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The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays T. Dotani 1), A. Bamba 2), T. Fujinaga 3,1) 1) ISAS/JAXA 2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ.

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Presentation on theme: "The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays T. Dotani 1), A. Bamba 2), T. Fujinaga 3,1) 1) ISAS/JAXA 2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ."— Presentation transcript:

1 The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays T. Dotani 1), A. Bamba 2), T. Fujinaga 3,1) 1) ISAS/JAXA 2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ. 3) Tokyo Institute of Technology Joint Discussion on the Highest-Energy Gamma-Ray Universe observed with Cherenkov Telescpe Arrays

2 CONTENTS 1.Current/Future X-ray missions –NuSTAR, ASTROSAT, eROSITA, LOFT –ASTRO-H 2.Science cases : X-ray studies of VHE -ray sources –Shell-type SNRs –PWNe –Blazars

3 Complementarity of X-ray & VHE -ray bands Examples of SEDs from mono-energetic electrons/protons (Hinton, J.A., Hofmann, W., ARAA, 47, 523) E 2 dN/dE (erg/cm 2 /sec) 1-10 keV1-10 TeV

4 CTA schedule Preparatory phase Construction/Deployment Partial Operation Full Operation

5 X-ray satellites in these 10 years Chandra XMM-Newton Suzaku NuSTAR ASTROSAT eROSITA/SRG ASTRO-H LOFT CTA

6 NuSTAR Launched successfully on June 13th, The first satellite-based focusing X-ray telescope operating in the hard X-ray band, 5-80 keV. Leading institution : Caltech Mission life : 2 years baseline Integral NuSTAR Deployable mast Focal length 10m

7 ASTROSAT The first dedicated astronomy mission in India for multi-wavelength astronomy. Launch : 2013 Main instrument : large area proportional counter (6000 cm 2 ) LAXPC

8 eROSITA / SRG eROSITA will be the primary instrument on-board the Russian "Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma" (SRG) satellite. Purpose : First imaging all-sky survey up to 10 keV Launch : 2013 Leading institution : MPE

9 LOFT : the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing One of the four candidates selected for the next M-class mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision. Launch period : (if selected) Instruments The Large Area Detector (10m keV) The Wide Field Monitor Current status : Assessment phase

10 ASTRO-H 14m 6.5m Suzaku Length :14 m Weight : 2.7 t Power : 3500 W Telemetry : 8Mbps (X-band) Data Recorder : 12 Gbits Launch : 2014 Life : 3 year (requirement) 5 year (goal) H2A

11 ASTRO-H mission instruments

12 Filter wheel

13 SXS: cooling chain 3 years with LHe 2 more years without LHe Life

14 SXS performance compared with existing observatories Effective area Figure of merit

15 SXI: an X-ray CCD camera Hood Frontend Electronics box Engineering model 4 CCD chips with 31x31mm Depletion layer: 200 m Type: Back-illumination Operating temp.: degC Exposure time: 4 sec FOV: 38x38 arcmin A focal plane assembly SXI

16 Hard X-ray telescopes & imagers HXT principle

17 HXI: hard X-ray imagers BGO scintillaters Engineering model principle

18 SGD BGO fov Fine collimator fov Principle Narrow field Compton camera BGO Fine collimator Satellite side panel AE BGO Compton camera SGD

19 ASTRO-H sensitivities in hard X-ray band Energy (keV) HXI SGD Suzaku INTEGRAL Energy (eV) keV MeV GeVTeV HXI SGD CTA

20 VHE -ray sky Galactic (61): PWN (19), -ray binary (4), SNR(10), GC (1), Pulsar (1), OC (1), unID (24) Extra-galactic (46) : Blazar (37), FSRG (2), Radio galaxy (5), SB galaxy (2)

21 Origin of cosmic rays below ~10 15 eV Particle acceleration in shell type SNRs? Contours : ASCA G (RX J ): shell-type SNR TeV image with HESS Yuan, Q. et al. 2011, ApJ, 735, 120 Model spectrum for the hadronic scenario

22 Acceleration in thin filaments Red : keV Cyan : keV Blue : keV SN1006Chandra Uchiyama et al. 2007, Nature, 449, 576 G Chandra

23 Expected image with A-H/HXI Structure of the particle acceleration site in the filaments may be studied with NuSTAR and A-H/HXI at an order of magnitude higher energies. Simulated image of A-H/SXI (9x9 arcmin 2 )

24 Measuring the ion temperature in shell type SNR SN1006 NW shell : thermal X-rays Kinematic energy of unshocked plasma Kinematic energy of shocked plasma Thermal energy of shocked plasma Particle acceleration ASTRO-H SXS can measure the thermal energy (ion temp) of shocked plasma Measure the particle acceleration efficiency Shock velocity is known (2890 km/s)

