are set to go off when a partıcular event occurs. o Time bombvirus program that remains dormant on a computer system until activated. Go off at a specified time, date or after a set amount of time elapses. o Wormsimilar to a virus but does not need action of a user to execute Computer Crime and Cybercrime 29

30 Computer Crime and Cybercrime A worm is similar to a virus by design and is considered to be a sub-class of a virus. Worms spread from computer to computer, but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel without any human action. A worm takes advantage of file or information transport features on your system, which is what allows it to travel unaided. The biggest danger with a worm is its capability to replicate itself on your system, so rather than your computer sending out a single worm, it could send out hundreds or thousands of copies of itself, creating a huge devastating effect. One example would be for a worm to send a copy of itself to everyone listed in your address book. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 30

31 More rogue programs (cont.) o Rootkitmalicious program that is disguised as a useful program Enables attacker to gain administrator level access Allows attacker to have repeated and undetected access o Trojan horsenormal-looking program that includes concealed instructions to cause harm Computer Crime and Cybercrime 31

32 Computer Crime and Cybercrime When a Trojan is activated on your computer, the results can vary. Some Trojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons) or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. Trojans are also known to create a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to your system, possibly allowing confidential or personal information to be compromised. Unlike viruses and worms, Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 32

33 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Fraud, theft, and piracy o Memory shaving (physical theft of computer equipment) o Software piracy Cyber gaming crime Tricks for obtaining passwords o Techniques for guessing a password. Salami shaving o A programmer alter a program to subtract a very small amount of money from an account. Data diddling o Insiders modify data by altering accounts or database records so that its difficult or impossible to tell that theyve have stolen a funds and equipment. Forgery o Knowledgeable users can make internet data appear to come from one place when its really coming from another. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 33

34 Computer Crime and Cybercrime 34 The attackers o Hackerscomputer hobbyists attempting unauthorized access, generally subscribing to an unwritten code of conducthacker ethic o Cybergangsgroups of hackers working together to coordinate attacks o IP spoofingsends a message with an IP address disguised as a message from a trusted source

35 Computer Crime and Cybercrime 35 The Attackers (cont.) o Crackers (also called black hats)attempt to enter highly secure computer systems to destroy data or steal information o Ethical hackers (also called white hats) use expertise to shore up computer system defenses o Computer virus authorscreate viruses and other types of malware to vandalize computer systems o Swindlers perpetuate frauds: Bogus work-at-home opportunities Illegal pyramid schemes Bogus franchises Phony goods that wont be delivered Over-priced scholarship searches

36 Computer Crime and Cybercrime Cyberstalkers o Use the Internet, social networking sites, and to harass or threaten o Most perpetrators are men o Most victims are college-age women Cyberbullying o Sending threatening messages via or text message o Usually involves minors 36

37 Security Computer security risk o Any intentional or unintentional action resulting in damaging a computer system or its data o Increased by wireless LANs because transmissions occur over shared airwaves instead of dedicated lines 37

38 Security Computer security risk (cont) o Wireless LAN security options include: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) WPA (WiFi Protected Access) WPA2 o Vacation hackingtricking travelers into using phony WiFi hot spotsevil twins 38

39 Security Computer system security threats o Corporate espionageunauthorized access of corporate information, usually to the benefit of a competitor Pod slurpingusing removable storage media to create unauthorized copies of confidential data Trap doorssecurity holes created by employees allowing entry to company systems after leaving the firm o Information warfareuse of information technologies to corrupt or destroy an enemys information and industrial infrastructure o Security loophole detection programs o Attacks on safety-critical systems o Terrorism 39

40 Protecting your computer system o Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)provides additional power during outages or electrical current fluctuations o Control access to computer systems through appropriate password selection and know-and-have authentication, which requires using tokens to generate a login code.Security 40

41 Security Protecting your computer system (cont.) o Biometric authenticationuse of voice recognition, retinal scans, and fingerprint scans for authentication o Firewalls, hardware or software, to prevent unauthorized access o Anti-Virus Programs 41

42 Protect yourselfavoid scams o Do business with well-known companies. o Read documents carefully. o Dont give out personal information o Do not post a user profile. o Be skeptical of chat room information. o Be cautious if meeting someone youve contacted online. o If you become uncomfortable or afraid, contact the policeSecurity 42

43 The Encryption Debate Cryptography o Study of transforming information into an encoded or scrambled format Cryptographers o Individuals who practice cryptography Encryption o Coding or scrambling process that renders a message unreadable by anyone other than the intended recipient 43

44 The Encryption Debate Plaintext o Readable message that has not been encrypted Encryption key o Formula that makes a plaintext message unreadable Ciphertext o Coded message 44

45 The Encryption Debate Symmetric key encryption o Uses same key for both encryption and decryption Key interception o Occurs when a symmetric key encryption is stolen, allowing others to decrypt messages encrypted with that encryption key 45

46 Public key encryption o Also referred to as asymmetric key encryption o Uses two keys: Public key to encrypt Private key to decrypt o Essential for e-commerce o Used to implement: Digital signaturesguarantee messages are secure Digital certificatesvalidate identity Secure electronic transaction (SET) o Uses digital certificates o Enable parties engaged in Internet-mediated transactions to confirm each others identities The Encryption Debate 46

47 The Encryption Debate 47

48 Public key infrastructure (PKI) o Uniform set of encryption standards o No dominant standard o Public fear of a monopoly if a PKI is chosen The Encryption Debate 48

49 Encryption and public security issues o U.S. government continues search for ways to balance the publics right to privacy and the governments need to know The Encryption Debate 49

50 Prosecuting Violators E-discovery o Obligation of parties to a lawsuit to exchange documents existing only in electronic form Computer forensics o Legal evidence found in computers and digital storage media 50

51 Summary Understand how technological developments are eroding privacy and anonymity. List the types of computer crime and cybercrime. List the types of computer criminals. 51

52 Summary Understand computer system security risks. Describe how to protect your computer system and yourself. Define encryption and explain how it makes online information secure. 52

53 Summary Describe the issues the government faces when balancing the need to access encrypted data and the publics right to privacy. Distinguish between electronic discovery and computer forensics. 53


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