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Danny Brassell, Ph.D. Jeff Miller, Ph.D.

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Learning Goals By the end of this presentation, we will have: ZDetermined what differentiated instruction means and why it is important; ZDiscussed ways to meet standards without sacrificing student readiness, interests and learning styles; ZExamined 50 tricks teachers may keep in mind when differentiating instruction; and ZReviewed songs, games and activities designed to stimulate student interest in school.

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What Is Differentiated Instruction?

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Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to get at and express learning. - Carol Ann Tomlinson

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huh?

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Whenever a teacher reaches out to an individual or small group to vary his or her teaching in order to create the best learning experience possible, that teacher is differentiating instruction. - CAROL ANN TOMLINSON

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Oh…

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Why Is Differentiating Instruction Important?

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To learn a particular concept, some children need days; some, ten minutes, but the typical lockstep school schedule ignores this fundamental fact. - Marilyn Hughes

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Eight Principles of a Differentiated Classroom

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Principle #1 The teacher is clear about what matters in the content area.

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Principle #2 The teacher understands, appreciates and builds upon student differences.

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Principle #3 Assessment and instruction are inseparable.

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Youre wrong! vs. Why did you say that?

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Principle #4 All students participate in respectful work.

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Principle #5 Students and teachers collaborate in learning.

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Principle #6 The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning styles.

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Principle #7 Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and continued success.

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Principle #8 Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.

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Environment

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #1 Create a supportive environment of respect (teacher- students, students-to- students).

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #2 Develop a sense of community.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #3 Facilitate an environment where students feel safe to take risks.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #4 Promote the development of a broad range of skills and interests, incorporating all senses.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #5 Set-up physical classroom for student-centered instruction.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #6 Provide purposeful materials and resources.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #7 Have high expectations for ALL.

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If you refuse to accept anything but the best in life, you very often get it. - Somerset Maugham

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Readiness

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When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time, chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the remaining third wont. So two-thirds of the children are wasting their time. - Lilian Katz

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #8 Allow students to show what they know in a variety of ways.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #9 Provide students with plenty of time to explore, understand and transfer learning to long-term memory.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #10 Permit students time to revisit ideas and concepts in order to connect or extend them.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #11 Ensure lessons are developmentally appropriate.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #12 Tier activities to provide appropriate level of challenge.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #13 Compact curriculum to provide enrichment and challenge.

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Interest

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If a student has a spark (or better still, a fire), a curiosity about a topic, learning is more likely for that student. - Carol Ann Tomlinson (2001)

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If there is anything we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves. - Carl Jung

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #14 Incorporate creativity.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #15 Provide students real choices in what they learn, how they learn and how they demonstrate learning (flexible and varied).

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #16 Offer real-world challenges that are directly connected to the students lives.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #17 Offer novel, unique and engaging activities to capture and sustain students attention.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #18 Use multi- media/technology.

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Learning Profile

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The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way. - Howard Gardner

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #19 Focus on students learning styles.

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Its not how smart you are. Its how you are smart.

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Sternbergs Three Intelligences CreativeAnalytical Practical We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others. We should strive to use all three…but also recognize where students strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #20 Emphasize brain- compatible instruction.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #21 Recognize and honor cultural diversity.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #22 Emphasize student strengths and develop ways to compensate for weaknesses so they do not inhibit what student can do.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #23 Permit positive movement.

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Content

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Instruction begins where the students are, not at the front of the curriculum guide. - CAROL ANN TOMLINSON

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to Differentiate Content ZReading Partners / Reading Buddies * ZChoral Reading/Antiphonal Reading ZFlip Books ZSplit Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry) ZBooks on Tape ZHighlights on Tape ZDigests/ Cliff Notes ZNotetaking Organizers ZVaried Texts ZVaried Supplementary Materials ZHighlighted Texts ZThink-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #24 Present the curriculum through interdisciplinary big ideas versus disconnected small facts.

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Remember jigsaw puzzles: theyre much easier when you can see the whole picture first. - GORDON DRYDEN, The Learning Revolution

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #25 Plan before, during and after instruction.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #26 Negotiate contracts to provide appropriate learning activities for students.

