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Slavery without Submission, Emancipation without Freedom

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1 Slavery without Submission, Emancipation without Freedom
Gaby Torres Group 2 English 2A Slavery without Submission, Emancipation without Freedom

2 Main Idea “It would take either a full-scale slave rebellion or a full-scale war to end such a deeply entrenched system.” Basically this statement is saying that in order for slavery to come to an end, something which may have a big impact on the United States would have to occur in order for a change in slavery to come about.

3 Different Aspects of Slavery
Zinn tells of how many slaves and free blacks attempted to abolish slavery. Many of the incidents which occurred were of slaves uniting and rebelling against slave owners and masters alike. Many died to hands of whites for their participation in these rebellions.

4 Abolishing Slavery

5 Whites of the Southern States
They tried hard to keep slavery the way it was. With the steady growing number of free educated blacks in the Northern states grew the desire for slaves to obtain the same. In the North, blacks were able to obtain an education and work as well as own their own stores.

6 Comparative Area of the Free and Slave States

7 Abraham Lincoln He got into office and many Southern Whites believed he sided on the abolishment of slavery so they made their states separate from the Northern portion of the United States. He supported the Union, which were the Northern States which held free blacks, and gave the Confederate States an ultimatum to join back with the Union or war will begin. Thus, the Civil War begun and it was during this time which Lincoln issued the Emancipation of Proclamation and freed the slaves in the United States.

8 Abraham Lincoln

9 Confiscation Act Passed in July of 1862 by Congress.
It enabled the freeing of slaves of those fighting in the Union. This is stating that any black that fought with the Union became a free man. Used as a way to recruit more blacks to fight and help win the war. That April, the Senate had adopted the Thirteenth Amendment, declaring an end to slavery. In January 1865 the House of Representatives followed. This means slavery came to end. Although, the battle was over blacks still were not treated equal to their white counterparts. Many laws offering equality to everyone despite color were made then taken away.

10 Describing Slavery 1932 edition of a best-selling textbook-”necessary transition to civilization” A record of deaths kept in a plantation journal lists the age and cause of death of all those who died on the plantation between 1850 and 1855. Time on the Cross- shows that over the course of 2 years, a total of 160 whippings were administered, an avg. of 0.7 whippings per hand per year. The whippings and punishments were work disciplines.

11 Time on the Cross Slavery book that looks at whippings in on the Barrow Plantation in Louisiana with 200 slaves.

12 Largest Slave Revolt in U.S.
Took place near New Orleans in 1811 slaves gathered after a rising at the plantation of a Major Andry. Armed with cane knives, axes, and clubs, they wounded Andry, killed his son, and began marching from plantation to plantation, their numbers growing. Were attacked by U.S Army and militia forces; 66 killed on spot; 16 were tried and shot by a firing squad

13 Nat Turners Rebellion In Southampton County, Virginia in the summer of 1831. He claimed religious visions, gathered about 70 slaves and they went on a rampage from plantation to plantation, murdering at least 55 men, women, and children. Gathered supporters, but were captured as their ammunition ran out. Turner and 18 others were hanged

14 Nat Turner Revolt and Capture

15 Running Away Much more realistic than armed insurrection.
During the 1850s about a thousand slaves a year escaped into the North, Canada, and Mexico. Thousands ran away for short periods Dogs used in tracking fugitives “bit, tore, mutilated, and if not pulled off in time, killed their prey.”

16 Harriet Tubman Born into slavery Made her way to freedom alone
Became the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad Made 19 dangerous trips back and forth, escorting more than 300 slaves to freedom Always carried a gun and told the fugitives, “You’ll be free or die”

17 Harriet Tubman Her philosophy: “There was one of two things to has a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other; for no man should take me alive…”

18 Religion used for Control
Cotton Plantation Record and Account Book- planters consulted this book which gave these instructions: “You will find that an hour devoted every Sabbath morning to their moral and religious instruction would prove a great aid to you in bringing about a better state of things amongst the Negroes.”

19 Resistance of Slaves The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom show the stubborn resistance of slave families to lose unity. Slaves resisted to forced marriages, slaves remained loyal to their partner, and had stable family groups.

20 David Walker Son of a slave but born free in North Carolina
Wrote and printed a pamphlet- Walker’s Appeal. -Infuriated southern slaveholders. Georgia offered $10,000 to who could deliver him alive and $1,000 to who could kill him. With no slavery EVER in history, even that of the Israelites in Egypt, “…show me a page of history, on which a verse can be found, which maintains, that the Egyptians heaped the insupportable insult upon the children of Israel, by telling them that they wre ont of the human family.”

