2 The intent of this presentation is to present enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge of conveyor systems and their components which are used within Michelin and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.
3 04 - Conveyors Conveyor Components The Different Types of Conveyors The principal types of conveyors used in industry are:Chain conveyorsScrew conveyorsRoller conveyorsBelt conveyors
4 Typical Chain Conveyor 04 - ConveyorsChain conveyorsA chain conveyor is a machine that transfers material or objects from one point to another by means of a moving chain. The conveyor chain is driven by a head sprocket or roller, also called a drive wheel. On a plain chain conveyor, the chain may run in a trough-shaped groove, but on larger conveyors the chain may be supported by carrying idlers installed sufficiently close to one another to prevent undue sagging of the chain. If the chain has slats attached to it, the slats are often fitted with small wheels at each end. The wheels run along rails or tracks on either side of the chain, guiding and supporting it. The slack side of the chain is also supported by carrying idlers called return idlers (sprockets or rollers). A conveyor chain may have plates, blocks or bars attached to it which are designed to catch, push or drag the object or material which is to be moved.Typical Chain Conveyor
5 Typical Screw Conveyor 04 - ConveyorsScrew conveyorsScrew conveyors are used extensively in handling smaller bulk particles. The screws may operate inside tubes or U-shaped troughs, supported every few feet by suspended bearings around which the material flows. Conveyor screws are available in diameters up to 4 feet. They move material in and between processes, and sometimes simultaneously blend and meter it. Screw conveyors exhibit high friction levels and thus are high energy users. They are chosen for applications that take advantage of their special features such as total sealing, blending in transit, and the fact that they can convey vertically.Typical Screw Conveyor
6 04 - Conveyors Roller conveyors Roller conveyors are either gravity powered or motor powered rollers. In either case, the basic roller conveyor structure consists of side rails, punched with spaced holes along their length. Rollers, assembled from steel tubes with bearings in each end, ride on steel shafts that fit between the rails. The shaft and the inner race of the bearing are usually stationary. The rollers rotate on the bearings. But in some cases the rollers are fixed to the shaft and the shaft ends are mounted in flanged or pillow block bearings. The rollers may be free running or driven in any of a variety of ways.Drive methods include direct drives where every roller has a gear motor drive; roller-to-roller drives where one roller is connected by chain and sprocket to the next; sliding contact drives where a belt running below the roller contacts and drives it; and self-contained motor-in-roller drives, were each roller has an internal motor and gearbox.
7 04 - Conveyors Belt conveyors The term "belt conveyor" refers to a machine that transfers material or objects from one point to another by means of a moving belt. The belt is driven by a head pulley, also called a head roller, and is supported by carrying idlers (or rollers) placed sufficiently close to one another to prevent any sagging of the belt. An idler may have three or more rollers on it arranged in the shape of a trough; they give the belt a continuous curved shape and are called "troughing idlers." The other side of the belt (the return side) is supported by carrying idlers called return idlers which are usually rollers.
8 04 - Conveyors Components of a Belt Conveyor System The head pulley The head pulleyMost of the head and tail roller pulleys used on European or American conveyor systems are crowned as shown in the illustration. This is done to aid the belt in tracking toward the center of the pulley. The reason this happens is the difference in the linear speed from the crown to the edges of the pulleys. The usual figure for the amount of crowning is 1/8 of an inch per linear foot of pulley width.
