Presentation on theme: "Joint Discussion on the Highest-Energy Gamma-Ray Universe observed with Cherenkov Telescpe Arrays The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray."— Presentation transcript:
1 Joint Discussion on the Highest-Energy Gamma-Ray Universe observed with Cherenkov Telescpe Arrays The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-raysT. Dotani1), A. Bamba2), T. Fujinaga3,1)1) ISAS/JAXA2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ.3) Tokyo Institute of Technology
3 Complementarity of X-ray & VHE -ray bands Examples of SEDs from mono-energetic electrons/protons(Hinton, J.A., Hofmann, W., ARAA, 47, 523)1-10 keV1-10 TeVE2dN/dE (erg/cm2/sec)Dashed curveは、bremssstrahlung。Inverse Comptonは、３種類のseed photonについて表示：CMB, dust-emitted FIR (0.02 eV)、visible light (1.5eV)。 100 TeVの可視光に対するICは、ほぼδ-function。The curve normalizations are appropriate for a total particle energy of 10^48 erg at 1 kpc distance in a magnetic field of 3 μG, a matter density of 100 hydrogen atoms cm−3and radiation fields of density 0.26 eV cm−3 (CMB and FIR) and 1 eV cm−3 (starlight)b) SEDs for γ rays and synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons from strong interactions of mono-energetic protons. The magnetic field is increased to 30 μG to illustrate the effectsof cooling and steady injection over 104 years (dashed curves 105 years) is assumed.
5 X-ray satellites in these 10 years 201020152020CTAChandraXMM-NewtonSuzakuNuSTAReROSITA/SRG : 打ち上げは2013 NovASTROSATeROSITA/SRGASTRO-HLOFT
6 NuSTAR Launched successfully on June 13th, 2012. The first satellite-based focusing X-ray telescope operating in the hard X-ray band, 5-80 keV.Leading institution : CaltechMission life : 2 years baselineIntegralNuSTARLeading institution is Caltech. Mission life : 2 yearsDeployable mastFocal length 10m
7 ASTROSATThe first dedicated astronomy mission in India for multi-wavelength astronomy.Launch : 2013Main instrument : large area proportional counter (6000 cm2)LAXPC
8 eROSITA / SRGeROSITA will be the primary instrument on-board the Russian "Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma" (SRG) satellite.Purpose : First imaging all-sky surveyup to 10 keVLaunch : 2013Leading institution : MPE
9 LOFT : the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing One of the four candidates selected for the next M-class mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision.Current status : Assessment phaseLaunch period : (if selected)InstrumentsThe Large Area Detector keV)The Wide Field MonitorThe Director has now selected four missions to undergo an initial Assessment Phase. Once this is completed, a further down-selection will be performed, leading to a decision on which mission will be finally implemented.
10 ASTRO-H Suzaku 14m H2A Length :14 m Weight : 2.7 t Power : 3500 W Telemetry : 8Mbps (X-band)Data Recorder : 12 GbitsLaunch : 2014Life : 3 year (requirement)5 year (goal)14mH2A1010
21 Origin of cosmic rays below ~1015 eV − Particle acceleration in shell type SNRs? − G (RX J ): shell-type SNRModel spectrum for the hadronic scenarioTeV image with HESSSN1006に似たshell-type SNR. RX J とも。中心にCOOがあることから、core-collapse SNRと考えられる。EGRET source 3EG J が近くにあるものの、error regionの外。ICでもwide band spectrumの説明が可能だが、Xを強くしすぎないためにfilling factor を小さくする必要がある。Uchiyama et alで、年単位の変化がChandraで観測された事から、磁場の強度を見積もると、1mGになる。Contours : ASCAYuan, Q. et al. 2011, ApJ, 735, 120
22 Acceleration in thin filaments GChandraSN1006ChandraUchiyama et al.: 磁場の強さは、〜1mG。また、η~1（Bohm limitが成立）。線形理論では、η~(ΔB/B)^-2 >> 1。Red : keVCyan : keVBlue : keVUchiyama et al. 2007, Nature, 449, 576
23 Expected image with A-H/HXI Structure of the particle acceleration site in the filaments may be studied with NuSTAR and A-H/HXI at an order of magnitude higher energies.Simulated image of A-H/SXI(9x9 arcmin2)
