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The Lesson Study as a strategy to change the paradigm of teaching mathematics a Brazilian experience APEC- University of Tsukuba February Yuriko Yamamoto Baldin Universidade Federal de São Carlos - BRAZIL

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Summary Cultural background of school system in Brazil; Aspects of Teacher Education that impedes the immediate dissemination of Lesson Study in Brazil; Lesson Study principles as a strategy to introduce change of teaching procedures in Brazil.

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Disrupture in the middle of Elementary Schooling (especially in public schools)

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Teaching culture in Brazil Planning lessons is not an investigative activity: list of topics, allocation of time, centered in teaching not in student learning ; No visits to classrooms: few observation by visitors, limited to watching or collecting data for research; No review of a lesson or its evaluation after execution.

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Predominant teaching style in Brazil Teacher-centered oral exposition of contents, even for problem-solving (teacher explains the resolution); Linear format in transmitting content, especially at elementary level: manipulation (materials and or games) formalization into symbolic representation mechanical activities to be memorized; Discontinuity among topics and methodologies during and across grades.

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Need to break the inertia! How to call the attention of teachers and educators to the teaching gap, with such cultural background? How to call the attention to the fact that the teachers are responsible for the changes but not to be blamed for their students failure without constructive reflection?

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Lesson Study to change the paradigm of teaching mathematics in Brazil 1.Planning lessons on selected topics, with clearly stated objective about the content and ability the students must appropriate, the justification of materials and methodology, and expectations about students reactions and difficulties; 2.Execution through student-centered problem solving phases, even for lessons to introduce concepts; 3.Review session to reflect critically on own practice as teacher and on students performance during the lesson.

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Case Experience: Lesson Plan on selected topics from state- established curriculum, based on PCK (content knowledge pedagogy knowledge of context); Lesson developed through student-centered problem solving activity, observation of students performance annotated as diary; Review of the plan and the happenings during the lesson, critical reflection better assessment and teaching plan for next lessons.

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Example Lesson about triangle inequality. Stress on the use of drawing tools and the process of logical reasoning and deducing; Motivation: negligence of current school curriculum about geometry and its role in developing the ability to perceive the geometric relations and to logical thinking.

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Table of some cases Example 1Example 2Example > < = > > > > > > 4 Construction: Possible Construction: Impossible Construction: Impossible

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Students conclude with own words Sharing ideas Presenting different points of view Explaining mathematics reasons Comparing the validation through visualization X mathematics proof Write reports : What I learned today:

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Main results Change of teaching procedure : Student centered participative learning Problem solving as teaching and LEARNING strategy More interest and self-confidence of students, less indiscipline; Quality shift in assessment (type of errors and their meaning, difficulty of each student) Improvement of teacher s perception of classroom dynamics and the learning process of students.

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Concluding Remarks Making efforts to introduce Lesson Study into Professional Development Courses for Elementary SchoolTeachers in large scale; Making efforts to implemet more experiences in public schools; Need to convince teachers, educators and school administrators about the potential role of Lesson Study based teaching in helping to close the teaching gap problem.

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Thank you very much for your attention!

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