9 Plain Vulcanized Lagging 04 - ConveyorsThe tail roller pulley has a machine finish on it and is used as an idler since it has no driving force. The head roller (drive roller) is the driving force to move the conveyor belt and its load. This roller has a rubber lagging on it to increase the friction between the belt and the roller itself. The lagging consists of layers of cloth (termed as “duck”) and of rubber bonded together then attached to the roller as discussed on the following page.Rubber LaggingShown in the following illustrations are drive roller pulleys or as they are sometimes termed “head rollers”. They have different types of rubber lagging attached to them to help increase the tractive capacity.Lagging is available in 1/4”, plain bolt on or 1/4”, 3/8”, 1/2”, plain vulcanized and can be applied to either crowned or straight cylindrical pulleys.Plain Vulcanized Lagging
10 04 - ConveyorsThe standard bolt-on type has a 3/16” rubber cover bonded to a two-ply extra heavy duck. The 3/8” and 1/2” vulcanized can be herringbone grooved. Standard groove depths are 3/16” on 3/8” lagging and 1/4” on 1/2” lagging. For heavy duty applications,a thicker bolt-on lagging or vulcanizing lagging is available.The choice of lagging is influenced by operating conditions. Extra thick material may be used to increase life, for prevention of dirt build-upon pulleys, or as protection for the belt itself. Grooving may also be used to increase the tractive pull under dirty or wet conditions – or to preventdirt build-up.
11 Chain-and-sprocket drive system 04 - ConveyorsThe head pulley drives the belt. It is mounted on bearings and must be positioned exactly at right angles to the vertical plane of the conveyor frame. The pulley is coupled to a drive system which can be one of several types, namely:a drive train with a speed reducer coupled to the roller;a chain-and-sprocket drivea belt-and-pulley drive.Chain-and-sprocket drive system
12 Typical drive motor (gear motor) 04 - ConveyorsDrive train with a speed reducer coupled directly to the drive pulley. This type of drive system is used very little, for the following reasons.load shocks and overload strain in the conveyor system are transmitted directly to the coupling linking the speed reducer to the drive pulley. As a result, the coupling wears out quickly and the conveyor system must be shut down every time the coupling is changed.the system does not have as much "give" as a chain-and-sprocket or belt drive system and cannot easily absorb load shocks. A belt can slip a little on the pulley and a chain can absorb light load shocks.Typical drive motor (gear motor)For the reasons given above, it is not uncommon to find the speed reducer coupled to the drive roller shaft with a hydraulic coupler (which can absorb load shocks).
13 Drive showing chain, sprockets 04 - ConveyorsChain-and-sprocket drive trainChain-and-sprocket drive systems are the most popular conveyor drive systems and they are also the strongest. A chain has enough give to be able to withstand normal load shocks. The conveyor speed can be altered simply by installing a larger or smaller sprocket on the head pulley drive shaft or exchanging the two sprockets. Servicing the system is easy and inexpensive. The following illustration shows the components of a typical chain-and-sprocket drive.Belt-and-pulley drive trainBelt-and-pulley drive systems share some of the characteristics of chain-and-sprocket systems, particularly the ability to absorb load shocks. However, their major disadvantage is that drive belts have a tendency to slip on the pulleys if the conveyor belt is overloaded. While this slippage saves wear and tear on the conveyor belt system, it can cause the drive belt to burn through from the heat created by the friction. Another disadvantage is that material being carried on the conveyor can fall and get between the belt and the pulley (which accelerates the wear on the belt and the pulley). For these reasons, the belt-and-pulley drive system is not used as widely as the chain-and-sprocket drive system.Drive showing chain, sprocketsand chain guard
14 04 - Conveyors The tail pulley Adjustable tail pulley The tail pulley can be adjusted to put tension on the belt.
15 04 - Conveyors The tail pulley A tail pulley is usually crowned at an angle depending on the rigidity of the belt. Belt tension is adjusted by turning the adjustment screws on the sliding pillow blocks in the appropriate direction to move each block backward or forward.