25 Evolution of particle acceleration in the shell-type SNRs Stefan Funk, August 5th 2011, TeVPA <1000 years years >3000 years

26 Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs Synchrotron X-rays tends to drop for SNRs with >5pc. Radius : indicator of age Nakamura et al. 2012, ApJ, 746, 134

27 Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs 5 cm -3 1 cm cm -3 protons electrons Assumption (electrons) acceleration time = synchrotron cooling time TeV Assumption (protons) Acceleration time = SNR age

28 Diffusion of energetic electrons in PWNe Produced by S. Funk and O.C. de Jager for the H.E.S.S. collaboration G (HESS J ) : spectral steepening away from the pulsar

29 An example of X-ray observations The Kookaburra complex H.E.S.S. contours Suzaku X-ray image HESS J HESS J PSR J (P=68ms) R1 & R2 K3 Rabbit

30 Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN K3Rabbit Energy spectra tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks (pulsars). Energy loss of electrons/positrons due to the synchrotron radiation (Compton scattering) as they propagate.

31 Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN (2) HESS J (Kes75) HESS J (G ) HESS J HESS J HESS J (G ) (G ) HESS J HESS J Radio pulsar (82.7 ms) at the cross. Spatial variation of the VHE photon index is suggested by H.E.S.S. A B CD A B C D Photon index HESS HESS J

32 Suzaku observations of HESS J keV 2-10 keV Energy spectra were calculated for annular regions (A through D) Suzaku HESS X-ray source at the position of the pulsar Different spatial distribution between thermal keV and non-thermal X-ray emission.

33 HESS J : spectral analysis A B C D N H = 7.1 ×10 21 cm -2 kT = 0.18 keV Photon index Spectral model : Power-law + thin thermal X-ray emission No spatial dependence was found in the spectral shape Pulsar Far

34 HESS J : spatial extent Distance from the pulsar (arcmin) Measure the extension of non-thermal X-ray emission around the pulsar Pseudo-color map : 2-10 keV X-ray intensity Yellow contours : HESS image σ = 6.8 ± Projected intensity profile in the rectangle region 2.Fit with a gaussian + constant Suzaku 0.5 Relative intensity 2-10 keV pulsar

35 Spatial extent of the non-thermal emission 35 HESS J σ = 3.5 ± 0.4 Vela XMSH PSR J σ = 1.5 ± 0.4 σ = 23.5 ± 2.6σ = 1.6 ± 0.1 Suzaku ASCA Chandra

36 Spatial extent of the non-thermal emission Kes 75 G HESS J HESS J σ = 0.63 ± 0.05 σ = 0.91 ± 0.05 σ = 4.2± 0.5 σ = 1.8 ± 0.5 Chandra XMM-Newton Suzaku

37 Spatial extent of the non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission vs pulsar ages X-ray emitting electrons Energy loss time scale Accelerated electrons up to ~80 TeV can escape from the PWNe without losing most of the energies.

38 VHE -ray sky Galactic (61): PWN (19), -ray binary (4), SNR(10), GC (1), Pulsar (1), OC (1), unID (24) Extra-galactic (46) : Blazar (37), FSRG (2), Radio galaxy (5), SB galaxy (2)

39 Multi-frequency studies of Blazars X-rayGeVTeV Optical SSC LEHE Low-energy peak (Synchrotron) High-energy peak Inverse Compton Kataoka 02 Kubo+ 98 ERC Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (= FSRQ, e.g. PKS ) Low-frequency peaked BL Lac (= LBL e.g., ) High-frequency peaked BL Lac (= HBL e.g., Mrk421) Radio Sync 1-10 keV 1-10 TeV X-ray band is suited to detect luminous FSRQs Blazar sequence

40 High power jets : Luminous FSRQ PKS Soft X-ray Hard X-ray Ghisellini et al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 387 CTA Fermi LAT HXI 100ks The best-fit synchrotron- Compton model for PKS The model is shifted to z~8. Astro-H can detect wide-band spectrum of effectively all the luminous FSRQs. L X > 2x10 47 erg/sec (>10 9 M solar SMBH) Evolution of FSRQs

41 CXB and contribution of the FSRQs Ajello, M. et al. 2009, ApJ, 699, 603 Seyfert-like AGNs FSRQs (double power-law is assumed) FSRQs may explain the CXB at >500 keV solving the mystery of generation of the MeV background.

42 Summary ASTRO-H may be the only observatory-class X-ray satellite operating simultaneously with CTA. Combining ASTRO-H and CTA data, we may be able to trace history of particle acceleration, acceleration efficiency, and diffusion of energetic particles in SNRs and PWNe. HXI on board ASTRO-H may be powerful telescopes to observe luminous FSRQs, which are key to understand CXB in the MeV band.


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