Presentation on theme: "The History of Corrections in America"— Presentation transcript:
1The History of Corrections in America Chapter 3The History of Corrections in America
2The History of Corrections The Colonial PeriodThe Arrival of the PenitentiaryThe Pennsylvania SystemThe New York ( Auburn ) SystemDebating the SystemsDevelopment or Prisons in the South and WestSouthern PenologyWestern PenologyThe Reformatory MovementCincinnati, 1870Elmira ReformatoryLasting Reforms
3The History of Corrections Cont. The Rise of the ProgressivesIndividualized Treatment and the PositivistSchoolProgressive ReformsThe Rise of the Medical ModelFrom Medical Model to Community ModelThe Crime Control Model: The Pendulum Swings AgainThe Decline of RehabilitationThe Emergence of Crime Control
4Evolution of punishment in America, 1600 – 2000 Flow Chart CrimeControlModel1970sMedicalModel1930s sCommunityModel1960s sProgressivePeriod1890s sColonialPeriod1600s sReformatoryMovement1870s sPrisons in South & West1800’sArrival of thePenitentiary1790s s
5William PennWilliam Penn (1644–1718) English Quaker who arrived in Philadelphia in Succeeded in getting Pennsylvania to adopt “The Great Law” emphasizing hard labor in a house of correction as punishment for most crimes
6“Penitentiary”an institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and from one another so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and thus undergo reformation.
7Benjamin RushBenjamin Rush (1745–1813) Physician, patriot, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and social reformer, Rush advocated the penitentiary as replacement for capital and corporal punishment.
8principles of the “penitentiary” isolate prisoner from bad influences of society - liquor, temptation, peoplepenance & silent contemplationproductive laborreform (thinking & work habits)return to society, renewedkey = solitary confinementisolate from contagionfoster quiet reflectionpunishment, since man is social animalcheap shorter sentence, fewer guards
9“Separate Confinement” A penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates, with all activities, including craft work, carried on in the cells.
10competing models Pennsylvania system “Separate system” reform through solitary confinementeat, sleep, work in cellreligious instructionreflection upon crimesreform throughsalvationreligious enlightenmentmodel for Europee.g.Walnut St. JailWestern PenitentiaryEastern State Pen.
11competing models Pennsylvania system New York system “Separate system” solitary confinementeat, sleep, work in cellreligious instructionreflection upon crimesreform throughsalvationreligious enlightenmentmodel for Europee.g.Walnut St. JailWestern PenitentiaryEastern State Pen.New York systemevolved into “Congregate system”hard labor in shops-daysolitary confinement-nightstrict disciplinerule of silencereform throughgood work habitsdisciplinemodel for US-economicale.g., Auburn Prison, 1816
12and the winner is…? Pennsylvania/Philadelphia model Europeans applauded and replicatedNew York/Auburn modelwon out in US; more cost-effective labor; state negotiated contracts with manufacturersbut neither curbed crime nor reformed offr’svarious reforms tinkered w/ look, purposebut icon of high-walled fortress remained: Attica, Quentin, Folsom, Sing Sing
13Southern penologyDevastation of war and economic hardship produced 2 results:Lease systemPrivate business negotiated with state for labor & care of inmates--Kentucky (1825)Penal farmsState-run plantations which grew cropsTo feed inmatesTo sell on free market
14Western developmentspenology in west not greatly influenced by the ideologies of the eastprior to statehood, prisoners held in territorial facilities or in federal military posts and prisons1852: San Quentin - California’s 1st prison1877: Salem, Oregon prison - Auburn modelwestern states discontinued use of lease system as states entered into the unione.g. Oregon, California, Montana, Wyoming
15the Reformatory Movement (1870s - 1890s) product of disillusionment with oppressive penitentiary systemfocus remained inmate change!key features:indeterminate sentences > fixedoffender classification should be based on character & institutional behavioruse early release as incentive to reform
16Hallmarks of the reformatory movement National Prison Associationprecursor: American Correctional Asso.strong religious influence (still)Cincinnati meeting,1870 Declaration of Principles“reformation is a work of time: and a benevolent regard to the good of the criminal himself, as well as to the protection of society, requires that his sentence be long enough for the reformatory process to take effect.”e.g., Machonochie, Crofton, Brockway
17“Reformatory”an institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole
