2 Nonvascular Plants Three major groups of nonvascular plants Mosses LiverwortsHornworts
3 Characteristics of Nonvascular Plants Low-growingLive in moist environmentsAbsorb water and other nutrients directlyWatery surroundings enable sperm cells to swim to egg cells
4 Mosses10,000 speciesGreen, fuzzy moss is the gametophyte generation of the plantRhizods: thin, rootlike structures that anchor the moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soilThe sporophyte generation grows out of the gametophyteThe sporophyte consists of a slender stalk with a capsule at the endThe capsule contains spores
6 Liverworts8,000 speciesOften found growing as a thick crust on moist rocks or soil along the sides of a stream
7 Hornworts Fewer than 100 species Live in moist soil, often mixed in with grass plants
8 Seedless Vascular Plants CharacteristicsFerns, club mosses and horsetails have true vascular tissueDo not produce seeds, these plants reproduce by releasing sporesCan grow tall because vascular tissues effectively transport materialsProvide strength and stabilityGrow in moist environmentsThere must be enough water for the sperm to swim to the eggs
9 Ferns Stems of most ferns grow underground Fronds Fern leaves, divided into many smaller parts that look like small leavesThe cuticle is found on the upper surface of each frond, helps retain plant waterTiny spore cases are found on the underside of the fronds
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