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# Introduction to Analogies Genius is the capacity to see 10 things where the ordinary man sees one. – Erza Pound.

## Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Analogies Genius is the capacity to see 10 things where the ordinary man sees one. – Erza Pound."— Presentation transcript:

Introduction to Analogies Genius is the capacity to see 10 things where the ordinary man sees one. – Erza Pound

What is an analogy? An analogy is a type of word problem that consists of two word pairs. An analogy is a type of word problem that consists of two word pairs. To solve the analogy you must find a word that correctly completes the second pair. To solve the analogy you must find a word that correctly completes the second pair. At first glance, the words in an analogy may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related. At first glance, the words in an analogy may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related. The first pair of words has a relationship similar to the second pair of words. The first pair of words has a relationship similar to the second pair of words. To solve the analogy, you need to figure out that relationship. To solve the analogy, you need to figure out that relationship. There are different relationship patterns. There are different relationship patterns.

Analogy Example Example: GRACEFUL : CLUMSY :: HOT : _______ GRACEFUL : CLUMSY :: HOT : _______ Read the analogy like this: Graceful is to clumsy as hot is to blank. Read the analogy like this: Graceful is to clumsy as hot is to blank. Then ask yourself: What's the relationship between graceful and clumsy? These words have opposite meanings – they are antonyms – so the second pair of words must also be antonyms. Then ask yourself: What's the relationship between graceful and clumsy? These words have opposite meanings – they are antonyms – so the second pair of words must also be antonyms. Fill in the blank with a word that means the opposite of hot, and youve solved the analogy. The best answer is COLD. Fill in the blank with a word that means the opposite of hot, and youve solved the analogy. The best answer is COLD.

Relationship #1: Synonyms Two words that mean the same thing. Two words that mean the same thing. Unhappy: sad Unhappy: sad Detective: inspector :: teacher: _____ (professor, student, child) Incognito: disguised :: foolish:_____ (smart, funny, senseless) Clue: hint :: cup: ___ (mug, saucer, drink)

Relationship #2: Antonyms Two words that have opposite meanings. Two words that have opposite meanings. In: out In: out Begin: end:: open:_____ (reach, unlock, close) Intelligence: stupidity:: beautiful:_____ (glamorous, ugly, pretty) Chaos: order:: courage:___ (strictness, rule, cowardice)

Relationship #3: Part/Whole The first word in each pair names a part of what the second word names. The first word in each pair names a part of what the second word names. Article: newspaper :: chapter: book Article: newspaper :: chapter: book An article is a part of a newspaper. A chapter is a part of a book. An article is a part of a newspaper. A chapter is a part of a book. Fork: tine :: piano: ___ (tune, note, pedal) Nose: face :: elbow: ___(arm, wrist, knee) Tires: ambulance :: knob: ___ (horn, door, typewriter)

Relationship #4: Category Show a relationship between a category and something that resides within that category. Show a relationship between a category and something that resides within that category. Insect: bumblebee :: nervous system: brain Insect: bumblebee :: nervous system: brain An insect is the category under which a bumblebee falls. The nervous system is the category that contains the brain. An insect is the category under which a bumblebee falls. The nervous system is the category that contains the brain. These can follow three rules: These can follow three rules: Main and Sub categories- fruit: apple :: utensil: fork Main and Sub categories- fruit: apple :: utensil: fork Sub and Main categories- Maple: tree :: rose: flower Sub and Main categories- Maple: tree :: rose: flower Similar categories- potato: carrot :: Doberman: Collie Similar categories- potato: carrot :: Doberman: Collie

Category Examples Insect: mosquito :: dog: ___ (cat, bone, collie) Insect: mosquito :: dog: ___ (cat, bone, collie) Bird: parrot :: vermin : ___ (poison, animal, mouse) Bird: parrot :: vermin : ___ (poison, animal, mouse) Color: red :: candy: ___ (sweet, chocolate, wrapper) Color: red :: candy: ___ (sweet, chocolate, wrapper)

Tip #1 Make sure you are considering the words in terms of their definition. Dont add extra baggage to the question. Make sure you are considering the words in terms of their definition. Dont add extra baggage to the question. Example: Monster : scary Example: Monster : scary By DEFINITION a monster is scary. Do not think to yourself, Well, not every monster is scary. Just consider the definitions of words and the relationships between them. By DEFINITION a monster is scary. Do not think to yourself, Well, not every monster is scary. Just consider the definitions of words and the relationships between them.

Tip #2 Many of the analogy questions can be answered without the knowledge of the words. Many of the analogy questions can be answered without the knowledge of the words. Example: Word 1: Word 2 Example: Word 1: Word 2 Up: down(antonyms) Up: down(antonyms) Cold: hot(antonyms) Cold: hot(antonyms) Register: cash(degree) Register: cash(degree) Polite: rude(antonyms) Polite: rude(antonyms) Friendly: hostile(antonyms Friendly: hostile(antonyms

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