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Orientation on Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Orientation on Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Orientation on Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition 1

2 Objectives of the Orientation 1.Describe the evolution and the concept of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) 2. Discuss a strategy for quality improvement of management of SAM in your hospital 2

3 Terminology CMAM: Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition Others: – Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition, Management of Acute Malnutrition, Community- Based Therapeutic Care (CTC) 3

4 Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition: Evolving protocols, based on evidence World Health Organization (WHO) 1999: – Facility-based care for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) – Children under 5 with SAM are treated until full recovery in paediatric ward, nutrition rehabilitation unit, therapeutic feeding centre 4

5 5 Acute Malnutrition Severe Acute Malnutrition Therapeutic Feeding for the Management of SAM Moderate Acute Malnutrition Supplementary Feeding for the Management of MAM WHO 1999 Classification for the Management of Acute Malnutrition

6 Facility-Based Care: Challenges Centralised sites leading to low coverage and late presentation Overcrowding leading to elevated risk of cross- infections Heavy staff workload Opportunity cost of caregiver for long stay High default rate due to long stay Potential engagement of caregiver in high-risk behaviour to cover cost of meals? 6

7 7

8 8 Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) Energy- and nutrient-dense lipid-based paste: 500 kcal/92 g Same formula as F-100 (except it contains iron) No microbial growth, even when opened Safe and easy for home use Is not given to infants under 6 months

9 Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition: Evolving protocols, important new elements Adapted classification of SAM with or without medical complications – Children 6–59 months with SAM without medical complications treated in Outpatient Care with RUTF and presumptive antibiotics – Children 6–59 months with SAM and medical complications treated in Inpatient Care, and referred to Outpatient Care after stabilisation to continue treatment at home Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC): independent criterion for SAM WHO 2006 child growth standards: adaptation of admission and discharge criteria 9

10 WHO 2007 Classification for the Management of Acute Malnutrition (children 6–59 months) Acute Malnutrition Severe acute malnutrition with poor appetite or medical complication* Severe acute malnutrition with good appetite and without medical complication Moderate acute malnutrition 10 * Medical complication: anorexia or poor appetite, intractable vomiting, convulsions, lethargy or not alert, unconsciousness, hypoglycaemia, high fever, hypothermia, severe dehydration, lower respiratory tract infection, severe anaemia, eye signs of vitamin A deficiency, or skin lesion

11 WHO 2007 Classification for the Management of Acute Malnutrition (children 6–59 months) Acute Malnutrition Severe acute malnutrition with poor appetite or medical complication* Management of SAM in Inpatient Care Severe acute malnutrition with good appetite and without medical complication Management of SAM in Outpatient Care Moderate acute malnutrition Management of MAM 11 * Medical complication: anorexia or poor appetite, intractable vomiting, convulsions, lethargy or not alert, unconsciousness, hypoglycaemia, high fever, hypothermia, severe dehydration, lower respiratory tract infection, severe anaemia, eye signs of vitamin A deficiency, or skin lesion Discharge Admission Referral

12 Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition: Evolving protocols, important new elements WHO reviewing its nutrition guidelines for based_man_sev_acute_mal_eng.pdf malnutrition/ _eng.pdf 12

13 MUAC for Assessment and Admission Identifies children at highest risk of death Measures muscle mass (nutrient store) Is a transparent and understandable measurement Is easy-to-use tool; can be used by all health care providers, also community-based outreach workers after being trained 13

14 MUAC (2) Pending publication (A. Briend et al. 2011): MUAC is better than WFH z-score to identify high-risk children Using both WFH < 3 z-score AND MUAC < 115 mm increases specificity but decreases sensitivity to identify high-risk children: Missing children at risk Using WFH < 3 z-score OR MUAC < 115 mm increases sensitivity but decreases specificity to identify high-risk children: Selecting children not at risk There is no advantage for programmes in combining WFH z­score and MUAC to identify high-risk children Pending studies: Safety of MUAC for monitoring and discharge 14

15 CMAM Overview A community-based approach for the management of SAM in children under 5: Community outreach for community involvement and early and active detection of acute malnutrition cases and referral for treatment Most children with SAM have good appetite and are without medical complications (more than 80%) and can thus be treated as outpatients at accessible, decentralised sites Children with SAM and poor appetite or medical complications (less than 20%) are treated as inpatients at centralised sites Children with MAM are treated at decentralised sites 15

16 CMAM 16 Supplementary feeding for management of MAM Outpatient care for management of SAM without medical complications Inpatient care for management of SAM with medical complications Prevention of Undernutrition: Community Outreach Improved Infant and Young Child Feeding and Care

17 17 El Fasher Um Keddada Mellit Kutum Taweisha El Laeit Malha Tawila & Dar el Saalam Karnoi & Um Barow Koma Korma Serif Kebkabiya Fata Barno Tina N Darfur 2001 Hospital with therapeutic feeding centre El Sayah 100 kms

18 18 El Fasher Um Keddada Mellit Kutum Taweisha El Laeit Malha Tawila & Dar el Saalam Karnoi & Um Barow Koma Korma Serif Kebkabiya Fata Barno Tina N Darfur 2001 Hospital with Inpatient Care site El Sayah Outpatient Care site Inpatient Care site 100 kms

19 Principles of CMAM Maximum access: decentralised care with improved treatment coverage (those who need treatment are treated) Timely access to treatment (early and active detection and referral before onset of disease) Appropriate medical and nutrition care (specialised care adapted to severity of illness) Care for as long as needed (limiting defaulting) 19

20 Components of CMAM (1) Community Outreach: to increase access and service uptake (improved treatment coverage) Steps: Community assessment: – Strategy for outreach activities builds on existing formal and informal community systems and structures Community mobilisation: – Involves the community, raising awareness Community outreach workers or volunteers: – Early and active detection and referral of children with SAM before the onset of medical complications – Home visits for problem cases – Health and nutrition education Linking with existing community initiatives 20

21 Components of CMAM (2) Outpatient Care: Children with SAM with good appetite (appetite test) and without medical complications are treated at decentralised health facilities and at home Steps: Initial medical and anthropometry assessment Decision for treatment in Outpatient Care or Inpatient Care Medical treatment and nutrition rehabilitation with RUTF at home Weekly (or bi-weekly) medical and anthropometry assessment and monitoring of treatment progress ESSENTIAL: A good referral system to Inpatient Care, based on Action Protocols 21

22 Components of CMAM (3) Inpatient Care: Children with SAM with poor appetite or with medical complications are treated in facility-based care until their condition is stabilised Steps: Medical assessment and life-saving treatment Stabilisation: medical treatment and nutrition rehabilitation with therapeutic milk Transition: as soon as appetite returns, gradual introduction of RUTF Referral to Outpatient Care as soon as child eats RUTF well, medical complication is resolving and child is clinically well and alert ESSENTIAL: Good referral system to Outpatient Care 22

23 Components of CMAM (4) Management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) with a special food supplement following specifications for the management of MAM 23 Strategies: Individual: Targeted supplementary feeding for children with MAM 6–59 months Population: Blanket feeding for all children 6–24 months

24 Components of CMAM (5) Improved Infant and Young Child Feeding and Care Practices Health and Nutrition Education Social and Behaviour Change Communication Linking CMAM with preventive initiatives 24

25 Management of CMAM Management of services at national, subnational and district levels Planning and budgeting Supply management Human resources management Capacity strengthening Supportive supervision, quality improvement Monitoring and reporting (performance) Surveillance nutrition situation Evaluation (impact) 25

26 CMAM Support for Strengthening Capacities CMAM Support Team CMAM Technical Working Group 26


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