21 David Walker Blacks must fight for their freedom he said.
1830-found dead near doorway of his shop in Boston

22 Fugitive Slave Act Passed in 1850
Was a concession to the southern states in return for the admission of the Mexican war territories in to the Union as non-slave states. Made it easy for slaveowners to recapture ex-slaves of pick up blacks they claimed had run away Northern blacks organized resistance to this act

23 No Sign of Rebellion 10 years after Nat Turner’s rebellion, there was no sign of insurrection. 1841 however, slaves being transported on the Creole ship overpowered the crew, killed one of them, and sailed into British West Indies (slavery abolished there). England refused to return slaves and this led to angry talk in Congress of war with England.

24 Differences between Black & White Abolitionists
Blacks: willing to engage in armed rebellion, but also more ready to use political devices Less publicized Were the backbone of the antislavery movement Before 1831, the 1st natl. convention of Negroes had been held, David Walker already wrote his “Appeal,” and a black abolitionist magazine had appeared. Of The Liberator’s first 25 subscribers, most were black. Had to struggle with racism from white abolitionists and had to insist on their own independent voice Douglas started his own newspaper, North Star.

25 Differences between Black & White Abolitionists
Whites: Did courageous and pioneering work Appeared on the lecture platform, in newspapers, and in the Underground railroad Garrison- editor of The Liberator- published in 1831. More morally absolute than the blacks

26 John Brown Wanted to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia and then set off a revolt of slaves through the South. Harriet Tubman was involved but sickness prevented her from joining him. Frederick Douglass was in also and although he believed they’d fail, he admired Brown. Douglass was correct, the plan did not work

27 John Brown captured Local militia, 100 marines under command of Robert E. Lee surrounded them. With Brown’s men dead or captured, he refused to surrender. He was wounded and sick and he got interrogated by governor of Virginia. Before Brown was hung, “I, John Brown, am quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” He was executed by the state of Virginia with the approval of the national government

28 National Government In Andrew Jackson’s administration, would never accept an end to slavery by rebellion. Would end only under conditions controlled by whites and only when required by the political and economic needs of the business elite in the North. Supreme Court of U.S. declared in 1857, Dred Scott could not sue for his freedom because he was property, not a person.

29 Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address
March Was peacemaking toward the South and the seceded states. And with the war 4 months on, when General John C. Fremont declared martial law and said slaves of owners resisting the U.S. were to be free, Lincoln canceled this order. Once the war grew more bitter, causalities increased, desperation to win heightened, and the criticism of abolitionists threatened to unravel the coalition behind Lincoln, he began to act against slavery.

30 Lincoln Abolishing Slavery
His choice to abolish slavery was not one made with slaves or rather African Americans in mind instead it was to benefit himself and his position. Lincoln’s reply to Horace Greenley, editor of New York Tribune, was one which showed his disinterest in slavery. Lincoln stated, “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy Slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it….” It was later said that if slaves were not freed, the Union would’ve more than likely lost the war.

31 Emancipation Proclamation
Issued Jan. 1, 1863, it declared slaves free in those areas still fighting against the Union. It spurred antislavery forces. By 1864, 400,000 signatures asking legislation to end slavery had been sent to Congress. Union army was open to blacks

32 Black Women in the War Sojourner Truth-became recruiter of black troops for the Union army. Harriet Tubman- raided plantations, leading black and white troops, and in one expedition freed 750 slaves. Women helped their husbands, endured terrible hardships on the military treks, where many children died and suffered the fate of soldiers

33 Negro Soldier Law After William Walker’s protest to unequal pay, finally in June 1864, Congress passed a law granting equal pay to Negro soldiers This law authorized enlistment of slaves as soldiers, to be freed by consent of their owners and their state governments.- but before it had any significant effect, the was over.

34 Period after the Civil War
Southern negroes voted, blacks elected to state legislatures to Congress, introduced free and racially mixed public education to South. 14th amendment renounced the Dred Scott decision Congress passed al number of laws in the late 1860s and early 1870s making it a crime to deprive Negroes of their rights, requiring federal officials to enforce those rights 1875- Civil Rights Act outlawed the exculsion of Negroes from any public accommodations

35 Violence after the war Memphis, Tennessee- Whites on a rampage killed 46 Negroes, and 2 white sympathizers. 5 Negro women raped. 90 homes, 12 schools, and 4 churches were burned. New Orleans- 1866: a riot against blacks killed 35 Negroes and 3 whites Late 1860s, early 1870s, KKK organized raids, beatings, and burnings. For Kentucky, National Archives lists 116 acts of violence

36 KKK

37 National Government and white violence
Caldwell shot a white man as self-defense. Was free after trial but later shot by a white gang. The national government, even under President Grant, became less enthusiastic about defending blacks. Supreme Court Justice John Harlan- “Our Constitution is color-blind…”

38 Recap of Chapter 9 This chapter addresses slave rebellions, the abolition movement, the Civil War, and the effect of these events on African-Americans. The large-scale violence of the war was used to end slavery instead of the small-scale violence of the rebellions because the closing may have expanded beyond anti-slavery, resulting in a movement against the capitalist system. Zinn writes that the war could limit the freedom granted to African-Americans by allowing the government control over how that freedom was gained.

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