18“mark system”a system for calculating when an offender will be released from custody, based on both the crime & his behavior in prisondevised by Alexander Maconochie (England),at Norfolk Island penal settlement (off Australia, 1840)at sentencing, offender is ‘given’ a number of “marks,” based on offense severity (a “debt” to society, to be “paid” off)for release, offender must earn marks viavoluntary laborparticipation in educational, religious programsgood behavioradopted in Ireland, never England
19the Irish system developed by Sir Walter Crofton derived from Maconochie’s mark systemfour-stage program of graduated release, based on offender performanceall sentences served in four stages; move “up” w/ accumulation of marks1. solitary confinement - all start here2. public works prison - begin earning marks3. intermediate stage - (like half-way house) after earning enough marks4. ticket of leave - conditional release = precursor of modern parole
20“reformatory” Zebulon Brockway an institution for young offenders emphasizing training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole: 1st time felons (16-30)diagnosis, individualized treatment, reformoperation: intake interview: determine causes of crime individualized work & education program mark system of classification (work, school, behavior). move up OR down, with accumulation of marks:begin at grade 2can earn 9 marks/mo. for 6 months: grade 1; or grade 3;then, 3 mo. good behavior: grade 2 again.administrators determine release dateElmira Reformatory (Zebulon Brockway; )
21Reformatory movement ends failed to reform (like penitentiary)brutalitycorruptionnot administered as plannedbut, important features survived:inmate classificationrehabilitation programsindeterminate sentencesparole
22the Progressive Era (1890s - 1930s) age of reform: set tone for American social thought & political action until 1960s!condemned ills of new urban society--big business, big industry, urban blight faith in science to find answers to crime, criminal behavior, treatment new faith in government action to eliminate social problems--slums, crimetrends of periodindustrializationurbanizationtechnological changescientific advancement
23the “Progressives”socially conscious, politically active, mostly upper-class reformers of early 1900sattacked excesses of emergent 20th century - big business, industry, urban societybelieved science (positivism) + state intervention could/should solve social & political problemsadvocated “treatment according to the needs of the offender,” not “punishment according to severity of the crime”subscribed to “positivism”
24“positivist school”an approach to criminology and other social sciences based on the assumption that human behavior is a product of biological, economic, psychological, and social factors, and that the scientific method can be applied to ascertain the causes of individual behaviorsubscribed to by Progressives
25principles of Positivist School behavior (including crime) is NOT the product of free will.behavior stems from factors beyond control of the individualcriminals can be treated so they can lead crime-free lives.treatment must focus on the individual & his/her problem(s).
26“progressive” reforms 2 strategies for CJ reform: improve general social, economic conditions that seem to breed crime rehabilitate individual offenders4 planks in “progressive” platform:probation (John Augustus, 1841)indeterminate sentencing (by 1920s, 37 states)parole (by 1920s, 44 states; 80% of releases)juvenile courts (1899, Cook County)By 1970s, most of these enlightened & well-meaning reforms seen as having failed to live up to their promise
27The Medical Model (1930s - 1960s) a model of corrections positing that criminal behavior is caused by social, psychological, biological deficiencies that require medical treatmentfirst serious efforts to implement truly medical strategies aimed at scientifically classifying, treating, rehabilitating criminal offenderse.g. “medical” programs & institutionspsychology (Karl Menninger)Maryland Patuxent Institution, 1955sexual psychopath, sociopath lawscrime as sickness
28The Community Model (1960s - 1970s) model of corrections positing goal of CJS: to reintegrate offender into communitykey featuresprisons should be avoided; prison = artificial environment; prison frustrates crime-free lifestyleneed to focus on offender’s adjustment into society; not just on psychological treatmentprobationintermediate sanctions; (alternatives to incarceration)parole
29The Crime Control Model (1970s - 2000) less ambitious, less optimistic, less forgiving view of man & ability of CJS to change himcrime better controlled by more incarceration & strict supervisionprecipitating factorspublic concern over rising crime in ‘60sdisillusionment with treatmentpublic clamor for longer sentencesdistrust of broad discretion given to correctional & parole authorities