16 Profile of belt carrying idlers 04 - ConveyorsCarrying idlers (support rollers)Depending on the material the belt has been designed to move and the desired shape of the belt, the carrying idlers can be flat or trough-shaped.Profile of belt carrying idlers
17 04 - Conveyors Return idlers While the return part of the belt is traveling in the opposite direction, that is, from the head pulley to the tail pulley, it must be supported so that its weight will not add to the belt tension and put too much stress on the head and tail pulleys. The type of support roller used is called a return idler. Return idlers are usually steel cylinders mounted on bearings which are positioned horizontally between brackets bolted to the underside of the conveyor frame. Hard rubber disks mounted on shafts, two-roller V-shaped idlers, and spiral types are also used. Return idlers must be protected and lubricated like regular carrying idlers as they must bear half the weight of the belt and withstand the effects of dirt and moisture.Profile of belt return idlers
18 04 - Conveyors Self-aligning idlers Self-aligning idlers are installed on conveyors to direct the belt back to the center position should it start to wander.Self-aligning or training idlers set up a compensating force to steer the belt back in line. When the belt runs to one side and hits the holding roller, the idler stand pivots forward on that side and back on the opposite side. This skewing action of the idler sets up force to steer the belt back in line. Self-aligning idlers should only be considered for use when correcting casual belt wander. When the belt persists in hitting the holding roller, there is something wrong either with the belt or the idler alignment on the conveyor.
20 Profile of belt tensioning roller 04 - ConveyorsTensioning rollersScrew tensioning rollers do not correct for belt elongation and contraction during operation, but are used to compensate for long-term changes in belt length. When placed at the foot of the conveyor, they do not require extra bends in the belt. Adjustments are made by turning the screw head or nut at either end of the roller.Profile of belt tensioning roller
21 Profile of belt gravity tensioning roller 04 - ConveyorsGravity tensioning rollers are automatic and keep an even tension on the belt. The amount of tension can be adjusted by varying the weight of the counterweight. In an automatic or gravity tensioning system, tension is applied to the belt through the roller. The take-up carriage is suspended from the roller, and is free to move up and down on the vertical rods. The tension is adjusted by varying the weights held by the take-up carriage.Profile of belt gravity tensioning roller
22 Profile of belt change in direction roller 04 - ConveyorsChange in direction rollersChange in direction rollers are constructed similar to tensioning rollers but, are used to direct the belt around obstacles that would interfere with the belt on the work and the return.Profile of belt change in direction roller
23 04 - Conveyors Snub rollers A sub roller is installed on the return side of the belt very close to head roller. This roller increases the belt contact area on the head (drive) roller, which increases the drive force on the belt with little increase in tension and thus less power consumption.Profile of belt snub roller
24 Profile of belt tracking roller 04 - ConveyorsTracking rollerA tracking roller is similar in construction to a snub roller and a change in direction roller. The position of this roller on the conveyor is what identifies it as a tracking roller. A good tracking roller is positioned so that when it is adjusted it produces little change in the tension of the belt. There must be slight friction between the belt and the tracking roller. A long free span of conveyor belt leading up to the tracking roller and a short free span of conveyor belt after the tracking roller to the next roller makes an ideal location.Profile of belt tracking roller
25 04 - Conveyors Slider beds Slider beds or slider plates are used on belt conveyors at the loading zone to protect the belt from damage. Carrying idlers may allow the belt to sag when the product load is applied to the belt or may not fully support the belt from blunt heavy objects. Slider beds provide full support for the belt but in turn create high friction between itself and the belt. For this reason they are limited to loading areas and certain products.Profile of belt slider bedProfile of belt slider bed
26 Belt conveyor with a separate rotating belt cleaner 04 - ConveyorsBelt cleaning systemsWhen a belt conveyor is used to move bulk material in powder form or in the form of small particles, it sometimes happens that the belt must be cleaned at the head end (or at the tail end) to recover dust or particles which stick to it. Separate belt-cleaning units are available which can be installed at the head or tail end of the belt. These units have their own drive systems and can be adjusted and positioned to affect the type of recovery or cleaning desired.Belt conveyor with a separate rotating belt cleaner
27 Belt conveyor with a separate wire scraper 04 - ConveyorsBelt conveyor with a separate wire scraper
28 04 - Conveyors Splicing/Joining The vulcanized splice is the best method for joining the two ends of a belt or for joining one belt to another. A vulcanized joint has 90% of the strength of the belt itself and has a long service life (though not as long as the service life of the belt). It runs smoothly over the rollers and belt cleaners and allows the sides of the conveyor chute to be placed close to the edge of the belt. Conveyed material cannot seep or drop through the splice. However, the cost of a vulcanized splice is many times that of a mechanical join. Moreover, the vulcanize is heavy and difficult to move. If a mistake is made in calculating the amount of play (that is, the belt is too long), it is time-consuming and costly to cut a piece out of the belt and re-vulcanize it.Once the belt has been spliced and is ready for use, a thorough check should be made to see if it tracks properly over the head and tail pulleys and the carrying idlers. The best way of carrying out this check is to have a person at the motor switch ready to stop the belt immediately if there is a problem. Another person checks the tracking at a safe distance from the running belt. If there are screw take-ups on the tracking roller, the belt can be aligned while it is running. A word of caution: if the belt is very badly aligned at the beginning, running it can damage one of the edges. A new belt is difficult to align because it only takes its final shape after several days of operation under load. Thus, the initial alignment should be sufficiently accurate to allow the belt to operate without its being damaged, and the final alignment should be carried out after the belt has been run in.
