3We believe in God, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam). (2:136).
4The second verse says: We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in (the Books) given to Moses, Jesus, and the prophets, from their Lord: We make no distinction between one and another among them, and to Allah do we bow our will (in Islam). (3:84).
5IslamAn Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists.They believe in the Judeo- Christian God (Allah)Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is part of the word of God.“People of the Book”
6Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian TribesJacobEsau12 Tribes of Israel
9The Origins of the Qur’an Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610.622 Hijrah Muhammed fled Mecca for Medina * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.)Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an by 650, soon after his death (632) –.
10The Qur’an 114 suras (chapters). Muslims believe it contains the word of God.114 suras (chapters).In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful.Written in Arabic.
11Practices to reinforce The FivePillars of IslamPractices to reinforcethe umma
23The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
24Other Traditional Islamic Practices Shari’a body of Islamic law to regulate daily life - derived from the Quran and the HadithNo alcohol or pork.No gambling.kind speech & actions
25Essential Question:Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?
26The Spread of Islam No priesthood. Teaches equality. Easy to adopt.No priesthood.Teaches equality.Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom; just paid a military tax.Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes; not necess. culture specificJihad (“Holy War”) for inner purity
28Muhammad’s death 632 Caliph= “successor to the Prophet” 1) Abu Bakr 2) Umar (began conquest of Syria, Egypt, Sassanid Empire)3) Uthman – (assassinated; assassins chose Ali as new successor Civil war
29Fatimah = Ali (assassinated) Muhammad = KhadijaFatimah = Ali (assassinated)Hassan (poisoned)Husayn (assassinated)at: Battle of Karbala (in Iraq)To Shi’a Islam, only descendants of Muhammad are true successors (imam) 10-day mourning period held every MuharramTwelvers & Hidden Imam
30Split over successor= Shia Sunni Only heir of Muhammad – 12th imam – Hidden Imam – will return (& a little later, Jesus) to rule and judge1000 yrs justiceSunniNo single person can define true belief; accepted political caliphates
31Umayyad Caliphate 661-750 Founded by Uthman kinsman Established byDamascus - capital
32Battle of Tours 732Frankish KingdomEastern Roman/Byzantine EmpireUmayyad Caliphate“Dar al Islam”
34750 – Abbasid Caliphate – Overthrew last Umayyad (although one fled to Spain and established a caliphate there- Cordoba)Begins the Golden AgeConversion to Islam945 – smaller Abbasid Empire becomes Shiite ruled: Iran & Iraq
36Umayyad Spain Abbasid Caliphate and Umayyad Spain – Islamic Golden Age
37Islamic golden age“The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs.”Classical works preservedPapermaking adoptedPhilosophersEnvironmental treatises, esp. on pollutionHospitals – a varietyMedical knowledge & advancements
38Mathematical & scientific writings (surpass total # of classical writings) Globalization of trade & cultural diffusionAdoption of Indian number systemBusiness & contractual law practicesChemistry, physics, psychology, AlgebraLibraries (with lending) and emphasis on education
39Page from algebra treatise of Persian Muslim Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī
41Seljuk Turks – nomadic invaders– triggered urban decline & attacks on Byz Emp Some unity re-established: Saladin; involved in the CrusadesMamluks – Turkish slaves established an empire that halted the Mongols ca. 1250
42Salah - al – din / Saladin -recaptured Jerusalem from the European Crusaders
47Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1.Indonesia183,000,0006.Iran62,000,0002.Pakistan134,000,0007.Egypt59,000,0003.India121,000,0008.Nigeria53,000,0004.Bangladesh114,000,0009.Algeria31,000,0005.Turkey66,000,00010.Morocco29,000,000* Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.