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Motivation and productivity skyrocket when students reach their goals. - BETTIE B. YOUNGS, The 6 Vital Ingredients of Self-Esteem: How to Develop Them in Students

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #27 Challenge students (i + 1).

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #28 Create centers.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #29 Co-develop standards with students.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #30 Clearly state expectations (be specific about requirements).

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #31 Empower learners! Encourage students to help set and enforce norms.

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Process

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Learning is most effective when its fun. - PETER KLINE, The Everyday Genius

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I never worked a day in my life. It was all fun. - Thomas Edison

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To learn it, do it! - ROBERT C. SCHANK, Engines for Learning

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TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS ZFun & Games ZRAFTs ZCubing, Think Dots ZChoices (Intelligences) ZCenters ZTiered lessons ZContracts

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #32 Utilize active, hands-on learning.

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80 percent of learning difficulties are related to stress. Remove the stress, and you remove the difficulties. - GORDON STOKES, The Learning Revolution

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Children learn best when they are helped to discover the underlying principles for themselves. - PETER KLINE, The Everyday Genius

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #33 Allow students to work collaboratively and independently (flexible grouping).

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #34 Make use of higher level thinking and questioning strategies.

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If the questions are simple so is the thinking.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #35 Offer students plenty of time for reflection and goal setting.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #36 Vary strategies.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #37 Consider integrated curriculum, problem- based learning and service learning.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #38 Balance teacher- chosen and teacher- directed activities with student-chosen and student-directed activities.

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The art of teaching is developing into the art of teaching children to teach themselves. - HELENA H. WALLENBERG and MICHAEL S. BOGOLEA The Welfare Rennaissance: The New Swedish Model

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Childrens work IS their play. Children learn from everything they do. - CAROLYN HOOPER, New Zealand Playcenter Movement

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #39 Help students understand groups shared needs for success, to belong, to trust, the future, etc.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #40 Monitor student progress constantly.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #41 Aim high; scaffold weaknesses.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #42 Teach for meaning; not rote.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #43 Be flexible (with time, space, materials and groupings).

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #44 Teach strategies explicitly so student has easy way out of tough spots.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #45 Collaborate with parents, resource specialists, etc. It takes a village!

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Product

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If there were only one truth, you couldnt paint a hundred canvases on the same theme. - Pablo Picasso

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All children are born geniuses, and we spend the first six years of their lives degeniusing them. - BUCKMINSTER FULLER

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to Differentiate Product ZChoices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile ZClear expectations ZTimelines ZAgreements ZProduct Guides ZRubrics ZEvaluation

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #46 Provide opportunities for projects, creativity, problems and challenges.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #47 Focus on student growth.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #48 Initiate student- maintained portfolios and assessments with varied and original products.

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THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA SOURCES 1.Journal entry 2.Short answer test 3.Open response test 4.Home learning 5.Notebook 6.Oral response 7.Portfolio entry 8.Exhibition 9.Culminating product 10.Question writing 11.Problem solving TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS 1.Anecdotal records 2.Observation by checklist 3.Skills checklist 4.Class discussion 5.Small group interaction 6.Teacher – student conference 7.Assessment stations 8.Exit cards 9.Problem posing 10.Performance tasks and rubrics

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Differentiated Report Cards A = Excellent Growth B = Very Good Growth C = Some Growth D = Little Growth F = No Observable Growth 1=The student is Above Grade Level 2=The student is Working At Grade Level 3=The student is Working Below Grade Level On report cards, I need to find a way to show individual growth and relative standing to students and parents

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #49 Support students in creating products for real events/audience through public displays and performances.

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Dare to Differentiate: 50 Terrific Teacher Tricks Trick #50 Emphasize quality of thought and expression vs. accuracy.

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Review In this presentation, we: ZDetermined what differentiated instruction means and why it is important; ZDiscussed ways to meet standards without sacrificing student readiness, interests and learning styles; ZExamined 50 tricks teachers may keep in mind when differentiating instruction; and ZReviewed songs, games and activities designed to stimulate student interest in school.

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The real art of discovery consists not in finding new lands, but in seeing with new eyes. - Marcel Proust

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