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Presentation on theme: "A MERICAN M USIC E DUCATION FROM WWII TO S PUTNIK Jennifer Jaromin July 27, 2009."— Presentation transcript:


2 H ISTORY 1945 – end of WWII – GI Bill of Rights 1947 – Jackie Robinson 1950 – Korean War 1954 – Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 – Nautilus – first nuclear submarine 1957 – Russian launch of Sputnik 1959 – Alaska and Hawaii become states 1960 – beginning of civil rights movement 1961 – first intercontinental ballistic missile 1962 – Cuban missile crisis

3 M USIC E DUCATION H ISTORY 1945 – Conants General Education in a free society 1947 – North Texas State University introduces first jazz studies program in American higher education 1948 – ASTA is formed 1950 – Childs Bill of Rights in Music 1952 – Fennell forms Wind Ensembles at Eastman 1953 – Journal of Research in Music Education 1959 – Contemporary Music Project

4 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – REACTION AGAINST PROGRESSIVISM GI Bill of Rights - 1945 Call for reform after WWII No need to keep students out of labor force Society demanded a return to academic emphasis Poor and black communities demanded compensatory education to level the playing field GI Bill of Rights

5 The GI Bill made it possible for veterans to go to college. Today should it be the goal of high schools to have everyone attend college?

6 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – R EACTION AGAINST P ROGRESSIVISM Publications: Mortimer Smith – And Madly Teach Bernard Bell – Crisis in Education Albert Lynd – Quackery in the public schools Arthur Bestor – Educational Wastelands Admiral H. G. Rickover – Education and Freedom James Bryant Conant – American High School Today Criticized the aimlessness of public education

7 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – R EACTION AGAINST P ROGRESSIVISM Council on Basic Education – 1956 schools exist to provide the essential skills of language, numbers, and orderly thought, and to transmit in a reasoned pattern the intellectual, moral, and aesthetic heritage of civilized man Formed by Bestor and Smith

8 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – R EACTION AGAINST P ROGRESSIVISM Teacher training institutions put far too much emphasis on training teachers how to teach and far too little on training them what to teach. Certification requirements too easy Critics focused on the fact that schools failed to provide scientifically trained manpower.

9 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – R EACTION AGAINST P ROGRESSIVISM Conant and Rickover Science and math more important that arts Rickover – warned that Russians would beat the US Felt that America was wasting its time trying to teach all students equally, taking field trips, assemblies, etc. Conant – intellectual meritocracy More challenging, rigorous courses Guidance system to persuade students to do their social duty and fulfill their potential

10 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – R EACTION AGAINST P ROGRESSIVISM Basic skills emphasized NEA and AASA Many leaders lost sight of the fact that these skills are simply tools that open the gate to education. They are not an education themselves.

11 E DUCATION IN A MERICA – R EACTION AGAINST P ROGRESSIVISM Curriculum changes Began with physics and math National in scope teacher proof curriculum Widely spread materials – commercially Funding For sciences National Defense Education Act – 1958 Cognitive Psychology Complex learning at an early age Educational toys

12 M USIC E DUCATION Childs Bill of Rights in Music – 1950 1. Every child had the right to full and free opportunity to explore and develop his capacities in the field of music in such was as may bring him happiness and sense of well- being 2. Every child shall have the opportunity to experience music with other people 3. Every child shall have the opportunity to make music through singing, playing instruments, and composing 4. Every child shall have opportunity to grow in musical appreciation, knowledge, and skill through instruction equal to that given in any other subject 5. Every child shall be given the opportunity to have his interest and power in music explored and developed 6. Every child has the right to such teaching as will sensitize, refine, elevate, and enlarge not only his appreciation of music, but also his whole affective nature

13 M USIC E DUCATION MENC St. Louis Conference 1950 Discussed issues in music teaching Prescribed a program for music in the junior and senior high schools Discussed teacher loads and scheduling Discussed music buildings and equipment needs

14 M USIC E DUCATION At this time… Society was no longer trying to assimilate new immigrants Community music groups were popular Pop music and jazz Start of push for racial equality Free music on television and radio Football affected music education

15 Most people have an abundance of choices, but not enough time or money for a variety of activities. Every choice they make limits the other choices available to them. As a result, many never take advantage of the opportunity to develop their innate sensitivity to music, and perhaps go through life unaware of what they are missing. (Mark)

16 P USH FOR E QUALITY 1954 – Brown vs Board of Education Overturned Plessy vs. Fergusson Difficulties implementing desegregation North=housing patterns South=Jim Crow laws Thurgood Marshall 1955 – Brown II It seemed as though only armed guards could enforce the law Brown vs. Board

17 Brown vs. Board of Ed. was over 50 years ago. Today students still separate themselves in schools (at lunch, different classes, etc). What should teachers do to integrate students in classes?

