Presentation on theme: "THE CASE OF BA ISAGO UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. By B. Bushe, and O. Chiwira"— Presentation transcript:
1THE CASE OF BA ISAGO UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. By B. Bushe, and O. Chiwira B. Bushe, and O. ChiwiraAUTHENTIC AND/OR ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT: ENHANCING THE DEPENDABILITY OF CONCLUSIONS MADE FROM MOCK (INTERNAL) EXAMINATIONS:
2Introduction and background This form of assessment will allow students the opportunity to understand their abilities and gain the knowledge appropriate for their level of studies. Formative assessment comes largely in the format of coursework, projects, periodic class tests and participation in class.Summative assessments are usually in the form of semester-end examinations. This form of assessment allows the cumulative skills and knowledge of the students to be applied at the end of the semester and assess the students holistically.The word formative assessment is used for mock examinations at BA ISAGO University College.
3Introduction and background The fundamental role of assessment is to provide authentic and meaningful feedback for improving student learning, instructional practice and educational options. In this sense assessment is not an end in itself. It is a process that should give answers to two basic questions namely. How are we doing? How can we do better? (Herman, Aschbacher and Winters, 1992).
4Introduction and background …/ At Informatics a global player in private tertiary headquartered in Malaysia conducts two major assessments, namely, formative and summative assessments, (Informatics, 2007:24).Formative assessment is the ongoing assessment during the term while summative assessment is the final one that normally takes place at the end of the course and determines the final outcome of the award. According to Informatics, (2007:24).A formative assessment ensures that students are continuously being assessed and regular feedbacks are given to students to ensure that they are able to review their strengths and weaknesses.
5Purpose of the studyTo examine the impact of alternative assessment on final assessment so that policies, strategies, and procedures that ensure that the success of future assessment initiatives are secured.
6Hypothesis and Research Questions H1: There will be no positive relationship between student use of formative assessment tasks and their overall performance in a particular course.
7Questions of the studyIs there a strong relationship between IE and EA (UNISA exams, for example)Does IE enhance students preparedness for final examinationsWhat are the causes of failure amongs our studentsHas BAISAGO done enough to improve student preparedness for final assessmentsWhat can be done to improve student performance
8Objectives of the study To examine the internal assessment processes to enhance student performance at final assessmentTo find out of there is any relationship between internal and external assessmentTo examine the causes of student failure rates summative assessmentsTo recommend courses of action to improve student performance
9Significance of the study Conducting this study is important for three reasons. First, the study will contribute to the stock of available theoretical knowledge in the subject area of assessment in tertiary education.Despite the fact that the subject of assessment is a topical issue in the study of social science the subject still remains under researched in Africa, let alone Botswana.As pointed out earlier, there are no studies that we are aware of that have conducted an analysis of assessment procedures in private tertiary institutions in Botswana. Furthermore, there is no adequate information on other aspects of the assessment such as the authenticity of internal examinations towards final assessment.
10Significance of the study…/ Second, the study will generate information (knowledge) that could form the basis for policy formulation in the management of assessment in tertiary education in the country as a whole. Although the study was initiated for explanation purposes and not primarily for policy, the knowledge accruing through it will form an important base from which policy makers and managers can draw in their initiatives to revamp the private tertiary sector and other related institutions of learning in the country.Finally, understanding what contributes towards effective assessment will aid quality assessment of students and effective learning.
11Justification of the study This study is made imperative by the alarming rate of failure of students at their final examinations. Performance of students has a bearing on many issues including stakeholders to contribute towards the students’ education towards the fees, the parents, the teachers and trainers, the students themselves and the management of the school and tertiary education authorities who have a direct interest in quality of learning. When students do not perform as well as expected it raises concerns.An attempt to improve learning through better assessment methods is well conceived and continuous improvement of the same, an urgent imperative.
12MethodologyThe intended populations of the study is: Internal Examination (IE) and Final Examination (FE) marks of candidates for the UNISA programmes offered by BA ISAGO University College in both Gaborone and Francistown campuses namely Bcom Risk Management, Bcom Entrepreneurship, Bcom Strategic Supply, Real Estate and Safety Management. (Sample should only consider students with both the IE and the FE).
13Methodology …/ The following analysis will be carried out: Computation of overall Mean and Standard Deviation for IE and FE marks for the subjects under the five programmesComputation of overall correlation coefficient between IE and FE for the subjects under the five programmesComputation of Mean and Standard Deviation of IE and FE examinations for Gaborone and Francis town campuses for the subjects under the five programmesComputation of overall Mean and Standard Deviation for IE and FE marks for males and females for the subjects under the five programmesComputation of Mean and Standard Deviation of IE and FE examinations for male and females in Gaborone and Francis town campuses for the subjects under the five programmesHypothesis test for the difference between overall Mean for IE and FE marks for the subjects under the five programmes.
14Methodology…The use of questionnaires has also been employed to assess the views of students on the value of alternative assessment.At this stage students a first roll out of questionnaires has taken place and preliminery findings are undergoing scrutiny. The objective is to roll out this as widely as possible to enhance the validity and reliability of the findings
15Literature reviewEmpirical review – will be carried out to see what other benchmarked institutions are doing with these two types of assessmentsTheoretical review will be carried out to see what experts also say on the subject of alternative assessment viz a viz final assessment
16Imperial review of literature Yorke (2001) states that formative assessment is critical for student learning. Formative assessment provides feedback to students, and is not used as an evaluation tool (Buchanan, 2000).It draws attention to areas requiring further study and therefore should lead to improvements in performance (McAlpine, 2002).In contrast, summative assessment is conducted to appraise a student’s overall performance (McAlpine, 2002). Although it is often administered at the end of a course by examination, it can include continuous assessment tasks such as mid-term tests and assignements (Morris et al., 2004).
