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The Montreal Protocol and Climate Change Marco Gonzalez Ozone Secretariat UNEP DECEMBER 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "The Montreal Protocol and Climate Change Marco Gonzalez Ozone Secretariat UNEP DECEMBER 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Montreal Protocol and Climate Change Marco Gonzalez Ozone Secretariat UNEP DECEMBER 2007

2 2 Vienna Convention / Montreal Protocol Objectives: Objectives: – VC: to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting from modifications of the ozone layer – MP: to protect the ozone layer In addition, the 4 th preamble paragraph to the Montreal Protocol states In addition, the 4 th preamble paragraph to the Montreal Protocol states –Conscious of the potential climatic effects of emissions of these substances, Therefore climate change was considered Therefore climate change was considered

3 3 The Montreal Protocol A successful multilateral environmental agreement A successful multilateral environmental agreement – Phased-out over 95% of global consumption of ozone-depleting substances in just 20 years – Ozone layer on path to recover by mid- century – Averted many millions cases of cancer deaths and cataract cases

4 4 Global Annual Consumption: Parties had achieved an aggregate 96% reduction in all ODSs

5 5 S. Montzka, NOAA/ESRL, 2006

6 6 Effects of the Montreal Protocol and Amendments: Averted many millions cases of cancer deaths and cataract cases

7 7 Parallels between the conventions and the protocols The Vienna Convention adopted in 1985 The Vienna Convention adopted in 1985 The Montreal Protocol adopted in 1987 The Montreal Protocol adopted in 1987 Entry into force in 1989 Entry into force in 1989 Amended 4 times: 1990, 1992, 1997 & 1999 Amended 4 times: 1990, 1992, 1997 & 1999 Adjusted 6 times Adjusted 6 times 96 substances controlled 96 substances controlled 191 Parties so far 191 Parties so far The Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted in 1992 The Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997 Entry into force in 2005 Amended once in 2006 Basket of 6 gases controlled 176 Parties so far

8 8 SubstanceGWPODP CFC-1210,720±37501 CFC-1149880±34601 CFC-1157250±25400.6 CFC-1136030±21100.8 CFC-116800±16401 HCFC-142b2270±8000.065 HCFC-221780±6200.055 HCFC-141b713±2500.11 Halon-13017030±246010 Halon-12111860±6503 Halon-24021620±5706 Carbon Tetrachloride 1380±4801.1 Methyl Chloroform 144±500.1 Methyl Bromide 5±20.6

9 9 Consumption under Montreal Protocol: Measured in equivalent GWP-tonnes of CO 2 emissions – note the increasing significance of HCFCs

10 10 Climate Benefits of Ozone Protection IPCC/TEAP Special Report on Ozone and Climate first highlighted the GWP-weighted emissions IPCC/TEAP Special Report on Ozone and Climate first highlighted the GWP-weighted emissions December 2006: Velders, et al., The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate December 2006: Velders, et al., The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate – MP will reduce GHG emissions by 135 GtCO2-eq. between 1990 and 2010 – This is delaying climate change by up to 12 years – If voluntary efforts & domestic measures from 1970s are taken into account, delay is up to 41 years

11 11 Velders, Andersen, Daniel, Fahey, & McFarland, PNAS, 2007

12 12 Triumph in Montreal

13 13

14 14 Developing Countries HCFC Schedule New Control Schedule Old Control Schedule 2013:Freeze at average of 2009-2010 levels 2015:10% reduction 2020:35% reduction 2025:67.5% reduction 2030:100% reduction while allowing 2.5% for refrigeration and A/C servicing until 2040. - 2016:Freeze at 2015 levels -- 2040:100% reduction

15 15 Article 5 HCFC Control Measures – Old vs New

16 16 Article 5 HCFC Consumption: Savings from the New HCFC Adjustments (assumes freeze at previous base level of 2015)

17 17 Key Excerpts: HCFC Adjustment Decision Paragraph 5 on financial and technical assistance: Paragraph 5 on financial and technical assistance: To agree that the funding available through the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of MP in the upcoming replenishments shall be stable and sufficient to meet all agreed incremental costs to enable A5 parties to comply with the accelerated phase-out schedule both for production and consumption sectors as set out above, and based on that understanding, to also direct the Executive Committee of Multilateral Fund to make the necessary changes to the eligibility criteria related to the post-1995 facilities and second conversions.

18 18 Key Excerpts: HCFC Adjustment Decision Paragraph 9 on climate change: Paragraph 9 on climate change: To encourage Parties to promote the selection of alternatives to HCFCs that minimize environmental impacts, in particular impacts on climate, as well as meeting other health, safety and economic considerations. Paragraph 11 on climate change Paragraph 11 on climate change To … give priority to cost-effective projects and programmes which focus on … [s]ubstitutes and alternatives that minimize other impacts on the environment, including on the climate, taking into account global warming potential, energy use, and other relevant facts.

19 19 GAZING INTO THE FUTURE An agreement that is doing so much for ozone and for climate clearly deserves our attention. It has much to teach us..


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