18 F REDERICK F ENNELL (1914-2004) Internationally recognized conductor Graduated from Eastman 1952 – started Eastman Symphonic Wind Ensemble Combine aspects of other performing ensembles 45 player instrumentation New music written for new ensemble

19 S HINCHI S UZUKI (1898-1998) Created method of violin teaching to help Japanese children after WWII First class had only one violin Mother Language idea All people born with great potential Children learn to speak early, why not learn music? Not everyone will reach the same potential Talent Education

20 S HINCHI S UZUKI (1898-1998) Talent Education – 5 Key Points The human being is a product of his environment The earlier, the better – not only music, but all learning Repetition of experiences is important for learning Teacher and parents must be at a high level and continue to grow to provide a better learning situation for the child The system of method must involve illustrations for the child based on the teachers understanding of when, what, and how

21 S HINCHI S UZUKI (1898-1998) 10 factors of Talent Education 1. Talent Education should begin at an early age 2. Regular listening is required since it is a rote approach 3. Lessons are private and a length suitable for the childs age 4.Parents help with daily practice 5. All compositions studied are to be memorized 6. Note reading is introduced later, depending on age 7. All students, regardless of ability, follow the same sequence of materials 8. There are ten manuals of carefully selected music 9. Cooperation, not competition is the motivation 10. The pedagogy is up to date.

22 S HINCHI S UZUKI (1898-1998) Misconceptions in America SUPER – Suzuki Penfield Eastman Rochester Nurtured by Love Public schools should continue to start a year earlier Suzuki concert

23 M ADELEINE C ARABO -C ONE Violinist Sensory Motor Approach Use of props, costumes and toys for children to learn musical concepts (note duration, staff, etc) Children learn fundamentals of music by exploring through touch

24 E MILE J ACQUES D ALCROZE (1865-1950) Swiss musician and educator Frustrated that music is taught in isolated compartments Method based on idea that the source of rhythm is the natural rhythms of the human body Includes singing, ear training, harmony, counterpoint, form, music history, applied music and ensembles Maslow self-actualization

25 E MILE J ACQUES D ALCROZE (1865-1950) Beliefs: Ear training before instruments Few texts – learn by doing Teacher must improvise on piano Rhythm is really motion Adaptable to any level of musical instruction Goal is to have a musical experience Perfect rhythm may be more rare than perfect pitch Begin in early childhood

26 E MILE J ACQUES D ALCROZE (1865-1950) Music is abstract, we hear it moving through time. Movement is concrete, we see it moving through space. Just as there are consonant chords there is consonant movement – perfect coordination between limbs, head, and torso, the fundamental agents of gesture.

27 Z OLTAN K ODALY (1882-1967) Hungarian musician, educator, composer Method Curwen hand signs Pictorial representation of rhythm Folk Music – musical mother tongue of language Pentatonic Singing games Live with music as a part of life

28 Z OLTAN K ODALY (1882-1967) 1950 – first school began in Hungary 1969 – first school began in America Folk songs over dry, unpopular exercises Then great classics of past: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven Even while playing instruments, singing must always be at the center of instruction

29 We may say that the best teaching goes unnoticed. The students are guided ever so gently to new area of skill and awareness. Transitions are brought about smoothly. The course of a god lesson feels like a pleasant walk in good weather. The teacher is a musician guide. If we choose to follow Kodalys varied path of musical pedagogy, we will find that he tells us not so much what to do, but rather what to become. (Farkas)

30 C ARL O RFF (1895-1982) German composer Carmina Burana Orff-Shulwerk Music, movement, and speech are inseperable Use familiar songs/words Belief in simple to complex Children can learn as long as its presented at the right time and in the right order

31 C ARL O RFF (1895-1982) Philosophy of teaching music Pentatonic Ostinato patterns Music from geographical area Use of motives Orff ensemble instruments Elemental music - universal (descending minor 3 rd ) Use of speech patterns

32 Orff, Kodaly, Suzuki, and Dalcroze influenced American music education at this time. How much do they (or did they) influence your teaching today?

33 M OVE TO C OMPREHENSIVE M USICIANSHIP 1957 – Ford Foundation examined the place of art in schools Norman Dello Joio – placed young composers in public schools Students could benefit from sharing in the creative process 1959 – Young Composers Project Few music teachers understood composition

34 M OVE TO C OMPREHENSIVE M USICIANSHIP 1963 – Contemporary Music Project Grant from Ford Formed to: Increase creativity Foundation for acceptance of the contemporary music idiom Reduce compartmentalization between music education and composition Cultivate taste and discrimination of contemporary music Discover creative talent among students 1965 – develop comprehensive musicianship

35 A FTER S PUTNIK Baby Boom Too many children in schools No point in trying to keep 16-21 year olds off job market Cold War Propaganda Fueled attitudes Compete in military, science, economy, culture Emphasis on foreign language Move from cities to suburbs

36 Thus the reforms of the fifties and sixties served, somewhat fortuitously, to allocate educational services unevenly across the social spectrum – in a pattern strangely reminiscent of that planned by the social efficiency educators of four decades earlier. Growing recognition of this situation and growing horror at the social cost such a system would ultimately exact in a democracy led to the next great era of education reform – the effort to secure equal educational opportunity for all Americans, especially for the poor and the black.


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