Presentation on theme: "The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays T. Dotani 1), A. Bamba 2), T. Fujinaga 3,1) 1) ISAS/JAXA 2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ."— Presentation transcript:
The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays T. Dotani 1), A. Bamba 2), T. Fujinaga 3,1) 1) ISAS/JAXA 2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ. 3) Tokyo Institute of Technology Joint Discussion on the Highest-Energy Gamma-Ray Universe observed with Cherenkov Telescpe Arrays
Complementarity of X-ray & VHE -ray bands Examples of SEDs from mono-energetic electrons/protons (Hinton, J.A., Hofmann, W., ARAA, 47, 523) E 2 dN/dE (erg/cm 2 /sec) 1-10 keV1-10 TeV
CTA schedule Preparatory phase Construction/Deployment Partial Operation Full Operation
X-ray satellites in these 10 years Chandra XMM-Newton Suzaku NuSTAR ASTROSAT eROSITA/SRG ASTRO-H LOFT CTA
NuSTAR Launched successfully on June 13th, The first satellite-based focusing X-ray telescope operating in the hard X-ray band, 5-80 keV. Leading institution : Caltech Mission life : 2 years baseline Integral NuSTAR Deployable mast Focal length 10m
ASTROSAT The first dedicated astronomy mission in India for multi-wavelength astronomy. Launch : 2013 Main instrument : large area proportional counter (6000 cm 2 ) LAXPC
eROSITA / SRG eROSITA will be the primary instrument on-board the Russian "Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma" (SRG) satellite. Purpose : First imaging all-sky survey up to 10 keV Launch : 2013 Leading institution : MPE
LOFT : the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing One of the four candidates selected for the next M-class mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision. Launch period : (if selected) Instruments The Large Area Detector (10m keV) The Wide Field Monitor Current status : Assessment phase
ASTRO-H 14m 6.5m Suzaku Length :14 m Weight : 2.7 t Power : 3500 W Telemetry : 8Mbps (X-band) Data Recorder : 12 Gbits Launch : 2014 Life : 3 year (requirement) 5 year (goal) H2A
ASTRO-H mission instruments
SXS: cooling chain 3 years with LHe 2 more years without LHe Life
SXS performance compared with existing observatories Effective area Figure of merit
SXI: an X-ray CCD camera Hood Frontend Electronics box Engineering model 4 CCD chips with 31x31mm Depletion layer: 200 m Type: Back-illumination Operating temp.: degC Exposure time: 4 sec FOV: 38x38 arcmin A focal plane assembly SXI
Hard X-ray telescopes & imagers HXT principle
HXI: hard X-ray imagers BGO scintillaters Engineering model principle
SGD BGO fov Fine collimator fov Principle Narrow field Compton camera BGO Fine collimator Satellite side panel AE BGO Compton camera SGD
ASTRO-H sensitivities in hard X-ray band Energy (keV) HXI SGD Suzaku INTEGRAL Energy (eV) keV MeV GeVTeV HXI SGD CTA
Origin of cosmic rays below ~10 15 eV Particle acceleration in shell type SNRs? Contours : ASCA G (RX J ): shell-type SNR TeV image with HESS Yuan, Q. et al. 2011, ApJ, 735, 120 Model spectrum for the hadronic scenario
Acceleration in thin filaments Red : keV Cyan : keV Blue : keV SN1006Chandra Uchiyama et al. 2007, Nature, 449, 576 G Chandra
Expected image with A-H/HXI Structure of the particle acceleration site in the filaments may be studied with NuSTAR and A-H/HXI at an order of magnitude higher energies. Simulated image of A-H/SXI (9x9 arcmin 2 )
Measuring the ion temperature in shell type SNR SN1006 NW shell : thermal X-rays Kinematic energy of unshocked plasma Kinematic energy of shocked plasma Thermal energy of shocked plasma Particle acceleration ASTRO-H SXS can measure the thermal energy (ion temp) of shocked plasma Measure the particle acceleration efficiency Shock velocity is known (2890 km/s)
Evolution of particle acceleration in the shell-type SNRs Stefan Funk, August 5th 2011, TeVPA <1000 years years >3000 years
Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs Synchrotron X-rays tends to drop for SNRs with >5pc. Radius : indicator of age Nakamura et al. 2012, ApJ, 746, 134
Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs 5 cm -3 1 cm cm -3 protons electrons Assumption (electrons) acceleration time = synchrotron cooling time TeV Assumption (protons) Acceleration time = SNR age
Diffusion of energetic electrons in PWNe Produced by S. Funk and O.C. de Jager for the H.E.S.S. collaboration G (HESS J ) : spectral steepening away from the pulsar
An example of X-ray observations The Kookaburra complex H.E.S.S. contours Suzaku X-ray image HESS J HESS J PSR J (P=68ms) R1 & R2 K3 Rabbit
Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN K3Rabbit Energy spectra tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks (pulsars). Energy loss of electrons/positrons due to the synchrotron radiation (Compton scattering) as they propagate.
Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN (2) HESS J (Kes75) HESS J (G ) HESS J HESS J HESS J (G ) (G ) HESS J HESS J Radio pulsar (82.7 ms) at the cross. Spatial variation of the VHE photon index is suggested by H.E.S.S. A B CD A B C D Photon index HESS HESS J
Suzaku observations of HESS J keV 2-10 keV Energy spectra were calculated for annular regions (A through D) Suzaku HESS X-ray source at the position of the pulsar Different spatial distribution between thermal keV and non-thermal X-ray emission.
HESS J : spectral analysis A B C D N H = 7.1 ×10 21 cm -2 kT = 0.18 keV Photon index Spectral model : Power-law + thin thermal X-ray emission No spatial dependence was found in the spectral shape Pulsar Far
HESS J : spatial extent Distance from the pulsar (arcmin) Measure the extension of non-thermal X-ray emission around the pulsar Pseudo-color map : 2-10 keV X-ray intensity Yellow contours : HESS image σ = 6.8 ± Projected intensity profile in the rectangle region 2.Fit with a gaussian + constant Suzaku 0.5 Relative intensity 2-10 keV pulsar
Spatial extent of the non-thermal emission Kes 75 G HESS J HESS J σ = 0.63 ± 0.05 σ = 0.91 ± 0.05 σ = 4.2± 0.5 σ = 1.8 ± 0.5 Chandra XMM-Newton Suzaku
Spatial extent of the non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission vs pulsar ages X-ray emitting electrons Energy loss time scale Accelerated electrons up to ~80 TeV can escape from the PWNe without losing most of the energies.
Multi-frequency studies of Blazars X-rayGeVTeV Optical SSC LEHE Low-energy peak (Synchrotron) High-energy peak Inverse Compton Kataoka 02 Kubo+ 98 ERC Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (= FSRQ, e.g. PKS ) Low-frequency peaked BL Lac (= LBL e.g., ) High-frequency peaked BL Lac (= HBL e.g., Mrk421) Radio Sync 1-10 keV 1-10 TeV X-ray band is suited to detect luminous FSRQs Blazar sequence
High power jets : Luminous FSRQ PKS Soft X-ray Hard X-ray Ghisellini et al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 387 CTA Fermi LAT HXI 100ks The best-fit synchrotron- Compton model for PKS The model is shifted to z~8. Astro-H can detect wide-band spectrum of effectively all the luminous FSRQs. L X > 2x10 47 erg/sec (>10 9 M solar SMBH) Evolution of FSRQs
CXB and contribution of the FSRQs Ajello, M. et al. 2009, ApJ, 699, 603 Seyfert-like AGNs FSRQs (double power-law is assumed) FSRQs may explain the CXB at >500 keV solving the mystery of generation of the MeV background.
Summary ASTRO-H may be the only observatory-class X-ray satellite operating simultaneously with CTA. Combining ASTRO-H and CTA data, we may be able to trace history of particle acceleration, acceleration efficiency, and diffusion of energetic particles in SNRs and PWNe. HXI on board ASTRO-H may be powerful telescopes to observe luminous FSRQs, which are key to understand CXB in the MeV band.