29 04 - Conveyors Metal Fasteners Small to medium size belts can be joined by hook and prong fasteners. Proper size fasteners can be selected from the makers chart to suit the belt and applied according to directions. When installing fasteners, the size for the belt thickness should be used and the manufacturer’s instructions for installing followed carefully. If roller diameters are small, a hinged, two plates fastener can be used or the joint can be made at a 45-degree angle, using standard plate fasteners. Metal fasteners frequently catch on skirting or scrapers and are noisy as they pound the idlers and rollers. They also allow moisture to penetrate to the fabric, thus shortening belt life. They are not used where metal detectors are used to detect contamination in the product being conveyed. Their chief advantage is that they are cheap and easily applied with minimum equipment. A belt with a mechanical joint can be shortened with a minimum of downtime. The only belt length lost is slightly more than the width of the clips. Small nicks and tears in the belt carcass will enlarge under constant bending on the idlers and rollers. Quick repairs can be made by using belt fasteners,The following slide shows different type metal fasteners being used on conveyor belts.
31 04 - Conveyors Rule of tracking Basic/Primary rule of tracking The basic, primary rule which must be kept in mind when tracking a conveyor belt is simply “THE BELT MOVES TOWARDS THAT END OF THE ROLLER/IDLER IT CONTACTS FIRST “. The reader can demonstrate this for himself very simply by laying a small roller or round pencil on a flat surface in a skewed orientation. If a book is now laid across the roller and gently pushed by one’s finger in line directly away from the experimenter, the book will tend to shift to the left or right depending upon which end of the roller the moving book contacts first.
32 04 - Conveyors Rule of tracking Conveyor Belt Tracking On the following pages, an attempt will be made to outline the more common conveyor belt tracking problems and a list of ways to approach the solutions systematically.The most hazardous period in the life of the belt is immediately after it has been installed. It is, therefore, worth the extra time to monitor new belt installations closely for a couple of weeks, and especially the first few hours after start-up.
33 04 - Conveyors Initial Start-up of New Belts I. A) Head rollers, tail rollers, return rollers, etc., should be parallel with each other and level with the earth. The rollers should also be in good condition.B) Start up motor with belt traveling toward the head roller.C) Take up slack in belt using take-up adjustment until sufficient tension is applied to prevent slippage of the belt on the drive pulley. Caution should be taken to ensure take-up rods are equally adjusted; otherwise the belt will run off the pulley. Do not adjust the take-up tighter than necessary to keep a good driving condition on the drive pulley. Tensioning the belt tighter than necessary could stretch the belt or possibly destroy the fiber cord inside the belt, thus shortening the belt life and making the belt more difficult to track.II. If additional tracking is necessary, it can be done as shown on the following slide.
34 04 - ConveyorsTo move the belt in direction “B”, adjust tracking roller in the direction “A”To move the belt opposite directon “B”, adjust tracking roller in the direction opposite “A”A very slight adjustment of tracking roller will cause the belt to move. Do not adjust too much.Run conveyor long enough to make several complete revolutions to see how your adjustments have affected the belt tracking. If necessary, readjust going through the previous steps.