17Imperial review of literature The findings into whether formative assessment does improve performance are mixed. A positive relationship between formative assessment and subsequent performance on summative assessment tasks has been identified (Zakarzewski and Bull, 1999; Sly, 1999; Sly and Rennie, 2000).Sly and Rennie (2000), for example, found that students who sat an optional practice test performed significantly better on their summative assessment than those students who had not sat the test.In contrast, Peat and Franklin (2003) failed to find a significant relationship between formative assessment and summative assessment learning outcomes.
18Imperial review of literature In an earlier study, Schmidt (1983) examined how attempting formative multiple-choice questions impacted on the performance of students on questions of the same type on a final examination.Only some students had access to optional weekly multiple-choice question sets that did not contribute to the overall course grade.Schmidt found that the students who had access to the formative assessment questions performed significantly better on the examination questions than did students who could not access the weekly question sets.
19Imperial review of literature In the study by Collett and Gyles (2007:43), formative assessment took the form of a series of computer-based multiple-choice quizzes.Pedagogically, there are limitations to the usefulness of multiple-choice questions.However, they are easily converted and administered on a computerised basis (Buchanan, 1998).
20Imperical review of literature Computer-based formative assessment of this type is an efficient and effective means of providing feedback to students, and the assessment task can be taken repeatedly and on a flexible basis, that is, at a time and place chosen by students (Buchanan, 1998; Buchanan, 2000; Peat and Franklin, 2003).Assessment of this type is perceived by students to be useful for learning (Buchanan, 1998; Peat, 2000; Peat and Franklin, 2002).
21Imperical review of literature In the present study, formative assessment took the form of a series of multiple-choice questions with few elements of short written questions.The study analyses only Bcom – Business management module – first year students.However at BA ISAGO we use multiple choice assessment which is paper based and it takes time before students receive feedback
22Literature review – Theoretical A formative assessment ensures that students are continuously being assessed and regular feedbacks are given to students to ensure that they are able to review their strengths and weaknesses, (Informatics education, 2007:24).This form of assessment will allow students the opportunity to understand their abilities and gain the knowledge appropriate for their level of studies. Formative assessment comes largely in the format of coursework, projects, periodic class test and participation in class, (Informatics education, 2007:24).
23Literature review – Theoretical Summative assessments are usually in the form of semester-end examinations. This form of assessment allows the cumulative skills and knowledge of the students to be applied at the end of the semester and assess the students holistically. (Informatics education, 2007:24).
24The purpose of assessment - a generic review One of the primary purposes of assessment is to be summative. In its summative role, the purpose of assessment is to judge the quality and characteristics of the student and summarise these in a clear and widely acceptable format.Traditionally, the principal mechanism for summative assessment is the end-of-module examination. Summative assessment is assumed to help employers by providing ‘costless’ information on the productive potential of job applicants.
25The purpose of assessment It is also a mechanism for selecting students for post-compulsory education, and may be a factor in the reputation and financial security of institutions in higher education.Students care most about the results of summative assessment, as these impact on their employability and prospective earnings.
26Purpose of summative assessment To pass or fail a student.To grade or rank a student.To allow progress to further study.To assure suitability for work.To predict success in future study and work.To signal employability and selection for employment, Miller (undated).
27Purpose of formative assessment To provide feedback to students.To motivate students.To diagnose students’ strengths and weaknesses.To help students to develop self-awareness Miller (undated).
28Purpose of assessment with respect to quality assurance To provide feedback to lecturers on student learning.To evaluate a module’s strengths and weaknesses.To improve teaching.To ensure the module is creditworthy.To monitor standards over time, Miller (undated).
29Alternative assessment techniques and their relative merits Group assessmentSelf assessmentUnseen examinationTesting skills instead of knowledgeCoursework essaysOral examinationsProjectsPresentationsMultiple choicePortfolioComputer aidedLiterature review
31Summary of findingsInternal assessment has been perceived to be valuable to students with over 80 percent of students believing it to be an integral part of their preparation for final assessmentHowever, concerns have been raised over the following aspects:Often the format used is not in sync with UNISA style of examining in specific papersQuestions are often ‘worlds apart’ from what they meet in final assessment
32Summary of findings…/A sizeable number in the region of 35% complained that they do not receive their papers on time, some receive them a day before final examsInadequate cover of syllabi makes internal exams inadequateInaccessibility of past examinations papers makes it difficult for students to use formative assessment to predict what may come in final examinations
33Concerns over the administration of mock examinations at BA ISAGO FrequencyPercentage1. Questions are not reflective of UNISA final exams3271.11%2. Exams do not help students identify weak points3066.673. Administered late27464. Feedback comes late1635.565. Badly coordinated1431.116. Some papers are not marked and returned to students1328.89
34Recommendations Syllabi coverage Registration issues Late arrival of study material (this is nolonger much of a problem given that UNISA study material is posted to myunisa at registration concurrently with the issue of printed material)Timely convening of IEProvision of time for revision and exam coachingIncreasing our sample to enhance reliability and validity of this study