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By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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1 By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
ISLAM: Submission to the Will of Allah By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY (Thank you, Sue Pojer)

2 The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam

3 We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam). (2:136).

4 The second verse says: We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in (the Books) given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets, from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another among them, and to Allah do we bow our will (in Islam). (3:84).

5 IslamAn Abrahamic Religion
Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God (Allah) Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is part of the word of God. “People of the Book”

6 Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac
12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel

7 The Prophetic Tradition
Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad

8 The Qur'an: God's Last Revelation

9 The Origins of the Qur’an
Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610. 622  Hijrah  Muhammed fled Mecca for Medina * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.) Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an by 650, soon after his death (632) –.

10 The Qur’an 114 suras (chapters).
Muslims believe it contains the word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. Written in Arabic.

11 Practices to reinforce
The Five Pillars of Islam Practices to reinforce the umma

12 The Dar al-Islam The umma
1 2 3 4 5

13 1. The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet].

14 2. The Salat The prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

15 Pray in the mosque on Friday.
The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday. 2

16 3. The Zakat Muslims believe that all things belong to God.
Almsgiving (charitable donations). Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.”

17 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
Considered a method of self- purification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. Eid al fitr – end of Ramadan celebration

18 End of the Ramadan holiday.
Eid Mubarak End of the Ramadan holiday.

19 5. The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. To be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime, if possible. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.

20 The Kaaba

21 5. The Hajj reinforces the concept of equality among all believers – the umma

22 The Mosque The Muslim place of worship.

23 The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem
Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.

24 Other Traditional Islamic Practices
Shari’a  body of Islamic law to regulate daily life - derived from the Quran and the Hadith No alcohol or pork. No gambling. kind speech & actions

25 Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?

26 The Spread of Islam No priesthood. Teaches equality.
Easy to adopt. No priesthood. Teaches equality. Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom; just paid a military tax. Easily “portable”  nomads & trade routes; not necess. culture specific Jihad (“Holy War”) for inner purity

27 Islamic Caliphates and States

28 Muhammad’s death 632 Caliph= “successor to the Prophet” 1) Abu Bakr
2) Umar (began conquest of Syria, Egypt, Sassanid Empire) 3) Uthman – (assassinated; assassins chose Ali as new successor  Civil war

29 Fatimah = Ali (assassinated)
Muhammad = Khadija Fatimah = Ali (assassinated) Hassan (poisoned) Husayn (assassinated) at: Battle of Karbala (in Iraq) To Shi’a Islam, only descendants of Muhammad are true successors (imam) 10-day mourning period held every Muharram Twelvers & Hidden Imam

30 Split over successor= Shia Sunni Only heir of Muhammad –
12th imam – Hidden Imam – will return (& a little later, Jesus) to rule and judge 1000 yrs justice Sunni No single person can define true belief; accepted political caliphates

31 Umayyad Caliphate 661-750 Founded by Uthman kinsman
Established by Damascus - capital

32 Battle of Tours 732 Frankish Kingdom Eastern Roman/ Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate “Dar al Islam”

33

34 750 – Abbasid Caliphate – Overthrew last Umayyad (although one fled to Spain and established a caliphate there- Cordoba) Begins the Golden Age Conversion to Islam 945 – smaller Abbasid Empire becomes Shiite ruled: Iran & Iraq

35 Abbasid Caliphate New capital – Baghdad

36 Umayyad Spain Abbasid Caliphate and Umayyad Spain
– Islamic Golden Age

37 Islamic golden age “The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs.” Classical works preserved Papermaking adopted Philosophers Environmental treatises, esp. on pollution Hospitals – a variety Medical knowledge & advancements

38 Mathematical & scientific writings (surpass total # of classical writings)
Globalization of trade & cultural diffusion Adoption of Indian number system Business & contractual law practices Chemistry, physics, psychology, Algebra Libraries (with lending) and emphasis on education

39 Page from algebra treatise of Persian Muslim Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

40 Fatimid dynasty- Shi’a
Cairo

41 Seljuk Turks – nomadic invaders– triggered urban decline & attacks on Byz Emp
Some unity re-established: Saladin; involved in the Crusades Mamluks – Turkish slaves established an empire that halted the Mongols ca. 1250

42 Salah - al – din / Saladin -recaptured Jerusalem from the European Crusaders

43 Seljuk Turks

44 Mamluk sultanate - (1250–1517) Resisted being conquered by The Mongols
13th century

45 Samanid dynasty

46 Muslims in the World Today

47 Countries with the Largest Muslim Population
1. Indonesia 183,000,000 6. Iran 62,000,000 2. Pakistan 134,000,000 7. Egypt 59,000,000 3. India 121,000,000 8. Nigeria 53,000,000 4. Bangladesh 114,000,000 9. Algeria 31,000,000 5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.

48 Islam in America

49 Muslims in America

50 The Islamic Center, New York City
Muslim Culture in NYC The Islamic Center, New York City

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