35 04 - ConveyorsThe illustrations below show the effects of moving the snub rollers and return idler rollers and how this aids in tracking conveyor belts.
37 04 - ConveyorsHead or drive roller – This is a crowned-faced roller with rubber lagging and mounted on pillow block bearings. This roller is not adjustable other than by shimming.Tail roller – This is a crown-faced roller with no lagging mounted on pillow block bearings. This roller is not adjustable other than by shimming.Idler rollers – Straight face roller that supports the belt and the load that it is carrying.Tension roller - A straight face roller mounted on adjusting blocks to allow movement and to add tension to the belt.Tracking rollers - Straight rollers that should be adjustable to aid in tracking. They are found close to the tail roller.Snub rollers - Straight rollers that are found close to the head roller and increase the drive contact on the drive roller.
38 04 - ConveyorsHead or drive roller – This is a crowned faced roller with rubber lagging and mounted on pillow block bearings. This roller is not adjustable other than by shimming.Tail Roller - A crowned roller with no lagging and mounted in a take-up frame. The roller in this type system serves as a tensioning device.Idler Rollers - A straight face roller used only to support the belt and the load that it is carrying.
39 04 - ConveyorsDrive Roller on Head Roller – Mounted on flanged type bearings. Adjustment available only by clearance holes in the bearing blocks and slots in the machine framework with Litton conveyors. Bayer and Interlake are basically the same except the drive rollers have screw adjusters that move the bearing blocks in slots cut into the framework to allow movement for belt tracking and also adjusts rollers for parallelism to the tail roller.Tail Roller - Mounting is the same as for head rollers. On Litton conveyor systems the rollers have little adjustment but on Bayer systems, again you have adjusting screw mounted against the bearing blocks to allow for more adjustment.
40 04 - ConveyorsIdler Rollers - Straight face rollers that support the belt. On Bayer, Litton, and Interlake conveyors these rollers have hex shafts and mount into the conveyor framework.Change In Direction Roller – A straight face roller that supports the belt in its turn in the tensioning assembly. Mounted in flanged bearing blocks – normally a larger diameter than idler rollers.Tension Roller - A straight face roller used to tension the conveyor belt only. Not to be used to track the belt. On Litton conveyor systems, this roller is mounted on pillow block bearings that are mounted on a screw assembly to allow belt tensioning. On Bayer systems, it is mounted in a Side mount take-up frame as shown below.Tracking Rollers - Straight face rollers that support the belt on Litton systems. These rollers are not adjustable, but on Bayer and Interlake conveyors, there are adjustments that aid in tracking the belt.
41 Modified “S” Type Tensioning System 04 - ConveyorsModified “S” Type Tensioning SystemTail Roller - Mounted on either pillow block bearing or flange block bearing according to mounting applications. The only adjustments that can be made here come from the clearance holes in the bearing blocks themselves or, in the case of pillow block bearings shims can be used.Drive Roller or Head Roller – Mounting and adjustments are the same as the tail roller. Some adjustment limitations here because this is the drive roller utilizing chain and sprocket for driving the conveyor.Idler Rollers – Straight faced rollers which support the belt and the load which the belt carries. Rule of thumb spacing between the idlers is the same as the belt width with a minimum of 200mm and a maximum of 1500mm.
42 04 - ConveyorsChange in Direction Rollers – This roller supports the belt in its turn into the tensioning assembly. As a rule, this roller is larger diameter than the other rollers.Tensioning Roller –These rollers are just as their name states: a roller, usually mounted in roller blocks, attached in an adjustable tensioning assembly, shown in the following illustration.This tensioning should be used only to tension the belt and not as a device to track the belt. The belt tracking should be done with tracking rollers which will be covered later. Tracking Rollers - Straight face rollers mounted underneath the belt close to the tail rollers. The frame of the conveyor should be slotted here so these can be adjusted to aid in tracking the belt as necessary.