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(Thank you, Sue Pojer). We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to.

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Presentation on theme: "(Thank you, Sue Pojer). We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to."— Presentation transcript:

1 (Thank you, Sue Pojer)

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3 We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam). (2:136).We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam). (2:136).

4 The second verse says: We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in (the Books) given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets, from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another among them, and to Allah do we bow our will (in Islam). (3:84).The second verse says: We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in (the Books) given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets, from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another among them, and to Allah do we bow our will (in Islam). (3:84).

5 Islam An Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God (Allah) Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Quran, is part of the word of God. People of the Book

6 Abrahams Genealogy ABRAHAM SARAH HAGAR Isaac Esau Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes

7 The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad

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9 The Origins of the Quran Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610. 622 Hijrah Muhammed fled Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.) Muhammads revelations were compiled into the Quran by 650, soon after his death (632) –.

10 The Quran Muslims believe it contains the word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. Written in Arabic.

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12 The Dar al-Islam 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 The umma

13 1. The Shahada The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet].

14 2. The Salat The prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

15 2 2 The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday.

16 3. The Zakat Almsgiving (charitable donations). Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both purification and growth.

17 4. The Sawm Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Considered a method of self- purification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. Eid al fitr – end of Ramadan celebration

18 Eid Mubarak End of the Ramadan holiday.

19 5. The Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca. To be done at least once in a Muslims lifetime, if possible. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.

20 The Kaaba

21 5. The Hajj reinforces the concept of equality among all believers – the umma

22 The Mosque The Muslim place of worship.

23 The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.

24 Other Traditional Islamic Practices Other Traditional Islamic Practices Sharia Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily life - derived from the Quran and the Hadith No alcohol or pork. No gambling. kind speech & actions

25 Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?

26 The Spread of Islam Easy to adopt. No priesthood. Teaches equality. Non-Muslims, who were Peoples of the Book, were allowed religious freedom; just paid a military tax. Easily portable nomads & trade routes; not necess. culture specific Jihad (Holy War) for inner purity

27 Islamic Caliphates and States

28 Muhammads death 632 Caliph= successor to the Prophet 1) Abu Bakr 2) Umar (began conquest of Syria, Egypt, Sassanid Empire) 3) Uthman – (assassinated; assassins chose Ali as new successor – –Civil war 656-680

29 Muhammad = KhadijaMuhammad = Khadija Fatimah = Ali (assassinated) Fatimah = Ali (assassinated) Hassan (poisoned) Hassan (poisoned) Husayn (assassinated) Husayn (assassinated) Battle of Karbala (in Iraq) at: Battle of Karbala (in Iraq) 10-day mourning period held every MuharramTo Shia Islam, only descendants of Muhammad are true successors (imam) 10-day mourning period held every Muharram Twelvers & Hidden Imam

30 Split over successor= SunniSunni No single person can define true belief; accepted political caliphatesNo single person can define true belief; accepted political caliphates ShiaShia Only heir of Muhammad –Only heir of Muhammad – 12 th imam – Hidden Imam – will return (& a little later, Jesus) to rule and judge12 th imam – Hidden Imam – will return (& a little later, Jesus) to rule and judge 1000 yrs justice1000 yrs justice

31 Damascus - capital Umayyad Caliphate 661-750 Founded by Uthman kinsman

32 Frankish Kingdom Eastern Roman/ Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate Dar al Islam Battle of Tours 732

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34 750 – Abbasid Caliphate – Overthrew last Umayyad (although one fled to Spain and established a caliphate there- Cordoba)750 – Abbasid Caliphate – Overthrew last Umayyad (although one fled to Spain and established a caliphate there- Cordoba) Begins the Golden AgeBegins the Golden Age Conversion to IslamConversion to Islam 945 – smaller Abbasid Empire becomes Shiite ruled: Iran & Iraq945 – smaller Abbasid Empire becomes Shiite ruled: Iran & Iraq

35 Abbasid Caliphate 750 New capital – Baghdad

36 Umayyad Spain Abbasid Caliphate and Umayyad Spain – Islamic Golden Age 750-1000

37 Islamic golden age The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs.The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs. Classical works preservedClassical works preserved Papermaking adoptedPapermaking adopted PhilosophersPhilosophers Environmental treatises, esp. on pollutionEnvironmental treatises, esp. on pollution Hospitals – a varietyHospitals – a variety Medical knowledge & advancementsMedical knowledge & advancements

38 Mathematical & scientific writings (surpass total # of classical writings)Mathematical & scientific writings (surpass total # of classical writings) Globalization of trade & cultural diffusionGlobalization of trade & cultural diffusion Adoption of Indian number systemAdoption of Indian number system Business & contractual law practicesBusiness & contractual law practices Chemistry, physics, psychology, AlgebraChemistry, physics, psychology, Algebra Libraries (with lending) and emphasis on educationLibraries (with lending) and emphasis on education

39 Page from algebra treatise of Persian Muslim Muhammad ibn Mūsā al- KhwārizmīPage from algebra treatise of Persian Muslim Muhammad ibn Mūsā al- Khwārizmī

40 Fatimid dynasty- Shia Cairo

41 Seljuk Turks – nomadic invaders– triggered urban decline & attacks on Byz EmpSeljuk Turks – nomadic invaders– triggered urban decline & attacks on Byz Emp Some unity re-established: Saladin; involved in the CrusadesSome unity re-established: Saladin; involved in the Crusades Mamluks – Turkish slaves established an empire that halted the Mongols ca. 1250Mamluks – Turkish slaves established an empire that halted the Mongols ca. 1250

42 Salah - al – din / Saladin -recaptured Jerusalem from the European Crusaders

43 Seljuk Turks

44 Mamluk sultanate - (1250–1517) Resisted being conquered by The Mongols 13 th century

45 Samanid dynasty

46 Muslims in the World Today

47 Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1.Indonesia183,000,0006.Iran62,000,000 2.Pakistan134,000,0007.Egypt59,000,000 3.India121,000,0008.Nigeria53,000,000 4.Bangladesh114,000,0009.Algeria31,000,000 5.Turkey66,000,00010.Morocco29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.

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49 Muslims in America

50 Muslim Culture in NYC The Islamic Center, New York City

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