24 Measuring the ion temperature in shell type SNR NW shell : thermal X-raysKinematic energy of shocked plasmaKinematic energy of unshocked plasmaThermal energy of shocked plasmaShock velocity is known(2890 km/s)Particle accelerationASTRO-H SXS can measure the thermal energy (ion temp) of shocked plasmaMeasure the particle acceleration efficiency
25 Evolution of particle acceleration in the shell-type SNRs <1000 yearsyears>3000 yearsStefan Funk, August 5th 2011, TeVPA
26 Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs Synchrotron X-rays tends to drop for SNRs with >5pc.Radius : indicator of ageNakamura et al. 2012, ApJ, 746, 134
27 Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs Assumption (electrons)acceleration time = synchrotron cooling timeTeVprotons0.1 cm-31 cm-3Assumption (protons)Acceleration time = SNR age5 cm-3electrons
28 Diffusion of energetic electrons in PWNe G (HESS J ) : spectral steepening away from the pulsarRight figure● Using BG estimate from same FOV, ○ Using BG estimate from off data.Produced by S. Funk and O.C. de Jager for the H.E.S.S. collaboration
29 An example of X-ray observations The Kookaburra complexHESS JSuzaku X-ray imageK3PSR J(P=68ms)R1 & R2HESS JH.E.S.S. contoursRabbit
30 Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN Energy spectra tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks (pulsars).Energy loss of electrons/positrons due to the synchrotron radiation (Compton scattering) as they propagate.K3Rabbit
31 Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN (2) HESS J(Kes75)HESS J(G )HESS JHESS J(G )(G )HESS JHESS JHESS JHESS J Radio pulsar (82.7 ms) at the cross. Spatial variation of the VHE photon index is suggested by H.E.S.S.HESSABCDPhoton index22.5ABDC
32 Suzaku observations of HESS J1809-193 0.4-1 keV2-10 keV X-ray source at the position of the pulsar Different spatial distribution between thermal （0.4-1 keV） and non-thermal X-ray emission.HESSEnergy spectra were calculated for annular regions (A through D)
33 HESS J1809-193 : spectral analysis Spectral model : Power-law + thin thermal X-ray emissionNH = 7.1 ×1021 cm-2kT = 0.18 keVABCDPulsarFar1.52.0Photon indexNo spatial dependence was found in the spectral shape
34 HESS J1809-193 : spatial extent Measure the extension of non-thermal X-ray emission around the pulsar０５１０１５２０Distance from the pulsar (arcmin)Suzaku１2-10 keVRelative intensity0.5pulsarProjected intensity profile in the rectangle regionFit with a gaussian + constantσ = 6’.8 ± 1’.0Pseudo-color map : 2-10 keV X-ray intensityYellow contours : HESS image
37 Spatial extent of the non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission vs pulsar ages X-ray emitting electronsEnergy loss time scaleAccelerated electrons up to ~80 TeV can escape from the PWNe without losing most of the energies.
39 Multi-frequency studies of Blazars Blazar sequence Radio OpticalX-rayGeVTeVFlat Spectrum Radio Quasars(= FSRQ,e.g. PKS )1-10 keV1-10 TeVX-ray band is suited to detect luminous FSRQsERCSyncSSCLow-frequency peakedBL Lac (= LBL e.g., )High-frequency peakedBL Lac (= HBL e.g., Mrk421)Low-energy peak(Synchrotron)High-energy peak（Inverse Compton）LEHEKataoka 02 Kubo+ 98
40 High power jets : Luminous FSRQ PKSFermi LATLX > 2x1047 erg/sec(>109 Msolar SMBH)HXI 100ksThe best-fit synchrotron-Compton model for PKSCTAThe model is shifted to z~8.Astro-H can detect wide-band spectrum of effectively all the luminous FSRQs.Soft X-rayHard X-rayEvolution of FSRQsGhisellini et al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 387
41 CXB and contribution of the FSRQs FSRQs may explain the CXB at >500 keV solving the mystery of generation of the MeV background.FSRQs(double power-law is assumed)Seyfert-like AGNsAjello, M. et al. 2009, ApJ, 699, 603
42 SummaryASTRO-H may be the only observatory-class X-ray satellite operating simultaneously with CTA.Combining ASTRO-H and CTA data, we may be able to trace history of particle acceleration, acceleration efficiency, and diffusion of energetic particles in SNRs and PWNe.HXI on board ASTRO-H may be powerful telescopes to observe luminous FSRQs, which are key to understand CXB in the MeV band.