Presentation on theme: "The Challenge of Managing Digital Information in the Workplace Gloria Mark Department of Informatics University of California, Irvine ISR Forum 2012 1."— Presentation transcript:
The Challenge of Managing Digital Information in the Workplace Gloria Mark Department of Informatics University of California, Irvine ISR Forum
2 The nature of multitasking at work 2 High levels of multitasking in the workplace: Activity switches ~every 3 min. People work on an avg. of 12 different projects At the project level, switches every 10 ½ minutes People self-interrupt ~44% of the time It takes ~ 23 min. 15 sec. to resume an interrupted task
Multitasking and stress When interrupted, people experience significantly higher: Stress ** Mental workload * Frustration ** Time pressure * Effort ** *p<.05, **p<.001
5 s are a significant source of interruptions 5 How much attention does demand? More communication than F2F 70% of s attended to within 6 seconds 45% reported loss of control in managing info People spend ~23 % time on can be checked up to 36 times/hr.
How is multitasking affected by ? 6
7 Can we create an environment in which people can focus more closely on their tasks? 7
8 The field site 8 Large, scientific research organization Information workers Heavily reliant on in their work
9 Data collection techniques 9
10 Experimental design 10 Day Number Short Interview Sociometric Badge Short Survey Day Number NO Interview Long Survey Shadowing Heart Rate Monitor Sociometric Badge Work Activity Log Office Sensors Short Survey Main Participants Colleagues
11 Data collected participant groups, 52 total participants (including colleagues) 137 hours of ethnographic observation Logged over 25,000 window changes on participants computers Sensors recorded over 1.6 million sensor events Total of more than 700 hours of sensor data collection Heart rate monitors: Over 40,000 HR readings
12 Ethnographic shadowing 12 Activity Type Mean Duration (seconds) BaselineNo Out-of-Office Computing tasks Physical tasks Communication Metawork Other Tasks Overall
13 Ethnographic shadowing 13 Activity Type Mean Duration (seconds) BaselineNo Out-of-Office Computing tasks Physical tasks Communication Metawork Other Tasks Overall
16 Heart rate and stress 16 Heart rate variability (HRV) is widely used as an indicator of mental stress The lower the measure of HRV, the higher the amount of stress that an individual experiences Data obtained from only seven participants
17 and stress: HRV data 17 t(6) = , p =.065
18 and stress: HRV data 18 t(6) = , p =.065 Levenes test: F(1, 40409) = 33.40, p <.001
19 Effect on colleagues 19 For each participant, 2–7 closest team members were asked about stress, work, productivity, e.g.: It was easy for me to reach [XX] to get information I needed from [him/her] No significant difference between Baseline and No Trend for more agreement in Baseline than in No (p <.08) for this statement: I was able to get the information I needed to conduct my work today
20 Analysis of interview data 20 Lack of agency/loss of control More face-to-face time More task focus Feeling cut off
21 Lack of agency/loss of control 21 ~ 1/2 of informants described that they felt like they were not in control of their When asked how they felt about working without , nearly all informants described that their pace was more relaxed. I let the sound of the bell and the pop-ups rule my life. It ruled my lifethat made me feel depressed, and now I feel liberated [without ]…too much headache trying to keep on top of everything.
22 , communication, and workplace relationships 22 All informants reported that with cut off, they interacted with people more, both face-to-face and by phone They viewed this change as a benefit Informants expressed that during the time of cut off, they became aware that the use of hindered their work relationships [Working without ] helps with one-on-one relationships
23 More focus 23 Nearly all informants: during the time that was cut off, they were able to spend longer periods of time on a task and focus more intently on their work It gave me time to think about [work] more. I was able to spend time actually doing tasks that had to be done…. It was nice to be able to sit and work on a manuscript for the whole morning. When I didnt have , multitasking, I had three projects done. I was more focused.
24 Feeling cut off 24 Biggest disadvantage expressed by informants when they did not have was that they felt cut off. About half the informants described it as a general sense of isolation This feeling seemed to be grounded in a fear that they were potentially missing out on organizational information Yeshands downit isolates you as the one person whos not plugged in. The hardest thing was not being sure what I missed.
25 Recommendations 25 vacations Batching Use of a pull-oriented channel Organization should consider the immaterial benefits of reduction
26 Summary 26 By cutting off , people could report from their actual experience When is cut off for five days: Duration on task increases; Frequency of task switching decreases Stress reduces Face-to-face communication increases Not clear of its effect on productivity
The burden falls on the user to integrate their work that is fragmented over time and space! 27
28 Thanks 28 To our informants To the National Science Foundation award CNS to the CRA for the Computing Innovation Fellows Project To the U.S. Army Natick R, D & E Center
In collaboration with… Steve Voida Armand Cardello Victor Gonzalez Norman Su Justin Harris Laura Dabbish 29
In the media BBC Radio interview. May 15, The New York Times. Taking vacations can reduce stress, study says. May 4, National Public Radio (NPR). Marketplace Tech Report. Broadcast May 4, The Atlantic. Study of the Day: Breaks at Work Reduce Stress, Improve Productivity. May 9, Huffington Post. Taking a break from work could help curb stress: Study. May 7, 2012 U.S. News & World Report. An ' Vacation' Could Save Your Health. May 11, Los Angeles Times. You knew this: Work s are bad for your health, study finds. May 3, The Atlantic. The Latest 'Ordinary Thing That Will Probably Kill You'? . May 4, ABC Radio Australia. No work access = less stress, better focus. May 7, New York Daily News. Having a stressful moment? Turn off . May 9, The Globe and Mail. Is it possible to check just twice a day? May 13, Seattle Times. Letting go of s is good for you. May 4,